Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XLIII

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241. To decline a noun of the third declension correctly we must know whether or not it is an i-stem. Nouns with i-stems are

1. Masculines and feminines:

a. Nouns in -ēs and -īs with the same number of syllables in the genitive as in the nominative. Thus caedēs, caedis, is an i-stem, but mīles, mīlitis, is a consonant stem.

b. Nouns in -ns and -rs.

c. Nouns of one syllable in -s or -x preceded by a consonant.

2. Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar.

242. The declension of i-stems is nearly the same as that of consonant stems. Note the following differences:

a. Masculines and feminities have -ium in the genitive plural and -īs or -ēs in the accusative plural.

b. Neuters have in the ablative singular, and an -i- in every form of the plural.

243. Masculine and Feminine I-Stems. Masculine and feminine i-stems are declined as follows:

caedēs, f., slaughter hostis, m., enemy urbs, f., city cliēns, m., retainer
Stems caedi- hosti- urbi- clienti-
Bases caed- host- urb- client-
Singular terminations
m. and f.
Nom. caedēs hostis urbs cliēns[1] -s, -is, or -ēs
Gen. caedis hostis urbis clientis -is
Dat. caedī hostī urbī clientī
Acc. caedem hostem urbem clientem -em (-im)
Abl. caede hoste urbe cliente -e ()
Plural terminations
m. and f.
Nom. caedēs hostēs urbēs clientēs -ēs
Gen. caedium hostium urbium clientium -ium
Dat. caedibus hostibus urbibus clientibus -ibus
Acc. caedīs, -ēs hostīs, -ēs urbīs, -ēs clientīs, -ēs -īs, -ēs
Abl. caedibus hostibus urbibus clientibus -ibus
  1. avis, cīvis, fīnis, ignis, nāvis have the ablative singular in or -e.
  2. turris has accusative turrim and ablative turrī or turre.

244. Neuter I-Stems. Neuter i-stems are declined as follows:

īnsigne, n., decoration animal, n., animal calcar, n., spur
Stems īnsigni- animāli- calcāri-
Bases īnsign- animāl- calcār-
Singular terminations
Nom. īnsigne animal calcar -e or
Gen. īnsignis animālis calcāris -is
Dat. īnsignī animālī calcārī
Acc. īnsigne animal calcar -e or
Abl. īnsignī animālī calcārī
Nom. īnsignia animālia calcāria -ia
Gen. īnsignium animālium calcārium -ium
Dat. īnsignibus animālibus calcāribus -ibus
Acc. īnsignia animālia calcāria -ia
Abl. īnsignibus animālibus calcāribus -ibus
  1. Review § 74 and see how it applies to this declension.
  2. The final -i- of the stem is usually dropped in the nominative. If not dropped, it is changed to -e.
  3. A long vowel is shortened before final -l or -r. (Cf. § 1 2.)



First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292.


  1. Quam urbem vidēmus? Urbs quam vidētis est Rōma.
  2. Cīvēs Rōmānī urbem suam turribus altīs et mūrīs longīs mūnīverant.
  3. Ventī nāvīs longās prohibēbant fīnibus hostium adpropinquāre.
  4. Imperātor a clientibus suīs calcāria aurī et alia īnsignia accēpit.
  5. Mīlitēs Rōmānī cum hostibus bella saeva gessērunt et eōs caede magnā superāvērunt.
  6. Alia animālia terram, alia mare amant.
  7. Nāvēs longae quae auxilium ad imperātōrem portābant ignī ab hostibus dēlētae sunt.
  8. In eō marī avis multās vīdimus quae longē ā terrā volāverant.
  9. Nōnne vīdistis nāvīs longās hostium et ignīs quibus urbs nostra vāstābātur? Certē, sed nec caedem cīvium nec fugam clientium vīdimus.
  10. Avēs et alia animālia, ubi ignem vīdērunt, salūtem fugā petere celeriter incēpērunt.
  11. Num iūdex in peditum ōrdinibus stābat? Minimē, iūdex erat apud equitēs et equus eius īnsigne pulchrum gerēbat.

naves longae


  1. Because of the lack of grain the animals of the village were not able to live.
  2. When the general[2] heard the rumor, he quickly sent a horseman to the village.
  3. The horseman had a beautiful horse and wore spurs of gold.
  4. He said to the citizens, “Send your retainers with horses and wagons to our camp, and you will receive an abundance of grain.”
  5. With happy hearts they hastened to obey his words.[3]



  1. Observe that the vowel before -ns is long, but that it is shortened before -nt. Cf. §12.2,3.
  2. Place first.
  3. Not the accusative. Why?