Latin for beginners (1911)/Part III/Lesson LXV

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search

LESSON LXV

THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF POSSUM • VERBS OF FEARING

369. Learn the subjunctive of possum (§ 495), and note especially the position of the accent.

370. Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing. We have learned that what we want done or not done is expressed in Latin by a subjunctive clause of purpose. In this class belong also clauses after verbs of fearing, for we fear either that something will happen or that it will not, and we either want it to happen or we do not. If we want a thing to happen and fear that it will not, the purpose clause is introduced by ut. If we do not want it to happen and fear that it will, is used. Owing to a difference between the English and Latin idiom we translate ut after a verb of fearing by that not, and by that or lest.

371.

EXAMPLES

timeō
timēbō
timuerō

ut

veniat
 
vēnerit

I fear, shall fear, shall have feared, that he will not come, has not come

timēbam
timuī
timueram

ut

venīret
 
vēnisset

I was fearing, feared, had feared, that he would not come, had not come

The same examples with instead of ut would be translated I fear that or lest he will come, hascome, etc.

372. Rule. Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing. Verbs of fearing are followed by a substantive clause of purpose introduced by ut (that not) or (that or lest). 373.

EXERCISES

I.

  1. Caesar verēbātur ut supplicium captīvōrum Gallīs placēret.
  2. Rōmānī ipsī magnopere verēbantur nē Helvētiī iter per prōvinciam facerent.
  3. Timēbant ut satis reī frūmentāriae mittī posset.
  4. Vereor ut hostium impetum sustinēre possim.
  5. Timuit nē impedīmenta ab hostibus capta essent. 6. Caesar numquam timuit nē legiōnēs vincerentur.
  6. Legiōnēs pugnāre nōn timuērunt.[1]

————————

References

  1. Distinguish between what one is afraid to do (complementary infinitive as here) and what one is afraid will take place or has taken place (substantive clause with the subjunctive).