Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XLIV

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LESSON XLIV

IRREGULAR NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION • GENDER IN THE THIRD DECLENSION

246.

PARADIGMS

vīs, f., force iter, n., march
Stems vī- and vīri- iter- and itiner-
Bases v- and vīr- iter- and itiner-

Singular

Nom. s iter
Gen. vīs (rare) itineris
Dat. vī (rare) itinerī
Acc. vim iter
Abl. itinere

Plural

Nom. vīrēs itinera
Gen. vīrium itinerum
Dat. vīribus itineribus
Acc. vīrīs, or -ēs itinera
Abl. vīribus itineribus

247. There are no rules for gender in the third declension that do not present numerous exceptions.[1] The following rules, however, are of great service, and should be thoroughly mastered:

  1. Masculine are nouns in -or, -ōs, -er, -ĕs (gen. -itis).

a. arbor, tree, is feminine; and iter, march, is neuter.

2. Feminine are nouns in , -is, -x, and I. -s preceded by a consonant or by any long vowel but ō.

a. Masculine are collis (hill), lapis, mēnsis (month), ōrdō, pēs, and nouns in -nis and -guis—as ignis, sanguis (blood)—and the four monosyllables

dēns, a tooth
mōns, a mountain
pōns, a bridge
fōns, a fountain

3. Neuters are nouns in -e, -al, -ar, -n, -ur, -ŭs, and caput. 248. Give the gender of the following nouns and the rule by which it is determined:

animal calamitās flūmen lapis nāvis
avis caput ignis legiō opus
caedēs eques īnsigne mare salūs
calcar fīnis labor mīles urbs


249.

EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292.

I.The First Bridge over the Rhine. Salūs sociōrum erat semper cāra Rōmānīs. Ōlim Gallī, amīcī Rōmānōrum, multās iniūriās ab Germānīs quī trāns flūmen Rhēnum vivēbant accēperant. Ubi lēgātī ab iīs ad Caesarem imperātōrem Rōmānum vēnērunt et auxilium postulāvērunt, Rōmānī magnīs itineribus ad hostium fīnīs properāvērunt. Mox ad rīpās magnī flūminis vēnērunt. Imperātor studēbat cōpiās suās trāns fluvium dūcere, sed nūllā viā[2] poterat. Nūllās nāvīs habēbat. Alta erat aqua. Imperātor autem, vir clārus, numquam adversā fortūnā commōtus, novum cōnsilium cēpit. Iussit suōs[3] in[4] lātō flūmine facere pontem. Numquam anteā pōns in Rhēnō vīsus erat. Hostēs ubi pontem quem Rōmānī fēcerant vīdērunt, summō terrōre commōtī, sine morā fugam parāre incēpērunt.

II.

  1. The enemy had taken (possession of) the top of the mountain.
  2. There were many trees on the opposite hills.
  3. We pitched our camp near (ad) a beautiful spring.
  4. A march through the enemies’ country is never without danger.
  5. The time of the month was suitable for the march.
  6. The teeth of the monster were long.
  7. When the foot soldiers[5] saw the blood of the captives, they began to assail the fortifications with the greatest violence.[2]

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References

  1. Review § 60. Words denoting males are, of course, masculine, and those denoting females, feminine.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Abl. of manner.
  3. suōs, used as a noun, his men.
  4. We say build a bridge over; the Romans, make a bridge on.
  5. Place first.