Latin for beginners (1911)/Part III/Lesson LXV
THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF POSSUM • VERBS OF FEARING
369. Learn the subjunctive of possum (§ 495), and note especially the position of the accent.
370. Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing. We have learned that what we want done or not done is expressed in Latin by a subjunctive clause of purpose. In this class belong also clauses after verbs of fearing, for we fear either that something will happen or that it will not, and we either want it to happen or we do not. If we want a thing to happen and fear that it will not, the purpose clause is introduced by ut. If we do not want it to happen and fear that it will, nē is used. Owing to a difference between the English and Latin idiom we translate ut after a verb of fearing by that not, and nē by that or lest.
I fear, shall fear, shall have feared, that he will not come, has not come
I was fearing, feared, had feared, that he would not come, had not come
The same examples with nē instead of ut would be translated I fear that or lest he will come, hascome, etc.
372. Rule. Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing. Verbs of fearing are followed by a substantive clause of purpose introduced by ut (that not) or nē (that or lest). 373.
- Caesar verēbātur ut supplicium captīvōrum Gallīs placēret.
- Rōmānī ipsī magnopere verēbantur nē Helvētiī iter per prōvinciam facerent.
- Timēbant ut satis reī frūmentāriae mittī posset.
- Vereor ut hostium impetum sustinēre possim.
- Timuit nē impedīmenta ab hostibus capta essent. 6. Caesar numquam timuit nē legiōnēs vincerentur.
- Legiōnēs pugnāre nōn timuērunt.
- Distinguish between what one is afraid to do (complementary infinitive as here) and what one is afraid will take place or has taken place (substantive clause with the subjunctive).