Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XLVII
EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE • THE DECLENSION OF DOMUS
262. We have become thoroughly familiar with expressions like the following:
Galba ad (or in) oppidum properat
Galba ab (dē or ex) oppidō properat
Galba in oppidō habitat
From these expressions we may deduce the following rules:
263. Rule. Accusative of the Place to. The place to which is expressed by ad or in with the accusative. This answers the question Whither?
264. Rule. Ablative of the Place from. The place from which is expressed by ā or ab, dē, ē or ex, with the separative ablative. This answers the question Whence? (Cf. Rule, § 179.)
265. Rule. Ablative of the Place at or in. The place at or in which is expressed by the ablative with in. This answers the question Where? a. The ablative denoting the place where is called the locative ablative (cf. locus, place).
266. Exceptions. Names of towns, small islands, domus, home, rūs, country, and a few other words in common use omit the prepositions in expressions of place, as,
Galba Athēnās properat, Galba hastens to Athens
Galba Athēnīs properat, Galba hastens from Athens
Galba Athēnīs habitat, Galba lives at (or in) Athens
Galba domum properat, Galba hastens home
Galba rūs properat, Galba hastens to the country
Galba domō properat, Galba hastens from home
Galba rūre properat, Galba hastens from the country
Galba rūrī (less commonly rūre) habitat, Galba lives in the country
a. Names of countries, like Germānia, Italia, etc., do not come under these exceptions. With them prepositions must not be omitted.
267. The Locative Case. We saw above that the place-relation expressed by at or in is regularly covered by the locative ablative. However, Latin originally expressed this relation by a separate form known as the locative case. This case has been everywhere merged in the ablative excepting in the singular number of the first and second declensions. The form of the locative in these declensions is like the genitive singular, and its use is limited to names of towns and small islands, domī, at home, and a few other words.
268. Rule. Locative and Locative Ablative.' To express the place in which with names of towns and small islands, if they are singular and of the first or second declension, use the locative; otherwise use the locative ablative without a preposition; as,
Galba Rōmae habitat, Galba lives at Rome
Galba Corinthī habitat, Galba lives at Corinth
Galba domī habitat, Galba lives at home
declensions respectively. But in
Galba Athēnīs habitat, Galba lives at Athens,
Galba Pompēiīs habitat, Galba lives at Pompeii
Athēnīs and Pompēiīs are locative ablatives. These words can have no locative case, as the nominatives Athēnae and Pompēiī areplural and there is no plural locative case form.
269. The word domus, home, house, has forms of both the second and the fourth declension. Learn its declension (§ 468).
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293.
- Corinthī omnia īnsignia aurī ā ducibus victōribus rapta erant.
- Caesar Genāvam exercitum magnīs itineribus dūxit.
- Quem pontem hostēs cremāverant? Pontem in Rhēnō hostēs cremāverant.
- Pompēiīs multās Rōmānōrum domōs vidēre poteritis.
- Rōmā cōnsul equō vēlōcī rūs properāvit.
- Domī cōnsulis hominēs multī sedēbant.
- Imperātor iusserat lēgātum Athēnās cum multīs nāvibus longīs nāvigāre.
- Ante moenia urbis sunt ōrdinēs arborum altārum.
- Propter arborēs altās nec lacum nec portum reperīre potuimus.
- Proeliīs crēbrīs Caesar legiōnēs suās quae erant in Galliāexercēbat.
- Cotīdiē in locō idoneō castra pōnēbat et mūniēbat.
- Cæsar, the famous general, when he had departed from Rome, hastened to the Roman province on a swift horse.
- He had heard a rumor concerning the allies at Geneva.
- After his arrival Cæsar called the soldiers together and commanded them to join battle.
- The enemy hastened to retreat,
- Recently I was at Athens and saw the place where the judges used to sit.
- Marcus and Sextus are my brothers; the one lives at Rome, the other in the country.
DAEDALUS ET ICARUS
Daed'alus and Ic'arus
Crēta est Insula antīqua quae aqua altā magnī maris pulsātur. Ibi ōlim Minōs erat rēx. Ad cum vēnit Daedalus quī ex Graeciā patriā fugiēbat. Eum Minōs rēx benignīs verbīs accēpit et eī domicilium in Crētā dedit. Quō in locō Daedalus sine cūrā vivēbat et rēgī multa et clarā opera faciēbat. Post tempus longum autem Daedalus patriam cāram dēsiderāre incēpit Domum properāre studēbat, sed rēgī persuādēre nōn potuit et mare saevum fugam vetābat.
- Small islands are classed with towns because they generally have but one town, and the name of the town is the same as the name of the island.
- Latin says “by a swift horse.” What construction?
- Distinguish between the English conjunction because (quia or quod) and the preposition because of (propter).
- used to sit, express by the imperfect.
- And in this place ; quō does not here introduce a subordinate relative clause, but establishes the connection with the preceding sentence. Such a relative is called a connecting relative, and is translated by and and a demonstrative or personal pronoun.