Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson LV

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LESSON LV

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (Continued)

311. Some adjectives in English have irregular comparison, as good, better, best; many, more, most. So Latin comparison presents some irregularities. Among the adjectives that are compared irregularly are

Positive Comparative Superlative
bonus, -a, -um, good melior, melius optimus, -a, -um
magnus, -a, -um, great maior, maius maximus, -a, -um
malus, -a, -um, bad peior, peius pessimus, -a, -um
multus, -a, -um, much ——, plūs plūrimus, -a, -um
multī, -ae, -a, many plūrēs, plūra plūrimī, -ae, -a
parvus, -a, -um, small minor, minus minimus, -a, -um


312. The following four adjectives have two superlatives. Unusual forms are placed in parentheses.

exterus, -a, -um, outward

(exterior, -ius, outer)

extrēmus, -a, -um
(extimus, -a, -um)

outermost, last

īnferus, -a, -um, low

īnferior, -ius, lower

īnfimus, -a, -um
īmus, -a, -um

lowest

posterus, -a, -um, next

(posterior, -ius, later)

postrēmus, -a, -um
(postumus, -a, -um)

last

superus, -a, -um, above

superior, -ius, higher

suprēmus, -a, -um
summus, -a, -um

highest


313. Plūs, more (plural more, many, several), is declined as follows:

Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. —— plūs plūrēs plūra
Gen. —— plūris plūrium plūrium
Dat. —— —— plūribus plūribus
Acc. —— plūs plūrīs, -ēs plūra
Abl. —— plūre plūribus plūribus

a. In the singular plūs is used only as a neuter substantive. 314.

EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296.

I.

  1. Reliquī hostēs, quī ā dextrō cornū proelium commīserant, dē superiōre locō fūgērunt et sēsē in silvam maximam recēpērunt.
  2. In extrēmā parte silvae castra hostium posita erant.
  3. Plūrimī captīvī ab equitibus ad Caesarem ductī sunt.
  4. Caesar vērō iussit eōs in servitūtem trādī.
  5. Posterō diē magna multitūdō mulierum ab Rōmānīs in valle īmā reperta est.
  6. Hae mulierēs maximē perterritae adventū Caesaris sēsē occīdere studēbant.
  7. Eae quoque plūrīs fābulās dē exercitūs Rōmānī sceleribus audīverant.
  8. Fāma illōrum mīlitum optima nōn erat.
  9. In barbarōrum aedificiīs maior cōpia frūmentī reperta est.
  10. Nēmō crēbrīs proeliīs contendere sine aliquō perīculō potest.

II.

  1. The remaining women fled from their dwellings and hid themselves.
  2. They were terrified and did not wish to be captured and given over into slavery.
  3. Nothing can be worse than slavery.
  4. Slavery is worse than death.
  5. In the Roman empire a great many were killed because they refused to be slaves.
  6. To surrender the fatherland is the worst crime.

Reading Selection

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References