Latin for beginners (1911)/Part III/Lesson LXXIV
VOCABULARY REVIEW • THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS
429. Review the word lists in §§ 517, 518.
430. When we report a statement instead of giving it directly, we have an indirect statement. (Cf. § 414.) So, if we report a question instead of asking it directly, we have an indirect question.
|Direct Question||Indirect Question|
|Who conquered the Gauls?||He asked who conquered the Gauls|
a. An indirect question depends, usually as object, upon a verb of asking (as petō, postulō, quaerō, rogō) or upon some verb or expression of saying or mental action. (Cf. § 420.)
431. Compare the following direct and indirect questions:
Quis Gallōs vincit?
Rogat quis Gallōs vincat
He asks who is conquering the Gauls
Rogavit quis Gallōs vinceret
He asked who was conquering the Gauls
Ubī est Rōma?
Rogat ubi sit Rōma
He asks where Rome is
Rogāvit ubi esset Rōma
He asked where Rome was
Caesarne Gallōs vīcit?
Rogat num Caesar Gallōs vīcerit
He asks whether Cæsar conquered the Gauls
Rogāvit num Caesar Gallōs vīcisset
He asked whether Cæsar had conquered the Gauls
a. The verb in a direct question is in the indicative mood, but the mood is subjunctive in an indirect question.
b. The tense of the subjunctive follows the rules for tense sequence.
c. Indirect questions are introduced by the same interrogative words as introduce direct questions, excepting thatyes-or-no direct questions (cf. § 210) on becoming indirect are usually introduced by num, whether.
432. Rule. Indirect Questions. In an indirect question the verb is in the subjunctive and its tense is determined by the law for tense sequence.
dē tertiā vigiliā, about the third watch
iniūriās alicui īnferre, to inflict injuries upon some one
facere verba prō, with the ablative, to speak in behalf of
in reliquum tempus, for the future
- Rēx rogāvit quid lēgātī postulārent et cūr ad sē vēnissent.
- Quaesīvit quoque num nec recentīs iniūriās nec dubiam Rōmānōrum amīcitiam memoriā tenērent.
- Vidētisne quae oppida hostēs oppugnāverint?
- Nōnne scītis cūr Gallī sub montem sēse contulerint?
- Audīvimus quās iniūrias tibi Germānī intulissent.
- Dē tertiā vigiliā imperātor mīsit hominēs quī cognōscerent quae esset nātūra montis.
- Prō hīs ōrātor verba fēcit et rogāvit cūr cōnsulēs nāvīs ad plēnem summī perīculī locum mittere vellent.
- Lēgātīs convocātīs dēmōnstrāvit quid fierī vellet.
- Nūntius referēbat quid in Gallōrum conciliō dē armīs trādendīs dictum esset.
- Moneō nē in reliquum tempus peditēs et equitēs trāns flūmen dūcās.
- What hill did they seize? I see what hill they seized.
- Who has inflicted these injuries upon our dependents?
- They asked who had inflicted those injuries upon their dependents.
- Whither did you go about the third watch? You know whither I went.
- At what time did the boys return home? I will ask at what time the boys returned home.