Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XXXII

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LESSON XXXII

THE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF THE FOUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS

190. Meanings of the Perfect. The perfect tense has two distinct meanings. The first of these is equivalent to the English present perfect, or perfect with have, and denotes that the action of the verb is complete at the time of speaking; as, I have finished my work. As this denotes completed action at a definite time, it is called the perfect definite.

The perfect is also used to denote an action that happened sometime in the past; as, I finished my work. As no definite time is specified, this is called the perfect indefinite. It corresponds to the ordinary use of the English past tense.

a. Note carefully the difference between the following tenses:

I

was finishing
used to finish

my work (imperfect, § 134)
I finished my work (perfect indefinite)
I have finished my work (perfect definite)

When telling a story the Latin uses the perfect indefinite to mark the different forward steps of the narrative, and the imperfect to describe situations and circumstances that attend these steps. If the following sentences were Latin, what tenses would be used?

“Last week I went to Boston. I was trying to find an old friend of mine, but he was out of the city. Yesterday I returned home.”

191. Inflection of the Perfect. We learned in § 186 that any perfect is inflected by adding the endings of the perfect to the perfect stem. The inflection in the four regular conjugations is then as follows:

Conj. I Conj. II Conj. III Conj. IV
amāvī monuī rēxī cēpī audīvī
I have loved
I loved
or
did love
I have advised
I advised
or
did advise
I have ruled
I ruled
or
did rule
I have taken
I took
or
did take
I have heard
I heard
or
did hear
Perfect Stems
amāv- monu- rēx- cēp- audīv-
Singular
1. amā´vī mo´nuī rē´xī cē´pī audī´vī
2. amāvis´ monuis´ rēxis´ cēpis´ audīvis´
3. amā´vit mo´nuit rē´xit cē´pit audī´vit
Plural
1. amā´vimus monu´imus rē´ximus cē´pimus audī´vimus
2. amāvis´tis monuis´tis rēxis´tis cēpis´tis audīvis´tis
3. amāvē´runt
or amāvē´re
monuē´runt
or monuē´re
rēxē´runt
or rēxē´re
cēpē´runt
or cēpē´re
audīvē´runt
or audīvē´re
1. The first person of the perfect is always given as the third of the principal parts. From this we get the perfect stem. This shows the absolute necessity of learning the principal parts thoroughly.
2. Nearly all perfects of the first conjugation are formed by adding -vī to the present stem. Like amavi inflect parāvī, vocāvī, cūrāvī, laudāvī.
3. Note carefully the changing accent in the perfect. Drill on it.

192. Learn the principal parts and inflect the perfects:

Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic.
dăre dedī give
dēleō dēlēre dēlēvī destroy
habeō habēre habuī have
moveō movēre mōvī move
pāreō pārēre pāruī obey
prohibeō prohibēre prohībuī restrain, keep from
videō vidēre vīdī see
dīcō dīcere dīxī say
discēdō discēdere discessī depart
dūcō dūcere dūxī lead
faciō facere fēcī make, do
mittō mittere mīsī send
mūniō mūnīre mūnīvī fortify
veniō venīre vēnī come
193.

Perseus and Andromeda (Continued)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290.

Cēpheus, adversā fortūnā maximē commōtus, discessit et multīs cum lacrimīs populō Aethiopiae verba ōrāculī nārrāvit. Fāta Andromedae, puellae pulchrae, ā totō populō dēplōrābantur, tamen nūllum erat auxilium. Deinde Cēpheus cum plēnō trīstitiae animō cāram suam fīliam ex oppidī portā ad aquam dūxit et bracchia eius ad saxa dūra revīnxit. Tum amīcī puellae miserae longē discessērunt et diū mōnstrum saevum exspectāvērunt.

Tum forte Perseus, ālīs frētus, super Aethiopiam volābat. Vīdit populum, Andromedam, lacrimās, et, magnopere attonitus, ad terram dēscendit. Tum Cēpheus eī tōtās cūrās nārrāvit et ita dīxit: “Pārēbō verbīs ōrāculī, et prō patriā fīliam meam dabō; sed sī id mōnstrum interficiēs et Andromedam servābis, tibi {to you) eam dabō.”

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