Latin for beginners (1911)/Part III/Lesson LXIV

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361. The perfect and the pluperfect subjunctive active are inflected as follows:

Conj. I Conj. II Conj. III Conj. IV
Perfect Subjunctive Active
  1. amā´verim
monu´erim rē´xerim cē´perim audī´verim
2. amā´veris monu´eris rē´xeris cē´peris audī´veris
3. amā´verit monu´erit rē´xerit cē´perit audī´verit
  1. amāve´rimus
monue´rimus rēxe´rimus cēpe´rimus audīve´rimus
2. amāve´ritis monue´ritis rēxe´ritis cēpe´ritis audīve´ritis
3. amā´verint monu´erint rē´xerint cē´perint audī´verint
Pluperfect Subjunctive Active
  1. amāvis´sem
monuis´sem rēxis´sem cēpis´sem audīvis´sem
2. amāvis´sēs monuis´sēs rēxis´sēs cēpis´sēs audīvis´sēm
3. amāvis´set monuis´set rēxis´set cēpis´set audīvis´set
  1. amāvissē´mus
monuissē´mus rēxissē´mus cēpissē´mus audīvissē´mus
2. amāvissē´tis monuissē´tis rēxissē´tis cēpissē´tis audīvissē´tis
3. amāvis´sent monuis´sent rēxis´sent cēpis´sent audīvis´sent

a. Observe that these two tenses, like the corresponding ones in the indicative, are formed from the perfect stem.

b. Observe that the perfect subjunctive active is like the future perfect indicative active, excepting that the first person singular ends 'I.'-m and not in .

c. Observe that the pluperfect subjunctive active may be formed by adding -issem, -issēs, etc. to the perfect stem.

d. In a similar way inflect the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive active of cūrō, iubeō, sūmō, iaciō, mūniō. 362. The passive of the perfect subjunctive is formed by combining the perfect passive participle with sim, the present subjunctive of sum.

Conj. I Conj. II Conj. III Conj. IV
Perfect Subjunctive Passive
1. amā´tus sim mo´nitus sim rēc´tus sim cap´tus sim audī´tus sim
2. amā´tus sīs mo´nitus sīs rēc´tus sīs cap´tus sīs audī´tus sīs
3. amā´tus sit mo´nitus sit rēc´tus sit cap´tus sit audī´tus sit
1. amā´tī sīmus mo´nitī sīmus rēc´tī sīmus cap´tī sīmus audī´tī sīmus
2. amā´tī sītis mo´nitī sītis rēc´tī sītis cap´tī sītis audī´tī sītis
3. amā´tī sint mo´nitī sint rēc´tī sint cap´tī sint audī´tī sint

363. The passive of the pluperfect subjunctive is formed by combining the perfect passive participle with essem, the imperfect subjunctive of sum.

Conj. I Conj. II Conj. III Conj. IV
Pluperfect Subjunctive Passive
1. amātus essem monitus essem rēctus essem captus essem audītus essem
2. amātus essēs monitus essēs rēctus essēs captus essēs audītus essēs
3. amātus esset monitus esset rēctus esset captus esset audītus esset
1. amātī essēmus monitī essēmus rēctī essēmus captī essēmus audītī essēmus
2. amātī essētis monitī essētis rēctī essētis captī essētis audītī essētis
3. amātī essent monitī essent rēctī essent captī essent audītī essent

a. In a similar way inflect the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive passive of cūrō, iubeō, sūmō, iaciō, mūniō.

364. The perfect and pluperfect subjunctive of the irregular verb sum are inflected as follows:

Perfect Pluperfect
fu´erim fue´rimus fuis´sem fuissē´mus
fu´eris fue´ritis fuis´sēs fuissē´tis
fu´erit fu´erint fuis´set fuis´sent

A substantive clause is a clause used like a noun, as,

That the men are afraid is clear enough (clause as subject)

He ordered them to call on him (clause as object)

We have already had many instances of infinitive clauses used in this way (cf. § 213), and have noted the similarity between Latin and English usage in this respect. But the Latin often uses the subjunctive in substantive clauses, and this marks an important difference between the two languages.

366. Rule. Substantive Clauses of Purpose. A substantive clause of purpose with the subjunctive is used as the object of verbs of commanding, urging, asking, persuading, or advising, where in English we should usually have the infinitive.



The general ordered the soldiers to run

Imperātor mīlitibus imperāvit ut currerent


He urged them to resist bravely

Hortātus est ut fortiter resisterent


He asked them to give the children food

Petīvit ut līberīs cibum darent


He will persuade us not to set out

Nōbīs persuādēbit nē proficīscāmur


He advises us to remain at home

Monet ut domī maneāmus

a. The object clauses following these verbs all express the purpose or will of the principal subject that something be done or not done. (Cf. § 348.)

367. The following verbs are used with object clauses of purpose. Learn the list and the principal parts of the new ones.

hortor, urge

imperō, order (with the dative of the person ordered and a subjunctive clause of the thing ordered done)

moneō, advise

petō, quaerō, rogō, ask, seek

persuādeō, persuade (with the same construction as imperō)

postulō, demand, require

suādeō, advise (cf. persuādeō)

N.B. Remember that iubeō, order, takes the infinitive as in English. (Cf. § 213.1.) Compare the sentences

Iubeō eum venīre, I order him to come

Imperō eī ut veniat, I give orders to him that he is to come

We ordinarily translate both of these sentences like the first, but the difference in meaning between iubeō and imperō in the Latin requires the infinitive in the one case and the subjunctive in the other.




  1. Petit atque hortātur ut ipse dicat.
  2. Caesar Helvētiīs imperāvit nē per prōvinciam iter facerent.
  3. Caesar nōn iussit Helvētiōs per prōvinciam iter facere.
  4. Ille civibus persuāsit ut dē finibus suis discēderent.
  5. Caesar principēs monēbit nē proelium committant.
  6. Postulāvit nē cum Helvētiīs aut cum eōrum sociīs bellum gererent.
  7. Ab iīs quaesīvī nē proficīscerentur.
  8. Iīs persuādēre nōn potuī ut domī manērent.


  1. Who ordered Cæsar to make the march? (Write this sentence both with imperō and with iubeō.)
  2. The faithless scouts persuaded him to set out at daybreak.
  3. They will ask him not to inflict punishment.
  4. He demanded that they come to the camp.
  5. He advised them to tell everything (omnia).

Note. Do not forget that the English infinitive expressing purpose must be rendered by a Latin subjunctive. Review § 352.}}

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