Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XLIX
PRONOUNS CLASSIFIED • PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
278. We have the same kinds of pronouns in Latin as in English. They are divided into the following eight classes:
- Personal pronouns, which show the person speaking, spoken to, or spoken of; as, ego, I; tū, you; is, he. (Cf. § 279. etc.)
- Possessive pronouns, which denote possession; as, meus, tuus, suus, etc. (Cf. § 98.)
- Reflexive pronouns, used in the predicate to refer back to the subject; as, he saw himself. (Cf. § 281.)
- Intensive pronouns, used to emphasize a noun or pronoun; as, I myself saw it. (Cf. § 285.)
- Demonstrative pronouns, which point out persons or things;as, is, this, that. (Cf. § 112.)
- Relative pronouns, which connect a subordinate adjective clause with an antecedent; as, quī, who. (Cf. § 220.)
- Interrogative pronouns, which ask a question; as, quis, who? (Cf. § 225.)
- Indefinite pronouns, which point out indefinitely; as, some one, any one, some, certain ones, etc. (Cf. § 296.)
279. The demonstrative pronoun is, ea, id, as we learned in § 115, is regularly used as the personal pronoun of the third person (he, she, it, they, etc.). 280. The personal pronouns of the first person are ego, I; nōs, we; of the second person, tū, thou or you; vōs, ye or you. They are declined as follows:
|FIRST PERSON||SECOND PERSON|
|Nom.||ego, I||tū, you|
|Gen.||meī, of me||tuī, of you|
|Dat.||mihi, to or for me||tibi, to or for you|
|Acc.||mē, me||tē, you|
|Abl.||mē, with, from, etc., me||tē, with, from, etc., you|
|Nom.||nōs, we||vōs, you|
|Gen.||nostrum or nostrī, of us||vestrum or vestrī, of you|
|Dat.||nōbīs, to or for us||vōbīs, to or for you|
|Acc.||nōs, us||vōs, you|
|Abl.||nōbīs, with, from, etc., us||vōbīs, with, from, etc., you|
- The personal pronouns are not used in the nominative excepting for
emphasis or contrast.
281. The Reflexive Pronouns.
- The personal pronouns ego and
tū may be used in the predicate as reflexives; as,
|videō mē, I see myself||vidēmus nōs, we see ourselves|
|vidēs tē, you see yourself||vidētis vōs, you see yourselves|
2. The reflexive pronoun of the third person (himself, herself, itself, themselves) has a special form, used only in these senses, and declined alike in the singular and plural.
|Singular and Plural|
Puer sē videt, the boy sees himself
Puella sē videt, the girl sees herself
Animal sē videt, the animal sees itself
Iī sē vident, they see themselves
a. The form sē is sometimes doubled, sēsē, for emphasis. 3. Give the Latin for
- I teach myself
- You teach yourself
- He teaches himself
- We teach ourselves
- You teach yourselves
- They teach themselves
282. The preposition cum, when used with the ablative of ego, tū, or suī, is appended to the form, as, mēcum, with me; tēcum, with you; nõbīscum, with us; etc.283.
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 294.
- Mea māter est cāra mihi et tua māter est cāra tibi.
- Vestrae litterae erant grātae nōbīs et nostrae litterae erant grātae vōbīs.
- Nūntius rēgis quī nōbīscum est nihil respondēbit.
- Nūntiī pācem amīcitiamque sibi et suīs sociīs postulāvērunt.
- Sī tū arma sūmēs,ego rēgnum occupābō.
- Uter vestrum est cīvis Rōmānus? Neuter nostrum.
- Eō tempore multī supplicium dedērunt quia rēgnum petierant.
- Sūme supplicium, Caesar, dē hostibus patriae ācribus.
- Prīmā lūce aliī metū commōtī sēsē fugae mandāvērunt; aliīautem magnā virtūte impetum exercitūs nostrī sustinuērunt.
- Soror rēgis, ubi dē adversō proeliō audīvit, sēsē Pompēiīs interfēcit.
- Whom do you teach? I teach myself.
- The soldier wounded himself with his sword.
- The master praises us, but you he does not praise.
- Therefore he will inflict punishment on you, but we shall not suffer punishment.
- Who will march (i.e. make a march) with me to Rome?
- I will march with you to the gates of the city.
- Who will show us the way? The gods will show you the way.
DAED'ALUS AND IC'ARUS (Concluded)
284. Puer Īcarus ūnā stābat et mīrum patris opus vidēbat. Post- quam manus ultima ālis imposita est, Daedalus eās temptāvit et similis avī in aurās volāvit. Tum ālās umeris filī adligāvit et docuit eum volāre et dixit, "Tē vetō, mi filī, adpropinquāre aut sōlī aut marī. Si fluctibus adpropinquāveris, aqua ālis tuīs nocēbit, et sī sōlī adpropinquāveris, ignis eās cremābit.” Tum pater et filius iter difficile incipiunt. Ālās movent et aurae sēsē committunt. Sed stultus puer verbīs patris nōn pāret. Sōlī adpropinquat. Ālae cremantur et Īcarus in mare dēcidit et vitam āmittit. Daedalus autem sine ūllō perīculō trāns fluctūs ad īnsulam Siciliam volāvit.
- Not accusative.
- Adverb, see vocabulary.
- manus ultima, the finishing touch. What literally?
- Future perfect. Translate by the present.