Latin for beginners (1911)/Part III/Lesson LXVI

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LESSON LXVI

THE PARTICIPLES

374. The Latin verb has the following Participles:[1]

Conj. I Conj. II Conj. III Conj. IV

active

Present amāns
loving
monēns
advising
regēns
ruling
capiēns
taking
audiēns
hearing
Future amātūrus
about to love
monitūrus
about to advise
rēctūrus
about to rule
captūrus
about to take
audītūrus
about to hear

passive

Perfect amātus
loved, having been loved
monitus
advised, having been advised
rēctus
ruled, having been ruled
captus
taken, having been taken
audītus
heard, having been heard
Future[2] amandus
to be loved
monendus
to be advised
regendus
to be ruled
capiendus
to be taken
audiendus
to be heard
a. The present active and future passive participles are formed from the present stem, and the future active and perfect passive participles are formed from the participial stem.

b. The present active participle is formed by adding -ns to the present stem. In -iō verbs of the third conjugation, and in the fourth conjugation, the stem is modified by the addition of -ē-, as capi-ē-ns, audi-ē-ns. It is declined like an adjective of one ending of the third declension. (Cf. § 256.)

amāns, loving
Base

amant-

Stem

amanti-

Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. amāns amāns amantēs amantia
Gen. amantis amantis amantium amantium
Dat. amantī amantī amantibus amantibus
Acc. amantem amāns amantīs or -ēs amantia
Abl. amantī or -e amantī or -e amantibus amantibus

(1) When used as an adjective the ablative singular ends in ; when used as a participle or as a substantive, in -e.

(2) In a similar way decline monēns, regēns, capiēns, audiēns.

c. The future active participle is formed by adding -ūrus to the base of the participial stem. We have already met this form combined with esse to produce the future active infinitive. (Cf. § 206.)

d. For the perfect passive participle see § 201. The future passive participle or gerundive is formed by adding -ndus to the present stem.

e. All participles in -us are declined like bonus.

f. Participles agree with nouns or pronouns like adjectives.

g. Give all the participles of the following verbs: cūrō, iubeō, sūmō, iaciō, mūniō.

375. Participles of Deponent Verbs. Deponent verbs have the participles of the active voice as well as of the passive; consequently every deponent verb has four participles, as,

Pres. Act. hortāns, urging
Fut. Act. hortātūrus, about to urge
Perf. Pass. (in form) hortātus, having urged
Fut. Pass. (Gerundive) hortandus, to be urged

a. Observe that the perfect participle of deponent verbs is passive in form but active in meaning. No other verbs have a perfect active participle. On the other hand, the future passive participle of deponent verbs is passive in meaning as in other verbs.

b. Give the participles of cōnor, vereor, sequor, patior, partior.

376. Tenses of the Participle. The tenses express time as follows:

1. The present active participle corresponds to the English present active participle in -ing, but can be used only of an action occurring at the same time as the action of the main verb; as, mīlitēs īnsequentēs cēpērunt multōs, the soldiers, while pursuing, captured many. Here the pursuing and the capturing are going on together.

2. The perfect participle (excepting of deponents) is regularly passive and corresponds to the English past participle with or without the auxiliary having been; as, audītus, heard or having been heard.

3. The future active participle, translated about to, etc., denotes time after the action of the main verb.

377. Review §§ 203, 204, and, note the following model sentences:

  1. Mīlitēs currentēs erant dēfessī, the soldiers who were running (lit. running) were weary.
  2. Caesar profectūrus Rōmam nōn exspectāvit, Cæsar, when about to set out (lit. about to set out) for Rome, did not wait.
  3. Oppidum captum vīdimus, we saw the town which had been captured (lit. captured town).
  4. Imperātor trīduum morātus profectus est, the general, since (when, or after) he had delayed (lit. the general, having delayed) three days, set out.
  5. Mīlitēs vīctī terga nōn vertērunt, the soldiers, though they were conquered (lit. the soldiers conquered), did not retreat.

In each of these sentences the literal translation of the participle is given in parentheses. We note, however, that its proper translation usually requires a clause beginning with some conjunction (when, since, after, though, etc.), or a relative clause. Consider, in each case, what translation will best bring out the thought, and do not, as a rule, translate the participle literally. 378.

EXERCISES

I.

  1. Puer timēns nē capiātur fugit.
  2. Aquila īrā commōta avīs reliquās interficere cōnāta erat.
  3. Mīlitēs ab hostibus pressī tēla iacere nōn potuērunt.
  4. Caesar decimam legiōnem laudātūrus ad prīmum agmen prōgressus est.
  5. Imperātor hortātus equitēs ut fortiter pugnārent signum proeliō dedit.
  6. Mīlitēs hostīs octō milia passuum īnsecūtī multīs cum captīvīs ad castra revertērunt.
  7. Sōl oriēns multōs interfectōs vīdit. 8. Rōmānī cōnsilium audāx suspicātī barbaris sēsē nōn commīsērunt.
  8. Nāvis ē portū ēgressa nūllō in perīculō erat.

II.[3]

  1. The army was in very great danger while marching through the enemy’s country.
  2. Frightened by the length of the way, they longed for home.
  3. When the scouts were about to set out, they heard the shouts of victory.
  4. When we had delayed many days, we set fire to the buildings and departed.
  5. While living at Rome I heard orators much better than these.
  6. The soldiers who are fighting across the river are no braver than we.

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References

  1. The future passive participle is often called the gerundive.
  2. Review § 203.
  3. In this exercise use participles for the subordinate clauses.