Le Morte d'Arthur/Volume II/Glossary
abashed, bent, lowered; cast down.
abate, cast down.
abiden, waited for.
abrayed, started up.
accord, ‘make at a.,’ reconcile.
accorded, agreed, reconciled.
adventure, peril, venture.
advice; ‘at mine a.,’ in my opinion.
advised him, deliberated with himself.
advision, avision, vision.
after, according to, afterwards.
again, against, towards.
againward, against, towards.
aknowe, acknowledge, know.
all day, always.
all out, altogether, quite.
almeryes, cupboards, chests.
alther, althers, of all; ‘our a.,’ of us all.
ancient men, old, aged men.
anguishly, full of anguish.
apparelled, furnished, appointed.
appel, accuse, bring to trial.
appelled, impeached, accused.
appertices, feats, dexterities.
a-purpose, on purpose.
armyvestal, (?) martial, fierce; or perhaps, solemn, grave (? earnestful, ‘arnystal’).
as, like, as if.
askance, sideways, indirectly, casually.
assay, try, essay, test.
assotted, besotted, doted on, infatuated.
at arms! to arms!
attaint, reached, come to.
a-two, in two, asunder.
avaunt, vaunt, boast.
aventred, couched (spoken of a spear).
avised, advised, prepared.
avoid, quit, leave.
avoided, left, sprang from.
avow, vow, acknowledge.
awke, backward, back-handed.
bain, bayne, bath.
barbican, an outwork of a fort.
barbs, (?) fences.
barget, small barge.
beamous = beaumes, trumpets.
be-bled, covered with blood.
become, gone, got to; ‘is b.,’ has got to.
begrip, grasp firmly.
behight, commanded, promised, threatened.
benome, taken from, robbed.
bereaved, taken from.
besaunte, a golden coin, so called because first coined at Byzantium or Constantinople.
beseek, seek earnestly.
beseemeth; ‘me b.’ it seems to me.
beseen, provided, appointed.
beset, set earnestly.
beskifte, thrust off, get rid of.
bestad, bestead, placed, situated; ‘hard b.,’ badly circumstanced, in hard plight.
betaken, handed over, intrusted.
betook, intrusted, commended, gave.
bisene, bysene, provided, appointed, apparelled.
bledde, covered with blood.
bobaunce, pride, pomp, bombast.
boistous, boisterous, cross-grained, rough.
boot, bote, remedy, avail.
borrowe, pledge, security.
bourgeoneth, blossoms, buds.
bow-draught, the distance a bow will carry.
boyshe, bush, bough.
boystous, boisterous, cross-grained, rough.
brast, burst, broke.
brawn, the thick muscular part of the flesh.
breathed, took breath, rested for breath.
breathed during, able to sustain breath.
brised, crushed, broke.
brose, a kind of broth or pottage.
bur, a broad ring just below the grip of a spear.
but as, but.
but if, except
by that, by the time
call, ‘let me c.,’ caused me to be called.
canel bone, collar-bone.
cantel, a small piece or portion of anything.
careful, full of care.
carracks, small ships.
cast, a set of loaves baked together.
cast; ‘I c. me,’ I resolve, I am determined.
casteth, is determined.
causeless, causelessly, without cause.
cease, cause to cease.
cedle, schedule, writing.
cere, to wrap in cere-clothes, waxed shrouds.
cered; ‘c. cloth of Raines’ (‘a town in Britayne’), waxed cloth, shroud.
chaflet, small platform.
charge, command, sentence.
cheer, entertainment, bearing, demeanour.
chrism, holy oil.
clave, did cleave,
clean, clene, quite, entirely, completely.
cleight, clutched, seized.
cleped, clyped, called.
clerk, scholar, cleric.
coif, head-covering, helmet, cap.
con, know, be able.
conceit, thought, knowledge.
conservant, wont to haunt.
cording, accord, agreement.
coronal, spear-head, circlet.
costed, kept in course (hunting-term).
couragest, dost encourage.
courtelage, garden or court-yard.
courteoust, most courteous.
cousin-germain, first cousin.
covert, reserved, in reserve.
covin, deceit, trickery.
credence, statement, report.
croft, grot, crypt.
cry; ‘let do c.,’ caused to be proclaimed.
cumbered, encumbered, hampered.
curteist, most courteous.
damage, loss, pity.
danger, daunger, dominion, power, domination.
dawed, sprinkled with water.
deal, act, part, settle.
defaded, faded away.
default, fault, want, need.
defend, prevent, forbid, refuse.
defoiled, overcome, shattered; slandered.
defouled, defiled, shattered.
dele, part, portion.
delibered, resolved, determined, deliberated.
deliverly, nimbly, quickly.
depart, divide, part.
departed, parted, divided.
devoided, left, quitted.
did do (write, etc.), caused to be (written, etc.).
discover, betray, disclose.
distained, sullied, disgraced.
do; ‘did d. make,’ caused to be made.
do off, doff, take off.
dole, sorrow, grief.
dole-making, giving vent to expressions of grief.
domage, damage, harm, injury.
done, put, caused; ‘d. to wit,’ caused to know.
doublet, close-fitting inner garment, upper garment of a man.
draughts, retiring-rooms, adjoining the main apartment.
dread, dreaded, feared.
dressed, got ready, directed, poised; pitched.
dretched, harassed, oppressed.
dretching, harassing, confusion.
dromoundes, vessels of war
dure, last, live.
duresse, hardship, durance.
dureth, lasts, remains.
eftures, inner part, chambers.
embattled, drawn up in battle array.
embushment, ambush, ambuscade.
enchafe, warm (by exercise).
enchafed, incited, heated.
endlong, the whole length of, along.
endure, last, hold out.
endured, lasted, remained.
eneled, anealed, received extreme unction.
enewed, tinted, shaded.
engine, engyn, ‘device,’ craft; ‘mal e.,’ evil craft.
errant knights, wandering knights.
erst, before, formerly.
estate, state, pomp, rank, condition.
evenlong, straight along.
every each, every one, each one.
expense, disbursement expenditure.
fain, glad, gladly, willingly.
faiter, deceiver, rogue.
fall, befall, chance, happen.
fallen, befallen, happened.
falslier, more falsely
fare; ‘made f.,’ behaved.
fare, condition, manner; act.
farne, fared, treated, conditioned.
fast, quickly; close, near.
fawte, fail, want.
ferd, became, behaved.
feute, track, scent.
feuter, a rest for the spear; fix the spear in rest.
feutred, fixed in rest, put in rest.
fiance, faith, assurance.
flang out, drew out quickly.
flayed off, stripped off.
flemyd, put to flight.
for, on account of, for fear of; because.
for that, because.
for why, because.
forbled, bled freely, lost a great deal of blood; exhausted.
force; ‘take no f.,’ make no account, care not; ‘no f.,’ no matter; ‘I take no f.,’ I take no heed, I care not.
fore-cast, pre-arranged, deliberate, premeditation.
forfared, ruined, perished utterly (for, intensive prefix).
forfoughten, worn out with fighting.
forhewn, hewn all to pieces.
forjousted, worn out in jousting.
forth days, far advanced in the day.
forthinketh; ‘me f.,’ it repenteth me I regret; I am sorry.
forthought, repented, was sorry.
forwounded, desperately wounded.
freshed, refreshed, laved
fulfilled, filled full.
gad, wedge-shaped instrument, graver.
gainest, most convenient, nearest.
garnished, provided, equipped, furnished.
gerfalcon, a kind of large hawk.
give; ‘give you that,’ adjudge.
gobbets, morsels, pieces.
God would, would to God.
governance, charge, care.
gramercy, great thanks.
grant mercy=grand merci, many thanks.
gree, prize, victory.
grisliest, most terrible.
guerdonless, without reward.
gysarme, bill, battle-axe.
habergeon, armour to defend the neck and breast.
halp, did help, helped.
harbingers, preparers of the lord's lodgings.
harbour, harbourage, shelter.
harbour, seek shelter.
harboured, sheltered, lodged.
hard; ‘in like h.,’ with equal hardihood; in the same hard way.
harder, stronger, more mature.
hardiness, hardihood, bravery, valour.
harnessed, adorned, armoured.
hauberk, coat of mail.
haut, high, noble.
heaviness sorrow, sadness.
heavy, sad, sorrowful; sadden.
hete, command, promise, word.
hight, was called.
hilled, wrapped, enveloped, covered.
hold, endure, resist.
holden, beholden; held, made.
hough bone, the back part of the knee-joint.
houseled, having received the eucharist, shrived.
houselled, shrived, given absolution.
hove, hover, tarry.
hoving, moving, hovering.
hurtled, clashed, dashed against.
incensed, sprinkled as incense.
infellowship, go into the company.
inly, intensely, deeply-dyed.
intent, purpose, intention.
jape, jest, jeer.
japes, jests, jeers.
jeopard, jeopardise, put in jeopardy.
jesseraunce, cuirass of mail.
jousts (commonly for ‘joust’), encounter on horseback.
keep; ‘took no k.,’ took no heed.
kirtle, upper garment, tunic.
knowledging, knowledge, cognisance.
lapped, wrapped, folded.
laton, a mixed metal, a kind of brass or bronze.
lay, song; lodged.
lazar-cote, leper’s hut.
learys, leres, cheeks, faces.
led, was led by.
leman, lover, mistress.
let, hinder, prevent; hindered, prevented.
lewd, unlearned, ignorant.
lie, lodge, dwell.
lief, dear, welcome; gladly, willingly.
liefer, lever, more dear.
liefer, more gladly; rather.
liefest, most gladly, rather.
life; ‘led their l.,’ spent their time.
light, alight; lighten.
list, desire, inclination.
long; ‘or it be l. to,’ ere long.
long on, along of, because of.
long upon, on account of, along of.
look, give heed, take care.
loos, renown, praise.
lowe (?), hill.
lusk idle lout.
lust, desire, inclination.
lymme-meale, limb by limb.
mails, coats of mail.
makeles, without a match, peerless.
maker, author, writer.
march, to border on.
marches, borders, frontiers.
marvelloust, most marvellous
matchecold, furnished with projecting galleries.
maugre, spite, ill-will; in spite of.
maugre mine head, despite my wishes.
me list, it pleases me; I please.
measle, feverous disease.
meddle, fight, do battle.
medled, mingled, mixed.
meseemeth, it seems to me.
minever, a kind of greyish fur.
mischief, harm, injure.
mischieved, harmed, injured.
miscomfort, discomfort, dismay.
misdid, acted wrongly.
misdone, done amiss.
mishapped, chanced by mishap.
missay, abuse, revile.
more, greater, moreover.
more liker, more like,
motes, notes on a horn or trumpet
mountenance, amount, space, duration.
much, big, great.
near, nearly, almost.
nere, were it not.
new-fangle, fond of taking up new things.
neysshe, soft, tender.
nill, will not.
nilt, wilt not.
noblesse, nobility, nobleness.
noise, rumour, fame, report.
nold=ne wold, would not.
noseling, on his nose, head-long.
noyous, hurtful, noxious.
nys, is not.
nyst=ne wist, knew not.
obeissance, sway, dominion.
of, for, by, on, at, from.
one, alone, singly.
only; ‘all o.,’ alone.
or, ere, before.
or ever, before.
ordain, order, arraign, appoint.
ordained, arranged, ordered, appointed, prepared.
ordinance, order, array.
other else, or else.
ought, owned, possessed, belonged.
outrageousness, excessive violence.
overlong, the length of.
overthwart, across; adverse circumstance.
owe, possess, am obliged to.
oweth, owns, possesses.
parage, lineage, rank.
paramours, lovingly, par amour.
pardie, par Dieu.
pareil, equal, like.
parters, those who parted the knights.
party, part, side.
passed, passed judgment; surpassed.
passing, surpassing, exceedingly.
periloust, most perilous.
peron, tombstone, monument.
piece, vessel of silver.
piliers, robbers, plunderers.
play, recreate, pass the time, disport.
plomb, plumb, block.
point, tag, lace.
pointling, aiming at.
potestate, chief magistrate.
pounte, pont, bridge.
prise, a note on the horn in hunting.
promise; ‘my p.,’ i.e. the promise made to me.
puissance, power, might.
pyked, stole, went off secretly.
quest, search, inquiry, inquest.
questing, chasing, barking.
quick, alive, living.
quit, requite, acquit; requited.
raced, rased, cut.
raced off, smote off.
range; ‘fetch his r.,’ take up his position.
ransack, search thoroughly.
rased off, cut off.
rash, rase, slash, cut (particularly applied to the stroke given by a boar).
raundon, onrush, force, violence.
rechate, the calling back of the hounds.
rehearse, relate, enumerate.
rehearsed, enumerated, related.
reigned on, reigned over.
remembered himself, reminded himself, remembered.
repenteth; ‘me r.’ I am sorry, I regret.
require, entreat, demand.
resemblaunt, semblance, appearance.
retrayed, drew back.
rights, necessities; points.
rivage, side of a stream.
rived, tore asunder.
roted, practised, skilled.
rove, split, tore.
rownsepyk, a tree beginning to decay at the top from age.
sacring, taking of the sacrament.
samite, a rich silk stuff, often interwoven with gold or silver threads.
Sangreal, Holy Grail.
saunce, sans, without.
scathe, injure, harm.
semblable, comparable, equal.
sendal, sendel, a kind of rich, thin silken stuff.
sennight, seven nights, a week.
set, beset; appoint.
sewer-chief, chief of the serving-men.
shaftmon, ‘a measure from the top of the extended thumb to the other end of the extended palm,’ about six inches.
shende, put to shame.
shenship, disgrace, ruin, shame.
shent, discomfited, destroyed, hurt.
Sher-Thursday, Thursday before Easter.
shove, pushed, thrust, drove along.
shrew, wicked person.
shrewd, wicked, malicious.
shriven, confessed; do penance.
siege, seat, place.
slake, slaken, diminish.
spere, inquire, find out.
speryd, sperd, fastened.
stablished, established, fixed.
stale, state, station, position.
stark, gross, absolute; severe, thoroughly.
start, sterte, started, sprang.
stered, moved, stirred.
steven, appointed meeting; opportunity.
steven, voice, sound.
stint, cease; ceasing; make to cease.
stinted, caused to cease.
stoned, battered, crushed.
stonied, became stunned.
straight, close, strict, closely confined.
strake, to give a quick blow.
strait, strict, straightened, at close quarters.
straitiy, strictly, strongly.
stuff, to store with all necessaries.
stuff, victual, garrison.
subtil, clever, deft.
sufferance, will, allowance.
swang out, drew out sharply.
sworn brother, close companion.
swough, sough, sound, noise.
syker, secure, sure.
take, betake, go, give.
tamed, battered, crushed.
tatches, defects, qualities, dispositions.
that, that which.
thilk, that same.
thrang, pressed forward.
threst, did thrust.
throughout, through, thoroughly.
thrulled, thrilled, pierced.
thwart, athwart, across.
time; ‘by t.,’ betimes.
to-beat, beat all to pieces (to intensive prefix).
to-brast, burst, broke to pieces.
to-drive, urged along, hastened to ruin.
to-hewed, hewed all to pieces.
tokening, token; betokening.
tomorn, to-morrow morning.
took keep, took note.
to-riven, torn to pieces.
to-rove, broke to pieces.
to-shivered, shivered to pieces,
toward, ready to help.
traitorlier, more treacherously.
trapped, adorned with trappings.
trappours, trappings, ornaments
trase trace, check, harass (a hunting term for checking the dogs when too forward).
traverse, ‘at t.,’ across.
traversed, ran across.
trenchant, cutting, sharp.
trest, trysting-place, hunting-station.
troth-plight, plighted troth.
truage, homage, tribute.
trussed, packed, bundled.
umbecast, cast about.
umberere, that part of the helmet which shades the eyes.
uncouth, strange, not akin.
undertook, tried, ventured, attacked.
undorne, the time from nine to twelve o’clock in the morning; meal-time.
unnethe, unnethes, scarcely.
until, unto, to.
unware, unwary, unprepared.
unwimpled, unveiled, uncovered.
unwrast, wrested free.
usance, use, custom.
useth, is accustomed.
utas, the eighth day, or the space of eight days, after any festival.
utterance, utmost; ‘to the u.,’ à l’outrance, to the utmost, to the last.
ventails, holes for letting in air.
villain, serf, churl, peasant.
void, empty, spare.
voided, caused to fall off; empty, free.
waited, watched, observed, looked.
warn, prevent, forbid.
watched, kept awake.
way-leading (?), leading away.
wayte, take care, watch, observe.
weed, garment, attire.
weenedst, didst think.
weenest, dost think.
welde, possess, hold.
weltered, rolled about, grovelled.
what so, whatsoever.
whereby, why, wherefore.
whether, which of the two, either.
wide-where, far and wide.
wight, brave, valiant.
wildsome, savage, wild.
wind, to render scant of wind.
with-hold, hold against, be hostile; retain.
withholden, retained, held.
woe worth, evil befall, evil be to.
won up, struggled up.
wonderly, exceedingly, wonderfully.
wont, accustomed, used.
woodly, madly, wildly.
wood-shaw, wood, thicket.
worshipfully and manly, in an honourable and manly way.
worts, roots, herbs.
wot, I know.
wrake, ruin, destruction; injury.
wrung, twisted about.
yede, yode, went.
yolden, yielded, surrendered.