Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XXVI

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LESSON XXVI

VERBS IN -IŌ OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION • THE IMPERATIVE MOOD

. There are a few common verbs ending in -16 which do not belong to the fourth conjugation, as you might infer, but to the third. The fact that they belong to the third conjugation is shown by the ending of the infinitive. (Cf. §126.) Compare

audiō, audī're (hear), fourth conjugation
capiō, ca'pere (take), third conjugation

160. The present, imperfect, and future active indicative of capiō are inflected as follows:

capiō, capere, take

Pres. Stem cape-
Present Imperfect Future
Singular
1. ca´piō capiē´bam ca´piam
2. ca´pis capiē´bās ca´piēs
3. ca´pit capiē´bat ca´piet
Plural
1. ca´pimus capiēbā´mus capiē´mus
2. ca´pitis capiēbā´tis capiē´tis
3. ca´piunt capiē´bant ca´pient
1. Observe that capiō and the other -iō verbs follow the fourth conjugation wherever in the fourth conjugation two vowels occur in succession. (Cf. cap, aud ; capiunt, audiunt ; and all the imperfect and future.) All other forms are like the third conjugation. (Cf. capis, regis; capit, regit ; etc.)
2. Like capiō, inflect
faciō, facere, make, do
fugiō, fugere, flee
iaciō, iacere, hurl
rapiō, rapere, seize

161. The Imperative Mood. The imperative mood expresses a command; as, come! send! The present tense of the imperative is used only in the second person, singular and plural. The singular in the active voice is regularly the same in form as the present stem. The plural is formed by adding -te to the singular.

Conjugation Singular Plural
I. amā, love thou amā´te, love ye
II. monē, advise thou monē´te, advise ye
III. (a) rege, rule thou re´gite, rule ye
(b) cape, take thou ca´pite, take ye
IV. audī, hear thou audī´te, hear ye
sum (irregular) es, be thou este, be ye
1. In the third conjugation the final -ĕ- of the stem becomes -ǐ- in the plural.
2. The verbs dīcō, say; dūcō, lead; and faciō, make, have the irregular forms dīc, dūc, and fac in the singular.
3. Give the present active imperative, singular and plural, of veniō, dūcō, vocō, doceō, laudō, dīcō, sedeō, agō, faciō, mūniō, mittō, rapiō.
162.

EXERCISES

I.

  1. Fugient, faciunt, iaciēbat.
  2. Dēlē, nūntiāte, fugiunt.
  3. Venīte, dīc, faciētis.
  4. Dūcite, iaciam, fugiēbant.
  5. Fac, iaciēbāmus, fugimus, rapite.
  6. Sedēte, reperī, docēte.
  7. Fugiēmus, iacient, rapiēs.
  8. Reperient, rapiēbātis, nocent.
  9. Favēte, resiste, pārēbitis.
  10. Volā ad multās terrās et dā auxilium.
  11. Ego tēlā mea capiam et multās ferās dēlēbō.
  12. Quis fābulae tuae crēdet?
  13. Este bonī, puerī, et audīte verba grāta magistrī.

II.

  1. The goddess will seize her arms and will hurl her weapons.
  2. With her weapons she will destroy many beasts.
  3. She will give aid to the weak.[1]
  4. She will fly to many lands and the beasts will flee.
  5. Romans, tell[2] the famous story to your children.

Third Review, Lessons XVIII-XXVI, §§ 510-512

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References

  1. Plural. An adjective used as a noun. (Cf. §99. II. 3.)
  2. Imperative. The imperative generally stands first, as in English.