Latin for beginners (1911)/Part III/Lesson LXXV
VOCABULARY REVIEW • THE DATIVE OF PURPOSE, OR END FOR WHICH
435. Review the word lists in §§ 521, 522.
436. Observe the following sentences:
2. Hoc erat magnō impedīmentō Gallīs, this was (for) a great hindrance to the Gauls.
3. Duās legiōnēs praesidiō castrīs relīquit, he left two legions as (lit. for) a guard to the camp.
In each of these sentences we find a dative expressing the purpose or end for which something is intended or for which it serves. These datives are castrīs, impedīmentō, and praesidiō. In the second and third sentences we find a second dative expressing the person or thing affected (Gallīs and castrīs). As you notice, these are true datives, covering the relations of for which and to which. (Cf. § 43.)
437. Rule. Dative of Purpose or End. The dative is used to denote the purpose or end for which, often with another dative denoting the person or thing affected.
cōnsilium omittere, to give up a plan
locum castrīs dēligere, to choose a place for a camp
alicui magnō ūsuī esse, to be of great advantage to some one (lit. for great advantage to some one)
- Rogāvit cūr illae cōpiae relictae essent. Respondērunt illās cōpiās esse praesidiō castrīs.
- Caesar mīsit explōrātōrēs ad locum dēligendum castrīs.
- Quisque exīstimāvit ipsum nōmen Caesaris magnō terrōrī barbarīs futūrum esse.
- Prīmā lūce īdem exercitus proelium ācre commīsit, sed gravia suōrum vulnera magnae cūrae imperātōrī erant.
- Rēx respondit amīcitiam populī Rōmānī sibi ōrnāmentō et praesidiō dēbēre esse.
- Quis praeerat equitātuī quem auxiliō Caesarī sociī mīserant?
- Aliquibus rēs secundae sunt summae calamitātī et rēs adversae sunt mīrō ūsuī.
- Gallīs magnō ad pugnam erat impedīmentō quod equitātus ā dextrō cornū premēbat.
- Memoria prīstinae virtūtis nōn minus quam metus hostium erat nostrīs magnō ūsuī.
- Tam dēnsa erat silva ut prōgredī nōn possent.
- I advise you to give up the plan of making war upon the brave Gauls.
- Do you know where the cavalry has chosen a place for a camp?
- The fear of the enemy will be of great advantage to you.
- Cæsar left three cohorts as (for) a guard to the baggage.
- In winter the waves of the lake are so great that they are (for) a great hindrance to ships.
- Cæsar inflicted severe punishment on those who burned the public buildings.
VOCABULARY REVIEW • THE GENITIVE AND ABLATIVE OF QUALITY OR DESCRIPTION
440. Review the word lists in §§ 524, 525.
441. Observe the English sentences
(1) A man of great courage, or (2) A man with great courage
(3) A forest of tall trees, or (4) A forest with tall trees
Each of these sentences contains a phrase of quality or description. In the first two a man is described; in the last two a forest. The descriptive phrases are introduced by the prepositions of and with. In Latin the expression of quality or description is very similar. The prepositions of and with suggest the genitive and the ablative respectively, and we translate the sentences above
(1) Vir magnae virtūtis, or (2) Vir magnā virtūte
(3) Silva altārum arborum, or (4) Silva altīs arboribus
There is, however, one important difference between the Latin and the English. In English we may say, for example, a man of courage, using the descriptive phrase without an adjective modifier. In Latin, however, an adjective modifier must always be used, as above.
a. Latin makes a distinction between the use of the two cases in that numerical descriptions of measure are in the genitive and descriptions of physical characteristics are in the ablative. Other descriptive phrases may be in either case.
2. Homō magnīs pedibus et parvō capite, a man with big feet and a small head.
3. Rēx erat vir summā audāciā or rēx erat vir summae audāciae, the king was a man of the greatest boldness.
443. Rule. Genitive of Description. Numerical descriptions of measure are expressed by the genitive with a modifying adjective.
444. Rule. Ablative of Description. Descriptions of physical characteristics are expressed by the ablative with a modifying adjective.
445. Rule. Genitive or Ablative of Description. Descriptions involving neither numerical statements nor physical characteristics may be expressed by either the genitive or the ablative with a modifying adjective.
Helvētiīs in animō est, the Helvetii intend, (lit. it I.in mind to the Helvetians)
in mātrimōnium dare, to give in marriage
nihil posse, to have no power
fossam perdūcere, to construct a ditch (lit. to lead a ditch through)
- Mīlitēs fossam decem pedum per eōrum fīnīs perdūxērunt.
- Prīnceps Helvētiōrum, vir summae audāciae, prīncipibus gentium fīnitimārum sorōrēs in mātrimōnium dedit.
- Eōrum amīcitiam cōnfīrmāre voluit quō facilius Rōmānīs bellum īnferret.
- Germanī et Gallī nōn erant eiusdem gentis.
- Omnēs ferē Germānī erant magnīs corporum vīribus.
- Gallī qui oppidum fortiter dēfendēbant saxa ingentis magnitūdinis dē mūrō iaciēbant.
- Cum Caesar ab explōrātōribus quaereret quī illud oppidum incolerent, explōrātōrēs respondērunt eōs esse homines summā virtūte et magnō cōnsiliō.
- Moenia vīgintī pedum ā sinistrā parte, et ā dextrā parte flūmen magnae altitūdinis oppidum dēfendēbant.
- Cum Caesar in Galliam pervēnisset, erat rūmor Helvētiīs in animō esse iter per prōvinciam Rōmānam facere.
- Caesar, ut eōs ab fīnibus Rōmānis prohibēret, mūnītiōnem multa mīlia passuum longam fēcit.
- Cæsar was a general of much wisdom and great boldness, and very skillful in the art of war.
- The Germans were of great size, and thought that the Romans had no power.
- Men of the highest courage were left in the camp as (for) a guard to the baggage.
- The king’s daughter, who was given in marriage to the chief of a neighboring state, was a woman of very beautiful appearance.
- The soldiers will construct a ditch of nine feet around the camp.
- A river of great width was between us and the enemy.
- Subjunctive of purpose. (Cf. § 366.)
- Express by the genitive of the gerundive.
- Indirect question.
- A clause of result.
- gravis, -e.
- From vīs. (Cf. § 468.)
- Genitives and ablatives of description are adjective phrases. When we use an adverbial phrase to tell how long or how high or how deep anything is, we must use the accusative of extent. (Cf. § 336.) For example, in the sentence above multa mīlia passuum is an adverbial phrase (accusative of extent) modifying longam. If we should omit longam and say a fortification of many miles, the genitive of description (an adjective phrase) modifying mūnītiōnem would be used, as mūnītiōnem multōrum mīlium passuum.