Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XLV

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LESSON XLV

'ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION • Ī-STEMS

250. Adjectives are either of the first and second declensions (like bonus, aeger, or līber), or they are of the third declension.

251. Nearly all adjectives of the third declension have i-stems, and they are declined almost like nouns with i-stems.

252. Adjectives learned thus far have had a different form in the nominative for each gender, as, bonus, m.; bona, f.; bonum, n. Such an adjective is called an adjective of three endings. Adjectives of the third declension are of the following classes:

I.

Adjectives of three endings—
a different form in the nominative for each gender.

II.

Adjectives of two endings—
masculine and feminine nominative alike, the neuter different.

III.

Adjectives of one ending—
masculine, feminine, and neuter nominative all alike.


253. Adjectives of the third declension in -er have three endings; those in -is have two endings; the others have one ending.

CLASS I

254. Adjectives of Three Endings are declined as follows:

ācer, ācris, ācre, keen, eager

Stem ācri- Base ācr-
Singular Plural
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. ācer ācris ācre ācrēs ācrēs ācria
Gen. ācris ācris ācris ācrium ācrium ācrium
Dat. ācrī ācrī ācrī ācribus ācribus ācribus
Acc. ācrem ācrem ācre ācrīs, -ēs ācrīs, -ēs ācria
Abl. ācrī ācrī ācrī ācribus ācribus ācribus

CLASS II

255. Adjectives of Two Endings are declined as follows:

omnis, omne, every, all[1]

Stem omni- Base omn-
Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. omnis omne omnēs omnia
Gen. omnis omnis omnium omnium
Dat. omnī omnī omnibus omnibus
Acc. omnem omne omnīs, ēs omnia
Abl. omnī omnī omnibus omnibus

CLASS III

256. Adjectives of One Ending are declined as follows:

pār, equal
Stem pari- Base par-
Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. pār pār parēs paria
Gen. paris paris parium parium
Dat. parī parī paribus paribus
Acc. parem pār parīs, ēs paria
Abl. parī parī paribus paribus
  1. All i-stem adjectives have in the ablative singular.
  2. Observe that the several cases of adjectives of one ending have the same form for all genders excepting in the accusative singular and I.the nominative and accusative plural.
  3. Decline vir ācer, legiō ācris, animal ācre, ager omnis, scūtum omne, proelium pār.

257. There are a few adjectives of one ending that have consonant stems. They are declined exactly like nouns with consonant stems. 258.

EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293.

I.The Romans invade the Enemy’s Country. Ōlim peditēs Rōmānī cum equitibus vēlōcibus in hostium urbem iter faciēbant. Ubi nōn longē āfuērunt, rapuērunt agricolam, quī eīs viam brevem et facilem dēmōnstrāvit. Iam Rōmānī moenia alta, turrīs validās aliaque opera urbis vidēre poterant. In moenibus stābant multī prīncipēs. Prīncipēs ubi vīdērunt Rōmānōs, iussērunt cīvīs lapidēs aliaque tēla dē mūrīs iacere. Tum mīlitēs fortēs continērī ā proeliō nōn poterant et ācer imperātor signum tubā darī iussit. Summā vī omnēs mātūrāvērunt. Imperātor Sextō lēgātō impedīmenta omnia mandāvit. Sextus impedīmenta in summō colle conlocāvit. Grave et ācre erat proelium, sed hostēs nōn parēs Rōmānīs erant. Aliī interfectī, aliī captī sunt. Apud captīvōs erant māter sororque rēgis. Paucī Rōmānōrum ab hostibus vulnerātī sunt. Secundum proelium Rōmānīs erat grātum. Fortūna fortibus semper favet.

II.

  1. Some months are short, others are long.
  2. To seize the top of the mountain was difficult.
  3. Among the hills of Italy are many beautiful springs.
  4. The soldiers were sitting where the baggage had been placed because their feet were weary.
  5. The city which the soldiers were eager to storm had been fortified by strong walls and high towers.
  6. Did not the king intrust a heavy crown of gold and all his money to a faithless slave? Yes, but the slave had never before been faithless.

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References

  1. omnis is usually translated every in the singular and all in the plural.