Latin for beginners (1911)/Appendix I

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APPENDIX I

DECLENSIONS, CONJUGATIONS, NUMERALS, ETC.

NOUNS

460. Nouns are inflected in five declensions, distinguished by the final letter of the stem and by the termination of the genitive singular.

First Declension—Ā-stems, Gen. Sing. -ae
Second Declension—O-stems, Gen. Sing.
Third Declension—Consonant stems and I-stems, Gen. Sing. -is
Fourth Declension—U-stems, Gen. Sing. -ūs
Fifth Declension—Ē-stems, Gen. Sing. -ē̆ī


461.

FIRST DECLENSION. Ā-STEMS

domina, lady   Stem dominā-   Base domin-

Singular Plural
TERMINATIONS TERMINATIONS
Nom. domina -a dominae -ae
Gen. dominae -ae dominārum -ārum
Dat. dominae -ae dominīs -īs
Acc. dominam -am dominās -ās
Abl. dominā dominīs -īs
a. Dea and fīlia have the termination -ābus

in the dative and ablative plural. 462.

SECOND DECLENSION. O-STEMS

a. Masculines in -us


dominus, master   Stem domino-   Base domin-

Singular Plural
TERMINATIONS TERMINATIONS
Nom. dominus -us dominī
Gen. dominī dominōrum -ōrum
Dat. dominō dominīs -īs
Acc. dominum -um dominōs -ōs
Abl. dominō dominīs -īs

1. Nouns in -us of the second declension have the termination -e´ in the vocative singular, as domine.

2. Proper names in -ius, and filius, end in in the vocative singular, and the accent rests on the penult, as Vergi´lī, fīlī.

b. Neuters in -um

pīlum, spear   Stem   pīlo- Base pīl-

Singular Plural
TERMINATIONS TERMINATIONS
Nom. pīlum -um pīla -a
Gen. pīlī pīlōrum -ōrum
Dat. pīlō pīlīs -īs
Acc. pīlum -um pīla -a
Abl. pīlō pīlīs -īs

1. Masculines in -ius and neuters in -ium end in in the genitive singular, not in -iī, and the accent rests on the penult.

c. Masculines in -er
AND -ir
puer, boy ager, field vir, man
Stems puero- agro- viro-
Bases puer- agr- vir-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. puer ager vir
Gen. puerī agrī virī
Dat. puerō agrō virō
Acc. puerum agrum virum -um
Abl. puerō agrō virō
Plural TERMINATIONS
Nom. puerī agrī virī
Gen. puerōrum agrōrum virōrum rum
Dat. puerīs agrīs virīs s
Acc. puerōs agrōs virōs s
Abl. puerīs agrīs virīs s

463.

THIRD DECLENSION.

CLASSIFICATION

I. Consonant Stems
1. Stems that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular:

masculines and feminines only.

2. Stems that add no termination in the nominitive singular: a.

masculines and feminines; b. neuters.

II. I-Stems. Masculines, feminines, and neuters.

464. I. CONSONANT STEMS}}

1. Nouns that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular: masculines and feminines only

prīnceps, m., chief mīles, m., soldier lapis, m., stone
Bases or
Stems
prīncip- mīlit- lapid-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. prīnceps mīles lapis -s
Gen. prīn´cipis mīlitis lapidis -is
Dat. prīn´cipī mīlitī lapidī
Acc. prīn´cipem mīlitem lapidem -em
Abl. prīn´cipe mīlite lapide -e
Plural
Nom. prīn´cipēs mīlitēs lapidēs -ēs
Gen. prīn´cipum mīlitum lapidum -um
Dat. prīnci´pibus mīlitibus lapidibus -ibus
Acc. prīn´cipēs mīlitēs lapidēs -ēs
Abl. prīnci´pibus mīlitibus lapidibus -ibus
rēx, m., king iūdex, m., judge virtūs, f., manliness Bases or
Stems rēg- iūdic- virtūt- Nom. rēx iūdex virtūs -s Gen. rēgis iūdicis virtū´tis -is Dat. rēgī iūdicī virtū´tī Acc. rēgem iūdicem virtū´tem -em Abl. rēge iūdice virtū´te -e Plural Nom. rēgēs iūdicēs virtū´tēs -ēs Gen. rēgum iūdicum virtū´tum -um Dat. rēgibus iūdicibus virtū´tibus -ibus Acc. rēgēs iūdicēs virtū´tēs -ēs Abl. rēgibus iūdicibus virtū´tibus -ibus

Note. For consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. <a href = "LatinBegin1.html#sec233">§ 233. 3.

2. Nouns that have no termination in the nominative singular

a. Masculines and Feminines
cōnsul, m., consul legiō, f., legion ōrdō, m., row pater, m., father
Bases or
Stems
cōnsul- legiōn- ōrdin- patr-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. cōnsul legiō ōrdō pater
Gen. cōnsulis legiōnis ōrdinis patris -is
Dat. cōnsulī legiōnī ōrdinī patrī
Acc. cōnsulem legiōnem ōrdinem patrem -em
Abl. cōnsule legiōne ōrdine patre -e
Plural
Nom. cōnsulēs legiōnēs ōrdinēs patrēs -ēs
Gen. cōnsulum legiōnum ōrdinum patrum -um
Dat. cōnsulibus legiōnibus ōrdinibus patribus -ibus
Acc. cōnsulēs legiōnēs ōrdinēs patrēs -ēs
Abl. cōnsulibus legiōnibus ōrdinibus patribus -ibus

Note. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. § 236. 1-3.

b. Neuters
flūmen, n., river tempus, n., time opus, n., work caput, n., head
Bases or
Stems
flūmin- tempor- oper- capit-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. flūmen tempus opus caput
Gen. flūminis temporis operis capitis -is -is
Dat. flūminī temporī operī capitī
Acc. flūmen tempus opus caput
Abl. flūmine tempore opere capite -e
Plural
Nom. flūmina tempora opera capita -a
Gen. flūminum temporum operum capitum -um
Dat. flūminibus temporibus operibus capitibus -ibus
Acc. flūmina tempora opera capita -a
Abl. flūminibus temporibus operibus capitibus -ibus

Note. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. <a href = "LatinBegin1.html#sec238">§ 238. 2, 3. 465. II. I-STEMS}}

a. Masculines and Feminines
caedēs, f., slaughter hostis, m., enemy urbs, f., city cliēns, m., retainer
Stems caedi- hosti- urbi- clienti-
Bases caed- host- urb- client-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. caedēs hostis urbs cliēns -s, -is, or -ēs
Gen. caedis hostis urbis clientis -is
Dat. caedī hostī urbī clientī
Acc. caedem hostem urbem clientem -em (-im)
Abl. caede hoste urbe cliente -e ()
Plural
Nom. caedēs hostēs urbēs clientēs -ēs
Gen. caedium hostium urbium clientium -ium
Dat. caedibus hostibus urbibus clientibus -ibus
Acc. caedīs, -ēs hostīs, -ēs urbīs, -ēs clientīs, -ēs -īs, -ēs
Abl. caedibus hostibus urbibus clientibus -ibus
  1. Avis, cīvis, fīnis, ignis, nāvis, have the abl. sing. in or -e.
  2. Turris has accusative turrim and ablative turrī or turre.
b. Neuters
īnsigne, n., decoration animal, n., animal calcar, n., spur
Stems īnsigni- animāli- calcāri-
Bases īnsign- animāl- calcār-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. īnsigne animal calcar -e or
Gen. īnsignis animālis calcāris -is
Dat. īnsignī animālī calcārī
Acc. īnsigne animal calcar -e or
Abl. īnsignī animālī calcārī
Plural
Nom. īnsignia animālia calcāria -ia
Gen. īnsignium animālium calcārium -ium
Dat. īnsignibus animālibus calcāribus -ibus
Acc. īnsignia animālia calcāria -ia
Abl. īnsignibus animālibus calcāribus -ibus

466.

THE FOURTH DECLENSION. U-STEMS

adventus, m., arrival cornū, n., horn
Stems adventu- cornu-
Bases advent- corn-
Singular TERMINATIONS
{{sc|MASC. {{sc|NEUT.
Nom. adventus cornū -us
Gen. adventūs cornūs -ūs -ūs
Dat. advent (ū) cornū -uī (ū)
Acc. adventum cornū -um
Abl. adventū cornū
Plural
Nom. adventūs cornua -ūs -ua
Gen. adventuum cornuum -uum -uum
Dat. adventibus cornibus -ibus -ibus
Acc. adventūs cornua -ūs -ua
Abl. adventibus cornibus -ibus -ibus
467.

THE FIFTH DECLENSION. Ē-STEMS

diēs, m., day rēs, f. thing
Stems diē- rē-
Bases di- r-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. diēs rēs -ēs
Gen. diēī r -ē̆ī
Dat. diēī r -ē̆ī
Acc. diem rem -em
Abl. diē rē
Plural
Nom. diēs rēs -ēs
Gen. diērum rērum -ērum
Dat. diēbus rēbus -ēbus
Acc. diēs rēs -ēs
Abl. diēbus rēbus -ēbus

468.

SPECIAL PARADIGMS

deus, m., god domus, f., house vīs, f., strength iter, n., way
Stems deo- domu- vī- and vīri- iter- and itiner-
Bases de- dom- v- and vīr- iter- and itiner-
Singular
Nom. deus domus vīs iter
Gen. deī domūs vīs (rare) itineris
Dat. deō domuī, -ō vī (rare) itinerī
Acc. deum domum vim iter
Abl. deō domō, -ū vī itinere
Plural
Nom. deī, dī domūs vīrēs itinera
Gen. deōrum, deum domuum, -ōrum vīrium itinerum
Dat. deīs, dīs domibus vīribus itineribus
Acc. deōs domōs, -ūs vīrīs, -ēs itinera
Abl. deīs, dīs domibus vīribus itineribus
a. The vocative singular of deus is like the nominative.
b. The locative of domus is domī. 469.

FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. O- AND Ā-STEMS

a. Adjectives in -us

bonus, good   Stems bono- m. and n., bona- f.   Base bon-

Singular
MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. bonus bona bonum
Gen. bonī bonae bonī
Dat. bonō bonae bonō
Acc. bonum bonam bonum
Abl. bonō bonā bonō
Plural
Nom. bonī bonae bona
Gen. bonōrum bonārum bonōrum
Dat. bonīs bonīs bonīs
Acc. bonōs bonās bona
Abl. bonīs bonīs bonīs
b. Adjectives in -er

līber, free   Stems lībero- m. and n., līberā- f.   Base līber-

Singular
MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. līber lībera līberum
Gen. līberī līberae līberī
Dat. līberō līberae līberō
Acc. līberum līberam līberum
Abl. līberō līberā līberō
Plural
Nom. līberī līberae lībera
Gen. līberōrum līberārum līberōrum
Dat. līberīs līberīs līberīs
Acc. līberōs līberās lībera
Abl. līberīs līberīs līberīs

pulcher, pretty   Stems pulchro- m. and n., pulchrā- f.   Base pulchr-

Singular
MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. pulcher pulchra pulchrum
Gen. pulchrī pulchrae pulchrī
Dat. pulchrō pulchrae pulchrō
Acc. pulchrum pulchram pulchrum
Abl. pulchrō pulchrā pulchrō
Plural
Nom. pulchrī pulchrae pulchra
Gen. pulchrōrum pulchrārum pulchrōrum
Dat. pulchrīs pulchrīs pulchrīs
Acc. pulchrōs pulchrās pulchra
Abl. pulchrīs pulchrīs pulchrīs

470.

THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

alius, another   Stems alio- m. and n., aliā- f.   Base ali-

Singular Plural
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. alius alia aliud aliī aliae alia
Gen. alīus alīus alīus aliōrum aliārum aliōrum
Dat. aliī aliī aliī aliīs aliīs aliīs
Acc. alium aliam aliud aliōs aliās alia
Abl. aliō aliā aliō aliīs aliīs aliīs
 

ūnus, one, only   Stems ūno- m. and n., ūnā- f.   Base ūn-

MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. ūnus ūna ūnum ūnī ūnae ūna
Gen. ūnīus ūnīus ūnīus ūnōrum ūnārum ūnōrum
Dat. ūnī ūnī ūnī ūnīs ūnīs ūnīs
Acc. ūnum ūnam ūnum ūnōs ūnās ūna
Abl. ūnō ūnā ūnō ūnīs ūnīs ūnīs

a. For the complete list see § 108. 471.

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. I-STEMS

I. THREE ENDINGS

ācer, ācris, ācre, keen, eager

Stem ācri-   Base ācr-

Singular Plural
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. ācer ācris ācre ācrēs ācrēs ācria
Gen. ācris ācris ācris ācrium ācrium ācrium
Dat. ācrī ācrī ācrī ācribus ācribus ācribus
Acc. ācrem ācrem ācre ācrīs, -ēs ācrīs, -ēs ācria
Abl. ācrī ācrī ācrī ācribus ācribus ācribus
II. TWO ENDINGS

omnis, omne, every, all

Stem omni-   Base omn-

Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. omnis omne omnēs omnia
Gen. omnis omnis omnium omnium
Dat. omnī omnī omnibus omnibus
Acc. omnem omne omnīs, -ēs omnia
Abl. omnī omnī omnibus omnibus
III. ONE ENDING

pār, equal   Stem pari-   Base par-

Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. pār pār parēs paria
Gen. paris paris parium parium
Dat. parī parī paribus paribus
Acc. parem pār parīs, -ēs paria
Abl. parī parī paribus paribus
  1. Observe that all i-stem adjectives have in the ablative singular. 472.

PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLES

amāns, loving   Stem amanti-   Base amant-

Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. amāns amāns amantēs amantia
Gen. amantis amantis amantium amantium
Dat. amantī amantī amantibus amantibus
Acc. amantem amāns amantīs, -ēs amantia
Abl. amante, -ī amante, -ī amantibus amantibus
 

iēns, going   Stem ienti-, eunti-   Base ient-, eunt-

Nom. iēns iēns euntēs euntia
Gen. euntis euntis euntium euntium
Dat. euntī euntī euntibus euntibus
Acc. euntem iēns euntīs, -ēs euntia
Abl. eunte, -ī eunte, -ī euntibus euntibus

473.

REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

Positive Comparative Superlative
MASC. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
altus (alto-) altior altius altissimus -a -um
līber (lībero-) līberior līberius līberrimus -a -um
pulcher (pulchro-) pulchrior pulchrius pulcherrimus -a -um
audāx (audāci-) audācior audācius audācissimus -a -um
brevis (brevi-) brevior brevius brevissimus -a -um
ācer (ācri-) ācrior ācrius ācerrimus -a -um

474.

DECLENSION OF COMPARATIVES

altior, higher

Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. altior altius altiōrēs altiōra
Gen. altiōris altiōris altiōrum altiōrum
Dat. altiōrī altiōrī altiōribus altiōribus
Acc. altiōrem altius altiōrēs altiōra
Abl. altiōre altiōre altiōribus altiōribus

plūs, more

Nom. —— plūs plūrēs plūra
Gen. —— plūris plūrium plūrium
Dat. —— —— plūribus plūribus
Acc. —— plūs plūrīs (-ēs) plūra
Abl. —— plūre plūribus plūribus

475.

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

Positive Comparative Superlative
bonus, -a, -um, good melior, melius, better optimus, -a, -um, best
malus, -a, -um, bad peior, peius, worse pessimus, -a, -um, worst
magnus, -a, -um, great maior, maius, greater maximus, -a, -um, greatest
multus, -a, -um, much ——, plūs, more plūrimus, -a, -um, most
parvus, -a, -um, small minor, minus, smaller minimus, -a, -um, smallest
senex, senis, old senior maximus nātū
iuvenis, -e, young iūnior minimus nātū
vetus, veteris, old vetustior, -ius veterrimus, -a, -um
facilis, -e, easy facilior, -ius facillimus, -a, -um
difficilis, -e, difficult difficilior, -ius difficillimus, -a, -um
similis, -e, similar similior, -ius simillimus, -a, -um
dissimilis, -e, dissimilar dissimilior, -ius dissimillimus, -a, -um
humilis, -e, low humilior, -ius humillimus, -a, -um
gracilis, -e, slender gracilior, -ius gracillimus, -a, -um
exterus, outward exterior, outer, exterior extrēmus
extimus
outermost, last
īnferus, below īnferior, lower īnfimus
īmus
lowest
posterus, following posterior, later postrēmus
postumus
last
superus, above superior, higher suprēmus
summus
highest
[cis, citrā, on this side] citerior, hither citimus, hithermost
[in, intrā, in, within] interior, inner intimus, inmost
[prae, prō, before] prior, former prīmus, first
[prope, near] propior, nearer proximus, next
[ultrā, beyond] ulterior, further ultimus, furthest
476.

REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

Positive Comparative Superlative
cārē (cārus), dearly cārius cārissimē
miserē (miser), wretchedly miserius miserrimē
ācriter (ācer), sharply ācrius ācerrimē
facile (facilis), easily facilius facillimē

477.

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

Positive Comparative Superlative
diū, long, a long time diūtius diūtissimē
bene (bonus), well melius, better optimē, best
male (malus), ill peius, worse pessimē, worst
magnopere, greatly magis, more maximē, most
multum (multus), much plūs, more plūrimum, most
parum, little minus, less minimē, least
saepe, often saepīus saepissimē

478.

NUMERALS

The cardinal numerals are indeclinable excepting ūnus, duo, trēs, the hundreds above one hundred, and mīlle used as a noun. The ordinals are declined like bonus, -a, -um.

Cardinals Ordinals

(How many)

(In what order)

1, ūnus, -a, -um, one prīmus, -a, -um first
2, duo, duae, duo two secundus (or alter) second
3, trēs, tria three, tertius third,
4, quattuor etc. quārtus etc.
5, quīnque quīntus
6, sex sextus
7, septem septimus
8, octō octāvus
9, novem nōnus
10, decem decimus
11, ūndecim ūndecimus
12, duodecim duodecimus
13, tredecim (decem (et) trēs) tertius decimus
14, quattuordecim quārtus decimus
15,

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quīndecim quīntus decimus
16, sēdecim sextus decimus
17, septendecim septimus decimus
18, duodēvīgintī (octōdecim) duodēvīcēnsimus
19, ūndēvīgintī (novendecim) ūndēvīcēnsimus
20, vīgintī vīcēnsimus
21, vīgintī ūnus or
ūnus et vīgintī, etc.
vīcēnsimus prīmus

or

ūnus et vīcēnsimus, etc.
30, trīgintā trīcēnsimus
40, quadrāgintā quadrāgēnsimus
50, quīnquāgintā quīnquāgēnsimus
60, sexāgintā sexāgēnsimus
70, septuāgintā septuāgēnsimus
80, octōgintā octōgēnsimus
90, nōnāgintā nōnāgēnsimus
100, centum centum
101, centum (et) ūnus, etc. centum (et) ūnus, etc.
120, centum (et) vīgintī centum (et) vīgintī
121, centum (et) vīgintī ūnus, etc. centum (et) vīgintī ūnus, etc.
200, ducentī, -ae, -a ducentī, -ae, -a
300, trecentī trecentī
400, quadringentī quadringentī
500, quīngentī quīngentī
600, sescentī sescentī
700, septingentī septingentī
800, octingentī octingentī
900, nōngentī nōngentī
1000, mīlle mīlle

479. Declension of duo, two, trēs, three, and mīlle, a thousand.

Masc. Fem. Neut. M. and F. Neut. Sing. Plur.
N. duo duae duo trēs trīa mīlle mīlia
G. duōrum duārum duōrum trium trium mīlle mīlium
D. duōbus duābus duōbus tribus tribus mīlle mīlibus
A. duōs or duo duās duo trīs or trēs tria mīlle mīlia
A. duōbus duābus duōbus tribus tribus mīlle mīlibus

Note. Mīlle is used in the plural as a noun with a modifying genitive, and is occasionally so used in the nominative and accusative singular. For the declension of ūnus cf. § 470. 480.

PERSONAL

ego, I , you suī, of himself, etc.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
Nom. ego nōs vōs —— ——
Gen. meī nostrum, -trī tuī vestrum, -trī suī suī
Dat. mihi nōbīs tibi vōbīs sibi sibi
Acc. nōs vōs sē, sēsē sē, sēsē
Abl. nōbīs vōbīs sē, sēsē sē, sēsē

Note that suī is always reflexive. 481.

DEMONSTRATIVE

Demonstratives belong to the first and second declensions, but have the pronominal endings -ī̆us and in the gen. and dat. sing.

ipse, self

Singular Plural
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. ipse ipsa ipsum ipsī ipsae ipsa
Gen. ipsī´us ipsī´us ipsī´us ipsōrum ipsārum ipsōrum
Dat. ipsī ipsī ipsī ipsīs ipsīs ipsīs
Acc. ipsum ipsam ipsum ipsōs ipsās ipsa
Abl. ipsō ipsā ipsō ipsīs ipsīs ipsīs
 

hic, this (here), he

Nom. hic haec hoc hae haec
Gen. huius huius huius hōrum hārum hōrum
Dat. huic huic huic hīs hīs hīs
Acc. hunc hanc hoc hōs hās haec
Abl. hōc hāc hōc hīs hīs hīs
 

iste, this, that (of yours), he

Nom. iste ista istud istī istae ista
Gen. istī´us istī´us istī´us istōrum istārum istōrum
Dat. istī istī istī istīs istīs istīs
Acc. istum istam istud istōs istās ista
Abl. istō istā istō istīs istīs istīs

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ille, that (yonder), he

Nom. ille illa illud illī illae illa
Gen. illī´us illī´us illī´us illōrum illārum illōrum
Dat. illī illī illī illīs illīs illīs
Acc. illum illam illud illōs illās illa
Abl. illō illā illō illīs illīs illīs
 

is, this, that, he

Nom. is ea id iī, eī eae ea
Gen. eius eius eius eōrum eārum eōrum
Dat. iīs, eīs iīs, eīs iīs, eīs
Acc. eum eam id eōs eās ea
Abl. iīs, eīs iīs, eīs iīs, eīs
 

īdem, the same

Nom. īdem e´adem idem iī´dem
eī´dem
eae´dem e´adem
Gen. eius´dem eius´dem eius´dem eōrun´dem eārun´dem eōrun´dem
Dat. eī´dem eī´dem eī´dem iīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem
Acc. eun´dem ean´dem idem eōs´dem eās´dem e´adem
Abl. eō´dem eā´dem eō´dem iīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem

Note. In the plural of is and īdem the forms with two i’s are preferred, the two i’s being pronounced as one. 482.

RELATIVE

quī, who, which, that

Singular Plural
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. quī quae quod quī quae quae
Gen. cuius cuius cuius quōrum quārum quōrum
Dat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus
Acc. quem quam quod quōs quās quae
Abl. quō quā quō quibus quibus quibus
483.

INTERROGATIVE

quis, substantive, who, what

Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. quis quid qui quae quae
Gen. cuius cuius quōrum quārum quōrum
Dat. cui cui quibus quibus quibus
Acc. quem quid quōs quās quae
Abl. quō quō quibus quibus quibus

The interrogative adjective quī, quae, quod, is declined like the relative. 484.

INDEFINITES

quis and quī, as declined above,[1] are used also as indefinites (some, any). The other indefinites are compounds of quis and quī.

quisque, each

Substantive Adjective
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. quisque quidque quisque quaeque quodque
Gen. cuius´que cuius´que cuius´que cuius´que cuius´que
Dat. cuique cuique cuique cuique cuique
Acc. quemque quidque quemque quamque quodque
Abl. quōque quōque quōque quāque quōque

485. quīdam, a certain one, a certain}}

Observe that in the neuter singular the adjective has quoddam and the substantive quiddam.

Singular
MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. quīdam quaedam quoddam
quiddam (subst.)
Gen. cuius´dam cuius´dam cuius´dam
Dat. cuidam cuidam cuidam
Acc. quendam quandam quoddam
quiddam (subst.)
Abl. quōdam quādam quōdam

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Plural
Nom. quīdam quaedam quaedam
Gen. quōrun´dam quārun´dam quōrun´dam
Dat. quibus´dam quibus´dam quibus´dam
Acc. quōsdam quāsdam quaedam
Abl. quibus´dam quibus´dam quibus´dam

486. quisquam, substantive, any one (at all)}}

MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. quisquam quicquam (quidquam)
Gen. cuius´quam cuius´quam
Dat. cuiquam cuiquam
Acc. quemquam quicquam (quidquam)
Abl. quōquam quōquam

487. aliquis, substantive, some one.   aliquī, adjective, some}}

Singular
Substantive Adjective
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. aliquis aliquid aliquī aliqua aliquod
Gen. alicu´ius alicu´ius alicu´ius alicu´ius alicu´ius
Dat. alicui alicui alicui alicui alicui
Acc. aliquem aliquid aliquem aliquam aliquod
Abl. aliquō aliquō aliquō aliquā aliquō

Plural for both Substantive and Adjective

MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. aliquī aliquae aliqua
Gen. aliquō´rum aliquā´rum aliquō´rum
Dat. ali´quibus ali´quibus ali´quibus
Acc. aliquōs aliquās aliqua
Abl. ali´quibus ali´quibus ali´quibus
a. quis (quī), any one, any, is the least definite (§ 297. b). aliquis (aliquī), some one, some, is more definite than quis. quisquam, any one (at all), and its adjective ūllus, any, occur mostly with a negative, expressed or implied, and in clauses of comparison.
REGULAR VERBS

488.

FIRST CONJUGATION. Ā-VERBS. AMŌ

Principal Parts amō, amāre, amāvī, amātus

Pres. Stem amā-   Perf. Stem amāv-   Part. Stem amāt-  

ACTIVE PASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I love, am loving, do love, etc. I am loved, etc.
amō amāmus amor amāmur
amās amātis amāris, -re amāminī
amat amant amātur amantur
IMPERFECT
I loved, was loving, did love, etc. I was loved, etc.
amābam amābāmus amābar amābāmur
amābās amābātis amābāris, -re amābāminī
amābat amābant amābātur amābantur
FUTURE
I shall love, etc. I shall be loved, etc.
amā amābimus amābor amābimur
amābis amābitis amāberis, -re amābiminī
amābit amābunt amābitur amābuntur
PERFECT
I have loved, loved, did love, etc. I have been (was) loved, etc.
amāvi amāvimus amātus, -a, -um sum amātī, -ae, -a sumus
amāvistī amāvistis es estis
amāvit amāvērunt, -re est sunt
PLUPERFECT
I had loved, etc. I had been loved, etc.
amāveram amāverāmus amātus, -a, -um eram amātī, -ae, -a erāmus
amāverās amāverātis erās erātis
amāverat amāverant erat erant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have loved, etc. I shall have been loved, etc.
amāverō amāverimus amātus, -a, -um erō amātī, -ae, -a erimus
amāveris amāveritis eris eritis
amāverit amāverint erit erunt

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SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
amem amēmus amer amēmur
amēs amētis amēris, -re amēminī
amet ament amētur amentur
IMPERFECT
amārem amāremus amārer amārēmur
amārēs amārētis amārēris, -re amārēminī
amāret amārent amārētur amārentur
PERFECT
amāverim amāverimus amātus, -a, -um sim amātī, -ae, -a sīmus
amāveris amāveritis sīs sītis
amāverit amāverint sit sint
PLUPERFECT
amāvissem amāvissēmus amātus, -a, -um essem amātī, -ae, -a essēmus
amāvissēs amāvissētis essēs essētis
amāvisset amāvissent esset essent

IMPERATIVE

PRESENT
amā, love thou amāre, be thou loved
amāte, love ye amāminī, be ye loved
FUTURE
amā, thou shalt love amātor, thou shalt be loved
amā, he shall love amātor, he shall be loved
amātōte, you shall love ——
amantō, they shall love amantor, they shall be loved
INFINITIVE
Pres. amāre, to love amā, to be loved
Perf. amāvisse, to have loved amātus, -a, -um esse, to have been loved

Fut. amātūrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to

love

[amātum īrī], to be about to be loved

PARTICIPLES
Pres. amāns, -antis, loving Pres. ——
Fut. amātūrus, -a, -um, about to love

Gerundive[2] amandus, -a, -um, to be

loved
Perf. ——

Perf. amātus, -a, -um, having been loved,

loved
GERUND
Nom. —— SUPINE (Active Voice)

Gen. amandī, of loving

Acc. [amātum], to love

Dat. amandō, for loving

Abl. [amā], to love, in the loving

Acc. amandum, loving

Abl. amandō, by loving

489.

SECOND CONJUGATION. Ē-VERBS. MONEŌ

Principal Parts moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus

Pres. Stem monē-   Perf. Stem monu-   Part. Stem monit-  

ACTIVE PASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I advise, etc., I am advised, etc.
moneō monēmus moneor monēmur
monēs monētis monēris, -re monēminī
monet monent monētur monentur
IMPERFECT
I was advising, etc., I was advised, etc.
monēbam monēbāmus monēbar monēbāmur
monēbās monēbātis monēbāris, -re monēbāminī
monēbat monēbant monēbātur monēbāntur
FUTURE
I shall advise, etc., I shall be advised, etc.
monē monēbimus monēbor monēbimur
monēbis monēbitis monēberis, -re monēbiminī
monēbit monēbunt monēbitur monēbuntur
PERFECT
I have advised, I advised, etc. I have been (was) advised, etc.
monuī monuimus monitus, -a, -um sum monitī, -ae, -a sumus
monuistī monuistis es estis
monuit monuērunt, -re est sunt
PLUPERFECT
I had advised, etc., I had been advised, etc.
monueram monuerāmus monitus, -a, -um eram monitī, -ae, -a erāmus
monuerās monuerātis eras eratis
monuerat monuerant erat erant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have advised, etc. I shall have been advised, etc.
monuerō monuerimus monitus, -a, -um erō monitī, -ae, -a erimus
monueris monuerītis eris eritis
monuerit monuerīnt erit erunt

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SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
moneam moneāmus monear moneāmur
moneās moneātis moneāris, -re moneāminī
moneat moneant moneātur moneantur
IMPERFECT
monērem monērēmus monērer monērēmur
monērēs monērētis monērēris, -re monērēminī
monēret monērent monērētur monērentur
PERFECT
monuerim monuerimus monitus, -a, -um sim monitī, -ae, -a sīmus
monueris monueritis sīs sītis
monuerit monuerint sit sint
PLUPERFECT
monuissem monuissēmus monitus, -a, -um essem monitī, -ae, -a essēmus
monuissēs monuissētis essēs essētis
monuisset monuissent esset essent
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
monē, advise thou monēre, be thou advised
monēte, advise ye monēminī, be ye advised
FUTURE
monē, thou shall advise monētor, thou shalt be advised
monē, he shall advise monētor, he shall be advised
monētōte, you shall advise ——
monentō, they shall advise monentor, they shall be advised
INFINITIVE
Pres. monēre, to advise monē, to be advised
Perf. monuisse, to have advised monitus, -a, -um esse, to have been advised

Fut. monitūrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to

advise
[monitum īrī], to be about to be advised
PARTICIPLES
Pres. monēns, -entis, advising Pres. ——
Fut. monitūrus, -a, -um, about to advise Ger. monendus, -a, -um, to be advised
Perf. ——

Perf. monitus, -a, -um, having been advised,

advised
GERUND
Nom. —— SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. monendī, of advising Acc. [monitum], to advise
Dat. monendō, for advising Abl. [monitū], to advise, in the advising
Acc. monendum, advising
Abl. monendō, by advising
490.

THIRD CONJUGATION. Ĕ-VERBS. REGŌ

Principal Parts regō, regere, rexī, rēctus

Pres. Stem rege-   Perf. Stem rēx-   Part. Stem rēct-  

ACTIVE PASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I rule, etc. I am ruled, etc.
regō regimus re´gor re´gimur
regis regitis re´geris, -re regi´minī
regit regunt re´gitur regun´tur
IMPERFECT
I was ruling, etc. I was ruled, etc.
regēbam regēbāmus regē´bar regēbā´mur
regēbās regēbātis regēbā´ris, -re regēbā´minī
regēbat regēbant regēbā´tur regēban´tur
FUTURE
I shall rule, etc. I shall be ruled, etc.
regam regēmus re´gar regē´mur
regēs regētis regē´ris, -re regē´minī
reget regent regē´tur regen´tur
PERFECT
I have ruled, etc. I have been ruled, etc.
rēxī rēximus rēctus, -a, -um sum rēctī, -ae, -a sumus
rēxistī rēxistis es estis
rēxit rēxērunt, -re est sunt
PLUPERFECT
I had ruled, etc. I had been ruled, etc.
rēxeram rēxerāmus rēctus, -a, -um eram rēctī, -ae, -a erāmus
rēxerās rēxerātis erās erātis
rēxerat rēxerant erat erant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have ruled, etc. I shall have been ruled, etc.
rēxerō rēxerimus rēctus, -a, -um erō rēctī, -ae, -a erimus
rēxeris rēxeritis eris eritis
rēxerit rēxerint erit erunt
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
regam regāmus regar regāmur
regās regātis regāris, -re regāminī
regat regant regātur regantur
IMPERFECT
regerem regerēmus regerer regerēmur
regerēs regerētis regerēris, -re regerēminī
regeret regerent regerētur regerentur
PERFECT
rēxerim rēxerimus rēctus, -a, -um sim rēctī, -ae, -a sīmus
rēxeris rēxeritis sīs sītis
rēxerit rēxerint sit sint
PLUPERFECT
rēxissem rēxissēmus rēctus, -a, -um essem rēctī, -ae, -a essēmus
rēxissēs rēxissētis essēs essētis
rēxisset rēxissent esset essent
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
rege, rule thou regere, be thou ruled
regite, rule ye regiminī, be ye ruled
FUTURE
regitō, thou shalt rule regitor, thou shalt be ruled
regitō he shall rule regitor, he shall be ruled
regitōte, ye shall rule ——
reguntō, they shall rule reguntor, they shall be ruled
INFINITIVE
Pres. regere, to rule regī, to be ruled
Perf. rēxisse, to have ruled rēctus, -a, -um esse, to have been ruled

Fut.rēctūrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to

rule
[rēctum īrī], to be about to be ruled
PARTICIPLES
Pres. regēns, -entis, ruling Pres. ——
Fut. rēctūrus, -a, -um, about to rule Ger. regendus, -a, -um, to be ruled
Perf. ——

Perf. rēctus, -a, -um, having been ruled,

ruled
GERUND
Nom. —— SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. regendī, of ruling Acc [rēctum], to rule
Dat. regendō, for ruling Abl. [rēctū], to rule, in the ruling
Acc. regendum, ruling

Abl. regendō, by ruling

491.

FOURTH CONJUGATION. Ī-VERBS. AUDIŌ

Principal Parts audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus

Pres. Stem audī-   Perf. Stem audīv-   Part. Stem audīt-  

ACTIVE PASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I hear, etc. I am heard, etc.
audiō audīmus au´dior audī´mur
audīs audītis audī´ris, -re audī´minī
audit audiunt audī´tur audiun´tur
IMPERFECT
I was hearing, etc. I was heard, etc.
audiēbam audiēbāmus audiē´bar audiēbā´mur
audiēbās audiēbātis audiēbā´ris, -re audiēbā´minī
audiēbat audiēbant audiēbā´tur audiēban´tur
FUTURE
I shall hear, etc. I shall be heard, etc.
audiam audiēmus au´diar audiē´mur
audiēs audiētis audiē´ris, -re audiē´minī
audiet audient audiē´tur audien´tur
PERFECT
I have heard, etc. I have been heard, etc.
audīvī audīvimus audītus, -a, -um sum audītī, -ae, -a sumus
audīvistī audīvistis es estis
audīvit audīvērunt, -re est sunt
PLUPERFECT
I had heard, etc. I had been heard, etc.
audīveram audīverāmus audītus, -a, -um eram audītī, -ae, -a erāmus
audīverās audīverātis erās erātis
audīverat audīverant erat erant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have heard, etc. I shall have been heard, etc.
audīverō audīverimus audītus, -a, -um erō audītī, -ae, -a erimus
audīveris audīveritis eris eritis
audīverit audīverint erit erunt
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
audiam audiāmus audiar audiāmur
audiās audiātis audiāris, -re audiāminī
audiat audiant audiātur audiantur
IMPERFECT
audīrem audīrēmus audīrer audīrēmur
audīrēs audīrētis audīrēris, -re audīrēminī
audīret audīrent audīrētur audīrentur
PERFECT
audīverim audiverimus audītus, -a, -um sim audītī, -ae, -a sīmus
audīveris audiveritis sīs sītis
audīverit audīverint sit sint
PLUPERFECT
audīvissem audīvissēmus audītus, -a, -um essem audītī, -ae, -a essēmus
audīvissēs audīvissētis essēs essētis
audīvisset audīvissent esset essent
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
audī, hear thou audīre, be thou heard
audīte, hear ye audīminī, be ye heard
FUTURE
audī, thou shalt hear audītor, thou shalt be heard
audī, he shall hear audītor, he shall be heard
audītōte, ye shall hear ——
audiuntō, they shall hear audiuntor, they shall be heard
INFINITIVE
Pres. audīre, to hear audī, to be heard
audīvisse, to have heard audītus, -a, -um esse, to have been heard
audītūrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to hear [audītum īrī, to be about to be heard
PARTICIPLES
Pres. audiēns, -entis, hearing Pres. ——
Fut. audītūrus, -a, -um, about to hear Ger. audiendus, -a, -um to be heard
Perf. ——

Perf. audītus, -a, -um, having been heard,

heard
GERUND
Nom. —— SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. audiendī, of hearing Acc. [audītum], to hear
Dat. audiendō, for hearing Abl. [audītu], to hear, in the hearing
Acc. audiendum, hearing

Abl. audiendō, by hearing

492.

THIRD CONJUGATION. VERBS IN -IŌ. CAPIŌ

Principal Parts capiō, capere, cēpī, captus

Pres. Stem cape-   Perf. Stem cēp-   Part. Stem capt-  

ACTIVE PASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
capiō capimus ca´pior ca´pimur
capis capitis ca´peris, -re capi´minī
capit capiunt ca´pitur capiun´tur
IMPERFECT
capiēbam capiebamus capiē´bar capiēbā´mur
capiēbas capiēbātis capiēba´ris, -re capiēbā´minī
capiēbat capiēbant capiēbā´tur capieban´tur
FUTURE
capiam capiēmus ca´piar capiē´mur
capiēs capiētis capiē´ris, -re capiē´minī
capiet capient capiē´tur capien´tur
PERFECT
cēpī, cēpistī, cēpit, etc. captus, -a, -um   sum, es, est, etc.
PLUPERFECT
cēperam, cēperās, cēperat, etc. captus, -a, -um   eram, erās, erat, etc.
FUTURE PERFECT
cēperō, cēperis, cēperit, etc. captus, -a, -um   erō, eris, erit, etc.
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
capiam, capiās, capiat, etc. capiar, -iāris, -re, -iātur, etc.
IMPERFECT
caperem, caperēs, caperet, etc. caperer, -erēris, -re, -erētur, etc.
PERFECT
cēperim, cēperis, cēperit, etc. captus, -a, -um   sim, sīs, sit, etc.
PLUPERFECT
cēpissem, cēpissēs, cēpisset, etc. captus,-a, -um   essem, essēs, esset, etc.
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
2d Pers. cape capite capere capiminī
FUTURE
2d Pers. capi capitōte capitor ——
3rd Pers. capi capiuntō capitor capiuntor
INFINITIVE
Pres. capere capī
Perf. cēpisse captus, -a, -um esse
Fut. captūrus, -a, -um esse [captum īrī]
PARTICIPLES
Pres. capiēns, -ientis Pres. ——
Fut. captūrus, -a, -um Ger. capiendus, -a, -um
Perf. —— Perf. captus, -a, -um
GERUND SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. capiendī Acc. [captum]
etc. Abl. [captū]

493.

DEPONENT VERBS

Principal Parts I. hortor, hortārī, hortātus sum, urge
II. vereor, verērī, veritus sum, fear
III. sequor, sequī, secūtus sum, follow
IV. partior, partīrī, partītus sum, share, divide

Note. In addition to the passive conjugation, deponent verbs use certain forms from the active. These are marked with a star. Deponent -iō verbs of the third conjugation are inflected like the passive of capiō.

Indicative
Pres. hortor vereor sequor partior
hortāris, -re verēris, -re sequeris, -re partīris, -re
hortātur verētur sequitur partītur
hortāmur verēmur sequimur partīmur
hortāminī verēminī sequiminī partīminī
hortantur verentur sequuntur partiuntur
Impf. hortābar verēbar sequēbar partiēbar
Fut. hortābor verēbor sequar partiar
Perf. hortātus sum veritus sum secūtus sum partītus sum
Plup. hortātus eram veritus eram secūtus eram partītus eram
F. P. hortātus erō veritus erō secūtus erō partītus erō

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Subjunctive
Pres. horter verear sequar partiar
Impf. hortārer verērer sequerer partīrer
Perf. hortātus sim veritus sim secūtus sim partītus sim
Plup. hortātus essem veritus essem secūtus essem partītus essem
Imperative
Pres. hortāre verēre sequere partīre
Fut. hortātor verētor sequitor partītor
Infinitive
Pres. hortārī verērī sequī partīrī
Perf. hortātus esse veritus esse secūtus esse partītus esse
Fut. *hortātūrus esse *veritūrus esse *secūtūrus esse *partītūrus esse
Participles
Pres. *hortāns *verēns *sequēns *partiēns
Fut. *hortāturus *veritūrus *secūtūrus *partītūrus
Perf. hortātus veritus secūtus partītus
Ger. hortandus verendus sequendus partiendus
Gerund
*hortandī, etc. *verendī, etc. *sequendī, etc. *partiendī, etc.
Supine
*[hortātus, -tū] *[veritum, -tū] *[secūtum, -tū] *[partītum, -tū]
IRREGULAR VERBS

494. sum, am, be

Principal Parts sum, esse, fuī, futūrus

Pres. Stem es-   Perf. Stem fu-   Part. Stem fut-  

Indicative
Present
SINGULAR PLURAL
sum, I am sumus, we are
es, thou art estis, you are
est, he (she, it) is sunt, they are
Imperfect
eram, I was erāmus, we were
erās, thou wast erātis, you were
erat, he was erant, they were

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Future
erō, I shall be erimus, we shall be
eris, thou wilt be eritis, you will be
erit, he will be erunt, they will be
Perfect
fuī, I have been, was fuimus, we have been, were
fuistī, thou hast been, wast fuistis, you have been, were
fuit, he has been, was fuērunt, fuēre, they have been, were
Pluperfect
fueram, I had been fuerāmus, we had been
fuerās, thou hadst been fuerātis, you had been
fuerat, he had been fuerant, they had been
Future Perfect
fuerō, I shall have been fuerimus, we shall have been
fueris, thou wilt have been fueritis, you will have been
fuerit, he will have been fuerint, they will have been
Subjunctive
Present Imperfect
SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL
sim sīmus essem essēmus
sīs sītis essēs essētis
sit sint esset essent
Perfect Pluperfect
fuerim fuerimus fuissem fuissēmus
fueris fueritis fuissēs fuissētis
fuerit fuerint fuisset fuissent
Imperative
PRESENT FUTURE
2d Pers. Sing. es, be thou 2d Pers. Sing. es, thou shalt be
2d Pers. Plur. este, be ye 3d Pers. Sing. es, he shall be
2d Pers. Plur. estōte, ye shall be
3d Pers. Plur. suntō, they shall be
Infinitive Participle
Pres. esse, to be
Perf. fuisse, to have been
Fut. futūrus, -a, -um esse or fore,

to be about to be

futūrus, -a, -um, about to be
495.

possum, be able, can

Principal Parts possum, posse, potuī, ——

Indicative Subjunctive
SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL
Pres. possum pos´sumus possim possī´mus
potes potes´tis possīs possī´tis
potest possunt possit possint
Impf. poteram poterāmus possem possē´mus
Fut. poterō poterimus —— ——
Perf. potuī potuimus potuerim potuerimus
Plup. potueram potuerāmus potuissem potuissēmus
F. P. potuerō potuerimus —— ——
Infinitive
Pres. posse Perf. potuisse
Participle
Pres. potens, gen. -entis, (adjective) powerful

496. prōsum, benefit}}

Principal Parts prōsum, prōdesse, prōfuī, prōfutūrus

Pres. Stem prōdes-   Perf. Stem prōfu-   Part. Stem prōfut-  

Indicative Subjunctive
SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL
Pres. prōsum prō´sumus prōsim prōsī´mus
prōdes prōdes´tis prōsīs prōsī´tis
prōdest prōsunt prōsit prōsint
Impf. prōderam prōderāmus prōdessem prodessē´mus
Fut. prōderō prōderimus —— ——
Perf. prōfuī prōfuimus prōfuerim prōfuerimus
Plup. prōfueram prōfuerāmus prōfuissem prōfuissēmus
F. P. prōfuerō prōfuerimus —— ——
Imperative
Pres. 2d Pers. prōdes, prōdeste Fut. 2d Pers. prōdestō, prōdestōte
Infinitive
Pres. prōdesse Perf. prōfuisse Fut. prōfutūrus, -a, -um esse

Future Participle prōfutūrus, -a, -um

497.

Principal

Parts
volō, velle, voluī, ——,

be willing, will, wish

nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, ——,

be unwilling, will not

mālō, mālle, māluī, ——,

be more willing, prefer

Nōlō and mālō are compounds of volō. Nōlō is for ne (not) + volō, and mālō for (from magis, more) + volō. The second person vīs is from a different root.

Indicative
SINGULAR
Pres. volō nōlō mālō
vīs nōn vis māvīs
vult nōn vult māvult
PLURAL
volumus nōlumus mālumus
vultis nōn vultis māvul´tis
volunt nōlunt mālunt
Impf. volēbam nōlēbam mālēbam
Fut. volam, volēs, etc. nōlam, nōlēs, etc. mālam, mālēs, etc.
Perf. voluī nōluī māluī
Plup. volueram nōlueram mālueram
F. P. voluerō nōluerō māluerō
Subjunctive
SINGULAR
Pres. velim nōlim mālim
velīs nōlīs mālīs
velit nōlit mālit
PLURAL
velī´mus nōlī´mus mālī´mus
velī´tis nōlī´tis mālī´tis
velint nōlint mālint
Impf. vellem nōllem māllem
Perf. voluerim nōluerim māluerim
Plup. voluissem nōluissem māluissem
Imperative
Pres. ——

nōlī
nōlīte

——
Fut. —— nōlītō, etc. ——

258}} <a name = "page258">

Infinitive
Pres. velle nōlle mālle
Perf. voluisse nōluisse māluisse
Participle
Pres. volēns, -entis nōlēns, -entis ——

498. ferō, bear, carry, endure}}

Principal Parts ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus

Pres. Stem fer-   Perf. Stem tul-   Part. Stem lāt-  

Indicative
ACTIVE PASSIVE
Pres. ferō ferimus feror ferimur
fers fertīs ferris, -re ferimimī
fert ferunt fertur feruntur
Impf. ferēbam ferēbar
Fut. feram, ferēs, etc. ferar, ferēris, etc.
Perf. tulī lātus, -a, -um sum
Plup. tuleram lātus, -a, -um eram
F. P. tulerō lātus, -a, -um erō
Subjunctive
Pres. feram, ferās, etc. ferar, ferāris, etc.
Impf. ferrem ferrer
Perf. tulerim lātus, -a, -um sim
Plup. tulissem lātus, -a, -um essem
Imperative
Pres. 2d Pers. fer ferte ferre feriminī
Fut. 2d Pers. fertō fertōte fertor
3d Pers. fertō ferunto fertor feruntor
Infinitive
Pres. ferre ferrī
Perf. tulisse lātus, -a, -um esse
Fut. lātūrus, -a, -um esse ——
Participles
Pres. ferēns, -entis Pres. ——
Fut. lātūrus, -a, -um Ger. ferendus, -a, -um
Perf. —— Perf. lātus, -a, -um
Gerund Supine (Active Voice)
Gen. ferendī Acc. ferendum Acc. [lātum]
Dat. ferendō Abl. ferendō Abl. [lātū]

499. , go

Principal Parts eō, īre, iī (īvī), ĭtum (n. perf. part.)

Pres. Stem ī-   Perf. Stem ī- or īv-  

Part. Stem it-
Indicative Subjunctive Imperative
SING. PLUR.
Pres.


īs
it

īmus
ītis
eunt

eam 2d Pers. ī īte
Impf. ībam īrem
Fut. ībō ——

2d Pers. ītō
3d Pers. ītō

ītōte
euntō

Perf. iī (īvī) ierim (īverim)
Plup. ieram (īveram) īssem (īvissem)
F. P. ierō (īverō)
Infinitive Participles
Pres. īre Pres. iēns, gen. euntis (§ 472)
Perf. īsse (īvisse) Fut. itūrus, -a, -um
Fut. itūrus, -a, -um esse Ger. eundum
Gerund Supine
Gen. eundī Acc. [itum]
Dat. eundō Abl. [itū]
Acc. eundum
Abl. eundō
a. The verb is used impersonally in the third person singular of the passive, as ītur, itum est, etc.
b. In the perfect system the forms with v are very rare.

500. fīō, passive of faciō; be made, become, happen

Principal Parts fīō, fierī, factus sum

Indicative Subjunctive Imperative
Pres.

fīō
fīs
fit

——
——
fīunt

fīam 2d Pers. fīte
Impf. fīēbam fierem
Fut. fīam ——

Indicative

Perf. factus, -a, -um sum

Plup. factus, -a, -um eram

F. P. factus, -a, -um ero

Infinitive

Pres. fierï

Perf. factus, -a, -um esse

Fut. [factum ïrï]

Subjunctive

factus, -a, -um sim

factus, -a, -um essem

Participles

Perf. factus, -a, -um

Ger. faciendus, -a, -um


Latin for beginners (1911) 286.png

CASTRA MURO FOSSAQUE MUNIUNTUR

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References

  1. qua is generally used instead of quae in the feminine nominative singular and in the neuter nominative and accusative plural.
  2. Sometimes called the future passive participle.