Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XXXI
PERFECT, PLUPERFECT, AND FUTURE PERFECT OF SUM
183. Principal Parts. There are certain parts of the verb that are of so much consequence in tense formation that we call them the principal parts.
In English the principal parts are the present, the past, and the past participle; as, go, went, gone; see, saw, seen, etc.
The principal parts of the Latin verb are the first person singular of the present indicative, the present infinitive, the first person singular of the perfect indicative, and the perfect passive participle.
184. Conjugation Stems. From the principal parts we get three conjugation stems, from which are formed the entire conjugation. We have already learned about the present stem, which is found from the present infinitive (cf. § 126. a). The other two stems are the perfect stem and the participial stem.
185. The Perfect Stem. The perfect stem of the verb is formed in various ways, but may always be found by dropping -ī from the first person singular of the perfect, the third of the principal parts. From the perfect stem are formed the following tenses:
- The Perfect Active Indicative
- The Pluperfect Active Indicative (English Past Perfect)
- The Future Perfect Active Indicative
All these tenses express completed action in present, past, or future time respectively.
186. The Endings of the Perfect. The perfect active indicative is inflected by adding the endings of the perfect to the perfect stem. These endings are different from those found in any other tense, and are as follows:
|Sing.||1. -ī, I
2. -istī, you
|Plur.||1. -imus, we|
2. -istis, you
187. Inflection of sum in the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative:
Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin, Perf. Indic. Prin. Parts sum esse fui Perfect Stem fu- siNGULAR Perfect plural ful, / have been, I was fu'imus, we have been, we were fuis'ti, you have been, you were fuis'tis, you have been, you were fu'it, he has been, he was fue'runt or fue're, they have been, they we7'e Pluperfect (Tense Sign -era-) fu'eram, / had been fuera'mus, we had been fu'eras, you had been fuera'tis, you had been fu'erat, he had been fu'erant, they had been Future Perfeci' (Tense Sign -eri-) fu'ero, / shall have been fue'rimus, we shall have been fu'eris, you will have been fue'ritis, you will have been f u'erit, he will have been f u'erint, they will have been
- 1. Note carefully the changing accent in the perfect.
- 2. Observe that the pluperfect may be formed by adding eram, the imperfect of sum, to the perfect stem. The tense sign is -erā-.
- 3. Observe that the future perfect may be formed by adding erō, the future of sum, to the perfect stem. But the third person plural ends in -erint, not in -erunt. The tense sign is -eri-.
- 4. All active perfects, pluperfects, and future perfects are formed on the perfect stem and inflected in the same way.
The Boys Titus, Marcus, and Quintus
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.
- M. Ubi fuistis, Tite at Quīnte?
- T. Ego in meō ludō fuī et Quintus in suō ludō fuit. Bonī puerī fuimus. Fuitne Sextus in vīcō hodiē?
- M. Fuit. Nūper per ōs proximōs fluviō properābat. Ibi is et Cornēlius habent nāvigium.
- T. Nāvigium dīcis ? Aliī nārrā eam fābulam!
- M. Vērō (Yes, truly), pulchrum et novum nāvigium!
- Q. Cuius pecūniā Sextus et Cornēlius id nāvigium parant ? Quis iīs pecūniam dat?
- M. Amīcī Cornēlī multum habent aurum et puer pecūniā nōn eget.
- T. Quō puerī nāvigābunt ? Nāvigābuntne longē ā terrā?
- M. Dubia sunt cōnsilia eōrum. Sed hodiē, crēdō, sī ventus erit idōneus, ad maximam īnsulam nāvigābunt. Iam anteā ibi fuērunt. Tum autem ventus erat perfidus et puerī magnō in perīculō erant.
- Q. Aqua ventō commōta est inimīca nautīs semper, et saepe perfidus ventus nāvigia rapit, agit, dēletque. Iī puerī, sī nōn fuerint maximē attentī, irātā aquā et validō ventō superābuntur et ita interficientur.
- Where had the boys been before? They had been in school.
- Where had Sextus been? He had been in a field next to the river.
- Who has been with Sextus to-day? Cornelius has been with him.
- Who says so? Marcus.
- If the wind has been suitable, the boys have been in the boat
- Soon we shall sail with the boys.
- There will be no danger, if we are (shall have been) careful
- Dative case. (Cf. § 109.)
- Ablative of means.
- The expletive there is not expressed, but the verb will precede the subject, as in English.
- This predicate adjective must be nominative plural to agree with we.