Latin for beginners (1911)/Part III/Lesson LXXVII

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448. There are four agreements:

1. That of the predicate noun or of the appositive with the noun to which it belongs (§§ 76, 81). 2. That of the adjective, adjective pronoun, or participle with its noun (§ 65). 3. That of a verb with its subject (§ 28). 4. That of a relative pronoun with its antecedent (§ 224).

449. The relation expressed by the genitive is, in general, denoted in English by the preposition of. It is used to express

1. Possession

a. As attributive (§ 38).

b. In the predicate (§ 409).

2. The whole of which a part is taken (partitive genitive) (§ 331).

3. Quality or description (§§ 443, <a href = "#sec445">445).

450. The relation expressed by the dative is, in general, denoted in English by the prepositions to or for when they do not imply motion through space. It is used to express

1. The indirect object

a. With intransitive verbs and with transitive verbs in connection with a direct object in the accusative (§ 45).

b. With special intransitive verbs (§ 154).

c. With verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, , in, inter, ob, post, prae, prō, sub, super (§ 426).

2. The object to which the quality of an adjective is directed (§ 143).

3. The purpose, or end for which, often with a second dative denoting the person or thing affected (§ 437).


The accusative case corresponds, in general, to the English objective. It is used to express

  1. The direct object of a transitive verb (§ 37).
  2. The predicate accusative together with the direct object after verbs of making, choosing, falling, showing, and the like (§ 392).
  3. The subject of the infinitive (§ 214).
  4. The object of prepositions that do not govern the ablative (§ 340).
  5. The duration of time and the extent of space (§ 336).
  6. The place to which (§§ 263, 266).




  1. Mīlitēs quōs vīdimus dīxērunt imperium bellī esse Caesaris imperātōris.
  2. Helvētiī statuērunt quam[1] maximum numerum equōrum et carrōrum cōgere.
  3. Tōtīus Galliae Helvētiī plūrimum valuērunt.
  4. Multās hōrās ācriter pugnātum est neque quisquam poterat vidēre hostem fugientem.
  5. Virī summae virtūtis hostīs decem mīlia passuum īnsecūtī sunt.
  6. Caesar populō Rōmānō persuāsit ut sē cōnsulem creāret.
  7. Victōria exercitūs erat semper imperātōrī grātissima.
  8. Trīduum iter fēcērunt et Genāvam, in oppidum[2] hostium, pervēnērunt.
  9. Caesar audīvit Germānōs bellum Gallīs intulisse.
  10. Magnō ūsuī mīlitibus Caesaris erat quod priōribus proeliīs sēsē exercuerant.


  1. One[3] of the king’s sons and many of his men were captured.
  2. There was no one who wished[4] to appoint her queen.
  3. The grain supply was always a care (for a care) to Cæsar, the general.
  4. I think that the camp is ten miles distant.
  5. We marched for three hours through a very dense forest.
  6. The plan [5]of making war upon the allies was not pleasing to the king.
  7. When he came to the hill he fortified it [6]by a twelve-foot wall.



  1. What is the force of quam with superlatives?
  2. urbs or oppidum, appositive to a name of a town, takes a preposition.
  3. What construction is used with numerals in preference to the partitive genitive?
  4. What mood? (Cf. § 390.)
  5. Use the gerund or gerundive.
  6. Latin, by a wall of twelve feet.