Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XXVII

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LESSON XXVII

THE PASSIVE VOICE • PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE OF AMŌ AND MONEŌ

163. The Voices. Thus far the verb forms have been in the active voice; that is, they have represented the subject as performing an action; as,

The lion killed the hunter

A verb is said to be in the passive voice when it represents its subject as receiving an action ; as,

The lion was killed by the hunter

Note the direction of the arrows.

164. Passive Personal Endings. In the passive voice we use a different set of personal endings. They are as follows:

Sing. 1. -r, I Plur. 1. -mur, we
2. -ris, -re, you 2. -minī, you
3. -tur, he, she, it 3. -ntur, they
a. Observe that the letter -r appears somewhere in all but one of the endings. This is sometimes called the passive sign.
165.

PARADIGMS

amō, amāre monēo, monēre
{{sc|Pres. Stem amā- {{sc|Pres. Stem monē-

Present Indicative

personal
endings
Sing.

a´mor, I am loved

mo´neor, I am advised

-or[1]

amā´ris or amā´re, you are loved

monē´ris or monē´re, you are advised

-ris or -re

amā´tur, he is loved

monē´tur, he is advised

-tur
Plur.

amā´mur, we are loved

monē´mur, we are advised

-mur

amā´minī, you are loved

monē´minī, you are advised

-mini

aman´tur, they are loved

monen´tur, they are advised

-ntur
 
Imperfect Indicative (Tense Sign -bā-)
Sing.

amā´bar, I was being loved

monē´bar, I was being advised

-r

amābā´ris or amābā´re, you were being loved

monēbā´ris or monēbā´re, you were being advised

-ris or -re

amābā´tur, he was being loved

monēbā´tur, he was being advised

-tur
Plur.

amābā´mur, we were being loved

monēbā´mur, we were being advised

-mur

amābā´minī, you were being loved

monēbā´minī, you were being advised

-minī

amāban´tur, they were being loved

monēban´tur, they were being advised

-ntur
 
Future (Tense Sign) -bi-)
Sing.

amā´bor, I shall be loved

monē´bor, I shall be advised

-r

amā´beris or amā´bere, you will be loved

monē´beris or monē´bere, you will be advised

-ris or -re

amā´bitur, he will be loved

monē´bitur, he will be advised

-tur
Plur.

amā´bimur, we shall be loved

monē´bimur, we shall be advised

-mur

amābi´minī, you will be loved

monēbi´minī, you will be advised

-minī

amābun´tur, they will be loved

monēbun´tur, they will be advised

-ntur
1. The tense sign and the personal endings are added as in the active.
2. In the future the tense sign -bi- appears as -bo- in the first person, -be- in the second, singular number, and as -bu- in the third person plural.
3. Inflect laudō, necō, portō, moveō, deleō, iubeō, in the present, imperfect, and future indicative, active and passive.

168. Intransitive verbs, such as mātūrō, I hasten; habitō, I dwell, do not have a passive voice with a personal subject.

167.

EXERCISES

I.

  1. Laudaris or laudare, laudās, datur, dat.
  2. Dabitur, dabit, vidēminī, vidētis.
  3. Vocābat, vocabātur, dēlēbitis, dēlēbiminī.
  4. Parābatur, parābat, cūrās, cūrāris or cūrāre.
  5. Portābantur, portābant, vidēbimur, vidēbimus.
  6. Iubēris or iubēre, iubēs, laudābāris or laudābāre, laudābās.
  7. Movēberis or movēbere, movēbis, dabantur, dabant.
  8. Dēlentur, dēlent, parābāmur, parābāmus.

II.

  1. We prepare, we are prepared, I shall be called, I shall call, you were carrying, you were being carried.
  2. I see, I am seen, it was being announced, he was announcing, they will order, they will be ordered.
  3. You will be killed, you will kill, you move, you are moved, we are praising, we are being praised.
  4. I am called, I call, you will have, you are cared for.
  5. They are seen, they see, we were teaching, we were being taught, they will move, they will be moved.
Latin for beginners (1911).djvu-93.png

perseus andromedam servat

168.

Per’seus and Androm’eda

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Perseus fīlius erat Iovis,[2] maximī[3] deorum. Dē eō multās fābulās nārrant poētae. Eī favent deī, eī magica arma et ālās dant. Eīs tēlīs armātus et ālīs frētus ad multās terrās volābat et mōnstra saeva dēlēbat et miserīs īnfirmīsque auxilium dabat.

Aethiopia est terra Africae. Eam terram Cēpheus[4] regēbat. Eī[5] Neptūnus, maximus aquārum deus, erat īrātus et mittit[6] mōnstrum saevum ad Aethiopiam. Ibi mōnstrum nōn sōlum lātīs pulchrīsque Aethiopiae agrīs nocēbat sed etiam domicilia agricolārum delebat, et multōs virōs, fēminās, līberōsque necābat. Populus ex agrīs fugiēbat et oppida mūrīs validīs mūniēbat. Tum Cēpheus magnā trīstitiā commōtus ad Iovis ōrāculum properat et ita dīcit: “Amīcī mēī necantur; agrī meī vāstantur. Audī verba mea, luppiter. Dā miserīs auxilium. Age mōnstrum saevum ex patriā.”

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References

  1. In the present the personal ending of the first person singular is -or.
  2. Iovis, the genitive of Iuppiter.
  3. Used substantively, the greatest. So below, 1. 4, miserīs and īnfirmīs are used substantively.
  4. Pronounce in two syllables, Cē'pheus.
  5. , at him, dative with īrātus.
  6. The present is often used, as in English, in speaking of a past action, in order to make the story more vivid and exciting.