Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XXVII
THE PASSIVE VOICE • PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE OF AMŌ AND MONEŌ
163. The Voices. Thus far the verb forms have been in the active voice; that is, they have represented the subject as performing an action; as,
The lion killed the hunter
A verb is said to be in the passive voice when it represents its subject as receiving an action ; as,
The lion was killed by the hunter
Note the direction of the arrows.
164. Passive Personal Endings. In the passive voice we use a different set of personal endings. They are as follows:
|Sing.||1. -r, I||Plur.||1. -mur, we|
|2. -ris, -re, you||2. -minī, you|
|3. -tur, he, she, it||3. -ntur, they|
a. Observe that the letter -r appears somewhere in all but one of the endings. This is sometimes called the passive sign.
|amō, amāre||monēo, monēre|
|Pres. Stem amā-||Pres. Stem monē-|
|Sing.||a´mor, I am loved||mo´neor, I am advised||-or|
|amā´ris or amā´re, you are loved||monē´ris or monē´re, you are advised||-ris or -re|
|amā´tur, he is loved||monē´tur, he is advised||-tur|
|Plur.||amā´mur, we are loved||monē´mur, we are advised||-mur|
|amā´minī, you are loved||monē´minī, you are advised||-mini|
|aman´tur, they are loved||monen´tur, they are advised||-ntur|
|Imperfect Indicative (Tense Sign -bā-)|
|Sing.||amā´bar, I was being loved||monē´bar, I was being advised||-r|
|amābā´ris or amābā´re, you were being loved||monēbā´ris or monēbā´re, you were being advised||-ris or -re|
|amābā´tur, he was being loved||monēbā´tur, he was being advised||-tur|
|Plur.||amābā´mur, we were being loved||monēbā´mur, we were being advised||-mur|
|amābā´minī, you were being loved||monēbā´minī, you were being advised||-minī|
|amāban´tur, they were being loved||monēban´tur, they were being advised||-ntur|
|Future (Tense Sign) -bi-)|
amā´bor, I shall be loved
monē´bor, I shall be advised
amā´beris or amā´bere, you will be loved
monē´beris or monē´bere, you will be advised
-ris or -re
amā´bitur, he will be loved
monē´bitur, he will be advised
amā´bimur, we shall be loved
monē´bimur, we shall be advised
amābi´minī, you will be loved
monēbi´minī, you will be advised
amābun´tur, they will be loved
monēbun´tur, they will be advised
- 1. The tense sign and the personal endings are added as in the active.
- 2. In the future the tense sign -bi- appears as -bo- in the first person, -be- in the second, singular number, and as -bu- in the third person plural.
- 3. Inflect laudō, necō, portō, moveō, deleō, iubeō, in the present, imperfect, and future indicative, active and passive.
168. Intransitive verbs, such as mātūrō, I hasten; habitō, I dwell, do not have a passive voice with a personal subject.167.
- Laudaris or laudare, laudās, datur, dat.
- Dabitur, dabit, vidēminī, vidētis.
- Vocābat, vocabātur, dēlēbitis, dēlēbiminī.
- Parābatur, parābat, cūrās, cūrāris or cūrāre.
- Portābantur, portābant, vidēbimur, vidēbimus.
- Iubēris or iubēre, iubēs, laudābāris or laudābāre, laudābās.
- Movēberis or movēbere, movēbis, dabantur, dabant.
- Dēlentur, dēlent, parābāmur, parābāmus.
- We prepare, we are prepared, I shall be called, I shall call, you were carrying, you were being carried.
- I see, I am seen, it was being announced, he was announcing, they will order, they will be ordered.
- You will be killed, you will kill, you move, you are moved, we are praising, we are being praised.
- I am called, I call, you will have, you are cared for.
- They are seen, they see, we were teaching, we were being taught, they will move, they will be moved.
perseus andromedam servat
Per’seus and Androm’eda
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.
Perseus fīlius erat Iovis, maximī deorum. Dē eō multās fābulās nārrant poētae. Eī favent deī, eī magica arma et ālās dant. Eīs tēlīs armātus et ālīs frētus ad multās terrās volābat et mōnstra saeva dēlēbat et miserīs īnfirmīsque auxilium dabat.
Aethiopia est terra Africae. Eam terram Cēpheus regēbat. Eī Neptūnus, maximus aquārum deus, erat īrātus et mittit mōnstrum saevum ad Aethiopiam. Ibi mōnstrum nōn sōlum lātīs pulchrīsque Aethiopiae agrīs nocēbat sed etiam domicilia agricolārum delebat, et multōs virōs, fēminās, līberōsque necābat. Populus ex agrīs fugiēbat et oppida mūrīs validīs mūniēbat. Tum Cēpheus magnā trīstitiā commōtus ad Iovis ōrāculum properat et ita dīcit: “Amīcī mēī necantur; agrī meī vāstantur. Audī verba mea, luppiter. Dā miserīs auxilium. Age mōnstrum saevum ex patriā.”
- In the present the personal ending of the first person singular is -or.
- Iovis, the genitive of Iuppiter.
- Used substantively, the greatest. So below, 1. 4, miserīs and īnfirmīs are used substantively.
- Pronounce in two syllables, Cē'pheus.
- Eī, at him, dative with īrātus.
- The present is often used, as in English, in speaking of a past action, in order to make the story more vivid and exciting.