Latin for beginners (1911)/Appendix II

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APPENDIX II

501.

RULES OF SYNTAX

Note. The rules of syntax are here classified and numbered consecutively. The number of the text section in which the rule appears is given at the end of each.

Nominative Case

<a name = "sec501_1">1. The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative and answers the question Who? or What? <a href = "LatinBegin1.html#sec36">§ 36.

Agreement

<a name = "sec501_2">2. A finite verb must always be in the same person and number as its subject. <a href = "LatinBegin1.html#sec28">§ 28.

<a name = "sec501_3">3. A predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of the verb. <a href = "LatinBegin1.html#sec76">§ 76.

<a name = "sec501_4">4. An appositive agrees in case with the noun which it explains. <a href = "LatinBegin1.html#sec81">§ 81.

<a name = "sec501_5">5. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case. <a href = "LatinBegin1.html#sec65">§ 65.

<a name = "sec501_6">6. A predicate adjective completing a complementary infinitive agrees in gender, number, and case with the subject of the main verb. <a href = "LatinBegin1.html#sec215">§ 215. a.

<a name = "sec501_7">7. A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender and number; but its case is determined by the way it is used in its own clause. <a href = "LatinBegin1.html#sec224">§ 224.

Prepositions

<a name = "sec501_8">8. A noun governed by a preposition must be in the accusative or ablative case. <a href = "LatinBegin1.html#sec52">§ 52.

Genitive Case

<a name = "sec501_9">9. The word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the genitive and answers the question Whose? <a href = "LatinBegin1.html#sec38">§ 38.

<a name = "sec501_10">10. The possessive genitive often stands in the predicate, especially after the forms of sum, and is then called the predicate genitive. <a href = "LatinBegin1.html#sec409">§ 409.

<a name = "sec501_11">11. Words denoting a part are often used with the genitive of the whole, known as the partitive genitive. <a href = "LatinBegin1.html#sec331">§ 331.

<a name = "sec501_12">12. Numerical descriptions of measure are expressed by the genitive with a modifying adjective. § 443. Dative Case

13. The indirect object of a verb is in the dative. § 45.
14. The dative of the indirect object is used with the intransitive verbs crēdō, faveō, noceō, pāreō, persuādeō, resistō, studeō, and others of like meaning, § 154.
15. Some verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, dē, in, inter, ob, post, prae, prō, sub, super, admit the dative of the indirect object. Transitive compounds may take both an accusative and a dative. § 426.
16. The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality is directed. Such are, especially, those meaning near, also fit, friendly, pleasing, like, and their opposites. § 143.
17. The dative is used to denote the purpose or end for which; often with another dative denoting the person or thing affected. § 437.
Accusative Case
18. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the accusative and answers the question Whom? or What? § 37.
19. The subject of the infinitive is in the accusative. § 214.
20. The place to which is expressed by ad or in with the accusative. Before names of towns, small islands, domus, and rūs the preposition is omitted. §§ 263, 266.
21. Duration of time and extent of space are expressed by the accusative. § 336.
22. Verbs of making, choosing, calling, showing, and the like, may take a predicate accusative along with the direct object. With the passive voice the two accusatives become nominatives. § 392.
Ablative Case
23. Cause is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question Because of what? § 102.
24. Means is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question By means of what? or With what? § 103.
25. Accompaniment is denoted by the ablative with cum. This answers the question With whom? § 104.
26. The ablative with cum is used to denote the manner of an action. Cum may be omitted, if an adjective is used with the ablative. This answers the question How? or In what manner? § 105.
27. With comparatives and words implying comparison the ablative is used to denote the measure of difference. §317.
28. The ablative of a noun or pronoun with a present or perfect participle in agreement is used to express attendant circumstance. This is called the ablative absolute. § 381.
29. 1. Descriptions of physical characteristics are expressed by the ablative with a modifying adjective. § 444.
2. Descriptions involving neither numerical statements nor physical characteristics may be expressed by either the genitive or the ablative with a modifying adjective. § 445.
30. The ablative is used to denote in what respect something is true. § 398.
31. The place from which is expressed by ā or ab, , ē or ex with the separative ablative. This answers the question Whence? Before names of towns, small islands, domus, and rūs the preposition is omitted. §§ 264, 266.
32. Words expressing separation or deprivation require an ablative to complete their meaning. This is called the ablative of separation. § 180.
33. The word expressing the person from whom an action starts, when not the subject, is put in the ablative with the preposition ā or ab. This is called the ablative of the personal agent. § 181.
34. The comparative degree, if quam is omitted, is followed by the separative ablative. § 309.
35. The time when or within which anything happens is expressed by the ablative without a preposition. § 275.
36. 1. The place at or in which is expressed by the ablative with in. This answers the question Where? Before names of towns, small islands, and rūs the preposition is omitted. §§ 265, 266.
2. Names of towns and small islands, if singular and of the first or second declension, and the word domus express the place in which by the locative. § 268.
Gerund and Gerundive
37. 1. The gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these cases are in general the same as those of other nouns. § 406. 1.
2. The gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of gerund + object, excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without a preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive construction is more usual. § 406. 2.
38. The accusative of the gerund or gerundive with ad, or the genitive with causā, is used to express purpose. § 407. Moods and Tenses of Verbs
39. Primary tenses are followed by primary tenses, and secondary by secondary. § 358.
40. The subjunctive is used in a dependent clause to express the purpose of the action in the principal clause. § 349.
41. A substantive clause of purpose with the subjunctive is used as object with verbs of commanding, urging, asking, persuading, or advising, where in English we should usually have the infinitive. § 366.
42. Verbs of fearing are followed by a substantive clause of purpose introduced by ut (that not) or (that or lest). § 372.
43. Consecutive clauses of result are introduced by ut or ut nōn, and have the verb in the subjunctive. § 385.
44. Object clauses of result with ut or ut nōn are found after verbs of effecting or bringing about. § 386.
45. A relative clause with the subjunctive is often used to describe an antecedent. This is called the subjunctive of characteristic or description. § 390.
46. The conjunction cum means when, since, or although. It is followed by the subjunctive unless it means when and its clause fixes the time at which the main action took place. § 396.
47. When a direct statement becomes indirect, the principal verb is changed to the infinitive, and its subject nominative becomes subject accusative of the infinitive. § 416.
48. The accusative-with-infinitive construction in indirect statements is found after verbs of saying, telling, knowing, thinking, and perceiving. § 419.
49. A present indicative of a direct statement becomes present infinitive of the indirect, a past indicative becomes perfect infinitive, and a future indicative becomes future infinitive. § 418.
50. In an indirect question the verb is in the subjunctive and its tense is determined by the law for tense sequence. § 432.

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