Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson LVI

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LESSON LVI

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (Concluded) • ABLATIVE OF THE MEASURE OF DIFFERENCE

315. The following adjectives are irregular in the formation of the superlative and have no positive. Forms rarely used are in parentheses.

Comparative Superlative
citerior, hither (citimus, hithermost)
interior, inner (intimus, inmost)
prior, former prīmus, first
propior, nearer proximus, next, nearest
ulterior, further ultimus, furthest

316. I.the sentence Galba is a head taller than Sextus, the phrase a head taller expresses the measure of difference in height between Galba and Sextus. The Latin form of expression would be Galba is taller than Sextus by a head. This is clearly an ablative relation, and the construction is called the ablative of the measure of difference.

Examples

Galba est altior capite quam Sextus

Galba is a head taller (taller by a head) than Sextus.

Illud iter ad Italiam est multō brevius

That route to Italy is much shorter (shorter by much)


317. Rule. Ablative of the Measure of Difference. With comparatives and words implying comparison the ablative is used to denote the measure of difference.

a. Especially common in this construction are the neuter ablatives

, by this, by that
hōc, by this
multō, by much
nihilō,[1] by nothing
paulō, by a little

  1. nihil was originally nihilum and declined like pīlum. There is no plural.

318.

EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297.

I.

  1. Barbarī proelium committere statuērunt eō magis quod Rōmānī īnfīrmī esse vidēbantur.
  2. Meum cōnsilium est multō melius quam tuum quia multō facilius est.
  3. Haec via est multō lātior quam illa.
  4. Barbarī erant nihilō tardiōrēs quam Rōmānī.
  5. Tuus equus est paulō celerior quam meus.
  6. Iī quī paulō fortiōrēs erant prohibuērunt reliquōs aditum relinquere.
  7. Inter illās cīvitātēs Germānia mīlitēs habet optimōs.
  8. Propior via quae per hanc vallem dūcit est inter portum et lacum.
  9. Servī, quī agrōs citeriōrēs incolēbant, priōrēs dominōs relinquere nōn cupīvērunt, quod eōs amābant.
  10. Ultimae Germāniae partēs numquam in fidem Rōmānōrum vēnērunt.
  11. Nam trāns Rhēnum aditus erat multō difficilior exercituī Rōmānō.

II.

  1. Another way much more difficult (more difficult by much) was left through hither Gaul.
  2. In ancient times no state was stronger than the Roman empire.
  3. The states of further Gaul did not wish to give hostages to Cæsar.
  4. Slavery is no better (better by nothing) than death.
  5. The best citizens are not loved by the worst.
  6. The active enemy immediately withdrew into the nearest forest, for they were terrified by Cæsar’s recent victories.

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References

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