Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XIX

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LESSON XIX

THE FOUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS • PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMŌ AND MONEŌ

126. There are four conjugations of the regular verbs. These conjugations are distinguished from each other by the final vowel of the present conjugation-stem.[1] This vowel is called the distinguishing vowel, and is best seen in the present infinitive.

Below is given the present infinitive of a verb of each conjugation, the present stem, and the distinguishing vowel.

Conjugation Pres. Infin. Pres. Stem

DISTINGUISHING
VOWEL

I.
amā're, to love amā- ā
II.
monē're, to advise monē- ē
III.
re'gere, to rule rege- e
IV.
audī're, to hear audī- ī
a. Note that the present stem of each conjugation is found by dropping -re, the ending of the present infinitive.
Note. The present infinitive of sum is esse, and es- is the present stem.

127. From the present stem are formed the present, imperfect, and future tenses. 128. The inflection of the Present Active Indicative of the first and of the second conjugation is as follows:

a'mō, amā're (love) mo'neō, monē're (advise)
Pres. Stem amā- Pres. Stem monē- personal
endings
Sing. a', I love mo'neō, I advise
a'mās, you love mo'nēs, you advise -s
a'mat, he (she, it) loves mo'net, he (she, it) advises -t
Plur. amā'mus, we love monē'mus, we advise -mus
amā'tis, you love monē'tis, you advise -tis
a'mant, they love mo'nent, they advise -nt

1. The present tense is inflected by adding the personal endings to the present stem, and its first person uses and not -m. The form amō is for ama-ō, the two vowels a-ō contracting to ō. In moneō there is no contraction. Nearly all regular verbs ending in -eō belong to the second conjugation.
2. Note that the long final vowel of the stem is shortened before another vowel (mone-ō = mo'nēō), and before final -t (amat, monet) and -nt (amant, monent). Compare § 12.2.

129. Like amō and moneō inflect the present active indicative of the following verbs:[2]

Indicative Present Infinitive Present
a'rō, I plow arā're, to plow
cu'rō, I care for curā're, to care for
deleō«, I destroy delē're, to destroy
desi'derō, I long for desiderā're, to long for
dō,[3] I give da're, to give
*ha'beō, 1 have habē're, to have
ha'bito, I live^ I dwell 'habitā're, to live, to dwell
*iu'beō, I order iube 're, to order
labō'rō, I labor labōrā're, to labor
lau'do, I praise laudā're, to praise
matu'rō, I hasten maturā're, to hasten
"•mo'ved, I move movē're, to move
nar'ro, I tell narrā're, to tell
ne'cō, I kill necā're, to kill
nun'tiō, I announce nuntiā're, to announce
pa'rō, I prepare parā're, to prepare
por'tō, I carry portā're, to carry
pro'perō, I hasten properā're, to hasten
pug'nō, I fight pugnā're, to fight
*vi'deō, I see vidē're, to see
vo'cō, I call vocā're, to call
130. The Translation of the Present. In English there are three ways of expressing present action. We may say, for example, I live, I am living, or I do live. In Latin the one expression habitō covers all three of these expressions. 131.

EXERCISES

Give the voice, mood, tense, person, and number of each form.

I.

  1. Vocamus, properatis, iubent.
  2. Movetis, laudas, vides.
  3. Deletis, habetis, dant.
  4. Maturas, deslderat, videmus.
  5. Iubet, movent, necat.
  6. Narramus, moves, vident.
  7. Laboratis, properant, portas, parant.
  8. Delet, habetis, iubemus, das.

N.B. Observe that the personal ending is of prime importance in translating a Latin verb form. Give that your first attention.

II.

  1. We plow, we are plowing, we do plow.
  2. They care for, they are caring for, they do care for.
  3. You give, you are having, you do have (sing.)
  4. We destroy, I do long for, they are living.
  5. He calls, they see, we are telling.
  6. We do fight, we order, he is moving, he prepares.
  7. They are laboring, we kill, you announce.

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References

  1. The stem is the body of a word to which the terminations are attached. It is often identical with the base (cf. § 58). If, however, the stem ends in a vowel, the latter does not appear in the base, but is variously combined with the inflectional terminations. This point is further explained in § 230.
  2. The only new verbs in this list are the five of the second conjugation which are starred. Learn their meanings.
  3. Observe that in dō, dare, the a is short, and that the present stem is da- and not dā-. The only forms of that have a long are dās (pres. indic), (pres. imv.), and dāns (pres. part).