Latin for beginners (1911)/Part III/Lesson LXXIX

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455. The gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these cases are I.general the same as those of other nouns (§§ 402; 406.1).

456. The gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of gerund + object, excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without a preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive construction is more usual (§ 406.2).

457. The infinitive is used: I.As in English.

a. As subject or predicate nominative (§ 216).

b. To complete the predicate with verbs of incomplete predication (complementary infinitive) (§ 215).

c. As object with subject accusative after verbs of wishing, commanding, forbidding, and the like (§ 213). II. In the principal sentence of an indirect statement after verbs of saying and mental action. The subject is in the accusative (§§ 416, 418, >419).

458. The subjunctive is used:

  1. To denote purpose (§§ 349, 366, 372).
  2. To denote consequence or result (§§ 385, 386).
  3. In relative clauses of characteristic or description (§ 390).
  4. In cum clauses of time, cause, and concession (§ 396).
  5. In indirect questions (§ 432).




  1. Caesar, cum pervēnisset, militēs hortābātur nē cōnsilium oppidī capiendi omitterent.
  2. Rēx, castrīs prope oppidum positīs, mīsit explōrātōrēs quī cognōscerent ubi exercitus Rōmanus esset.
  3. Nēmo relinquēbātur quī arma ferre posset.
  4. Nūntiī vīdērunt ingentem armōrum multitudinem dē mūrō in fossani iactam esse.
  5. Dux suōs trānsīre flūmen iussit. Trānsīre autem hoc flūmen erat difficillimum.
  6. Rōmānī cum hanc calamitātem molestē ferrant, tamen terga vertere recūsāvērunt.
  7. Hōc rūmōre audītō, tantus terror omnium animōs occupāvit ut nē fortissimī quidem proelium committere vellent.
  8. Erant quī putārent tempus annī idōneum nōn esse itinerī faciendō.
  9. Tam ācriter ab utraque parte pugnābātur ut multa mīlia hominum occīderentur.
  10. Quid timēs? Timeō nē Rōmānīs in animō sit tōtam Galliam superāre et nōbīs iniūriās inferre.


  1. Do you not see who is standing on the wall?
  2. We hear that the plan of taking the town has been given up.
  3. Since the Germans thought that the Romans could not cross the Rhine, Cæsar ordered a bridge to be made.
  4. When the bridge was finished, the savages were so terrified that they hid themselves.
  5. They feared that Cæsar would pursue them.
  6. Cæsar [1]asked the traders what the size of the island was.
  7. The traders advised him not [2]to cross the sea.
  8. He sent scouts [3]to choose a place for a camp.



  1. quaerere ab.
  2. Not infinitive.
  3. Use the gerundive with ad.