Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson LVII

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LESSON LVII

FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

319. Adverbs are generally derived from adjectives, as in English (e.g. adj. sweet, adv. sweetly). Like adjectives, they can be compared; but they have no declension.


320. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the first and second declensions are formed and compared as follows:

Positive Comparative Superlative
Adj.
Adv.
cārus, dear
cārē, dearly
cārior
cārius
cārissimus
cārissimē
Adj.
Adv.
pulcher, beautiful
pulchrē, beautifully
pulchrior
pulchrius
pulcherrimus
pulcherrimē
Adj.
Adv.
līber, free
līberē, freely
līberior
līberius
līberrimus
līberrimē

a. The positive of the adverb is formed by adding to the base of the positive of the adjective. The superlative of the adverb I.formed from the superlative of the adjective in the same way.

b. The comparative of any adverb is the neuter accusative singular of the comparative of the adjective.

321. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the third declension are formed like those described above in the comparative and superlative. The positive I.usually formed by adding -iter to the base of adjectives of three endings or of two endings, and -ter to the base of those of one ending;[1] as,

Positive Comparative Superlative
Adj.
Adv.
fortis, brave
fortiter, bravely
fortior
fortius
fortissimus
fortissimē
Adj.
Adv.
audāx, bold
audācter, boldly
audācior
audācius
audācissimus
audācissimē
322. Case Forms as Adverbs. As we learned above, the neuter accusative of comparatives is used adverbially. So in the positive or superlative some adjectives, instead of following the usual formation, use the

accusative or the ablative singular neuter adverbially; as,

Adj.
Adv.

facilis, easy
facile (acc.), easily

prīmus, first
prīmum (acc.), first
prīmō (abl.), at first

Adj.
Adv.

multus, many
multum (acc.), much
multō (abl.), by much

plūrimus, most
plūrimum (acc.), most

323. Learn the following irregular comparisons:

bene, well melius, better optimē, best
diū, long (time) diūtius, longer diūtissimē, longest
magnopere, greatly magis, more maximē, most
parum, little minus, less minimē, least
prope, nearly, near propius, nearer proximē, nearest
saepe, often saepius, oftener saepissimē, oftenest

324. Form adverbs from the following adjectives, using the regular rules, and compare them: laetus, superbus, molestus, amīcus, ācer, brevis, gravis, recēns.

325. Rule. Adverbs. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

326.

EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297.

I.

  1. Nūlla rēs melius gesta est quam proelium illud[2] ubi Marius multō minōre exercitū multō maiōrēs cōpiās Germānōrum in fugam dedit.
  2. Audācter in Rōmānōrum cohortīs hostēs impetūs fēcērunt # Marius autem omnēs hōs fortissimē sustinuit.
  3. Barbarī nihilō fortiōrēs erant quam Rōmānī.
  4. Prīmō barbarī esse superiōrēs vidēbantur, tum Rōmānī ācrius contendērunt.
  5. Dēnique, ubi iam diūtissimē paene aequō proeliō pugnātum est, barbarī fugam petiērunt.
  6. Quaedam Germānōrum gentēs, simul atque rūmōrem illīus calamitātis audīvērunt, sēsē in ultimīs regiōnibus fīnium suōrum abdidērunt.
  7. Rōmānī saepius quam hostēs vīcērunt, quod meliōra arma habēbant.
  8. Inter omnīs gentīs Rōmānī plūrimum valēbant.
  9. Hae cohortēs simul atque in aequiōrem regiōnem sē recēpērunt, castra sine ūllā difficultāte posuērunt.

II.

  1. Some nations are easily overcome by their enemies.
  2. Germany is much larger than Gaul.
  3. Were not the Romans the most powerful among the tribes of Italy?
  4. On account of (his) wounds the soldier dragged his body from the ditch with the greatest difficulty.
  5. He was able neither to run nor to fight.
  6. Who saved him? A certain horseman boldly undertook the matter.
  7. The rumors concerning the soldier’s death were not true.

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References

  1. This is a good working rule, though there are some exceptions to it.
  2. ille standing after its noun means that well-known, that famous.