Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XLVIII

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LESSON XLVIII

THE FIFTH OR Ē-DECLENSION • THE ABLATIVE OF TIME

272. Gender. Nouns of the fifth declension are feminine except diēs, day, and merīdiēs, midday which are usually masculine.

272.

PARADIGMS

diēs, m., day rēs, f. thing
Stems diē- rē-
Bases di- r-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. diēs rēs -ēs
Gen. diēī reī -ē̆ī
Dat. diēī reī -ē̆ī
Acc. diem rem -em
Abl. diē rē
Plural
Nom. diēs rēs -ēs
Gen. diērum rērum -ērum
Dat. diēbus rēbus -ēbus
Acc. diēs rēs -ēs
Abl. diēbus rēbus -ēbus

  1. The vowel e which appears in every form is regularly long. It

I.shortened in the ending -eī after a consonant, as in r-ĕī; and before -m in the accusative singular, as in di-em. (Cf. § 1

  1. 2.)

2. Only diēs and rēs are complete in the plural. Most other nouns of this declension lack the plural. Aciēs, line of battle, and spēs, hope, have the nominative and accusative plural.


274. The ablative relation (§ 50) which is expressed by the prepositions at, in, or on may refer not only to place, but also to time, as at noon, in summer, on the first day. The ablative which is used to express this relation is called the ablative of time.


275. Rule. The Ablative of Time. The time when or within which anything happens is expressed by the ablative without a preposition.


a. Occasionally the preposition in is found. Compare the English Next day we started and On the next day we started.


276.

EXERCISES

First learn the <a href = "LatinBegin2.html#sec276vocab">special vocabulary, p. 294.

I.Galba the Farmer. Galba agricola rūrī vīvit. Cotīdiē prīmā lūce labōrāre incipit, nec ante noctem in studiō suō cessat. Merīdiē Iūlia fīlia eum ad cēnam vocat. Nocte pedēs dēfessōs domum vertit. Aestāte fīliī agricolae auxilium patrī dant. Hieme agricola eōs in lūdum mittit. Ibi magister pueris multās fābulās dē rēbus gestīs Caesaris nārrat. Aestāte fīliī agricolae perpetuīs labōribus exercentur nec grave agrī opus est iīs molestum. Galba sine ūllā cūrā vivit nec rēs adversās timet.

II.

  1. In that month there were many battles in Gaul.
  2. The

cavalry of the enemy made an attack upon Cæsar’s line of battle.

  1. In the first hour of the night the ship was overcome by the

billows.

  1. On the second day the savages were eager to come under

Cæsar’s protection.

  1. The king had joined battle, moved by the

hope of victory.

  1. That year a fire destroyed many birds and other

animals.

  1. We saw blood on the wild beast’s teeth. 277. Daed'alus and Ic'arus (Continued)

Tum Daedalus gravibus cūrīs commōtus fīliō suō Īcarō ita dixit: “Animus meus, Īcare, est plēnus trīstitiae nec oculī lacrimīs egent. Discēdere ex Crētā, Athēnās properāre, maximē studeō; sed rēx recūsat audīre verba mea et omnem reditūs spem ēripit. Sed numquam rēbus adversīs vincar. Terra et mare sunt inimīca, sed aliam fugae viam reperiam.” Tum in artīs ignōtās animum dīmittit et mīrum capit cōnsilium. Nam pennās in ōrdine pōnit et vērās ālās facit.

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References