Learned: Tico Brahæ his astronomicall coniectur of the new and much admired * which appered in the year 1572
Learned: Tico Brahæ his Astronomicall
Coniectur of the new and much Admired *
Which Appered in the year 1572
Non Haberi Sed Esse
EFFIGIES TYCHONIS BRAHE OTTONIDIS DANI
DNI DE KNVDSTRVP ET ARCIS VRANIENBVRG IN
INSVLA HELLISPONTI DANICI HVENNA Ætatissuce 40 Anno
Printed at London by BA and TF for
Michaell [Sparke] and Samuell Nealand 1632
The Epistle Dedicatorie.
The High and Mighty Emperour,
RVDOLPHVS the II.
The Preface of the Heyres to
AN Orphant Worke (most mighty Emperour) we doe now present unto the view of your Sacred Maiesty, and doe dedicate it to your renowned name, being the Astronomicall exercises of our Parent of late approved memory, which by the leysurable studies of the Author are increased to so large a volume, that so they may be more commodious to Posterity, than the bare title of Exercises doth promise. For if ever HORACES Law were observed, it is in this Booke, which commeth forth after Three times nine yeares are expired. For when our Parent at the first, had onely purposed to treat in this Booke of that wonderfull new Starre, which was seene in the yeare of seventy two, and diligently to examine the opinions of others concerning the same, and had begun to print it at Vraniburg, (all things go-
ing forward according to his owne desire) it happened in the mean time, that he began to make a new and exact description of the course of the Sunne, and to assigne and point out the severall places of the fixed Starres, even to halfe a minute, according to their Latitude and Longitude, and lastly to search out the intricate motions of the Moone, all which at length be performed, and hate heere added to this Volume; so that we may truly affirme, that this Booke in respect of the worthinesse of the matter, deserveth a more famous title, than to be called Astronomicall exercises. How difficult it was to performe, in respect that things lay deeply hidden, and therefore required the more labour to find out, having beene before in paine attempted by others in former ages, I leave to their consideration, that have any the least knowledge in Astronomy. Now this incomparable labour, which is above the envy of malevolent persons, seeing that our Parent in the last yeares of his life, together with his other studies, hath devoted to your sacred Maiestie, we therefore his surviving heyres, having Printed it after his decease, doe now most humbly offer it to your Highnesse: Which wee have done to the end, that we might give an account of his studies to the chiefe Monarch of the Christian world, and might take away all occasion of detraction from the envious, whom eyther their owne malitious natures have stirred up against him, or their evill dispositions and ignorance have so corrupted and blinded their iudgments, that they should thinke it all lost, which was bestowed on these royall Sciences; which was very little, in respect of that which was necessary, and in regard of the honour and glory which redoundeth from thence. But in this Complaint, the most learned and excellent men of all ages, may
beare us copany, who were envyed while they lived. Since no age hath wanted some who with ARISTIPPVS and EPICVRVS, have disdained Mathematicall learning as vaine and idle, and have hated the Professors thereof with more than barbarous malice. Neverthelesse, most mighty Emperor, we being held up and sustained by the authority of your Imperiall Maiesty, who are placed on the highest Pinacle of honour, have no reason to regard the envy of others. But have cause not to dispise such idle censures, and call to minde the examples of your Maiesties Ancestors; namely, ALPHONSVS King of Aragon and Castell, ALBERTVS of Austria, FREDERICK, CHARLES the fifth, and the like, who were all favourers of this noble study, and did extend their munificence and bounty to the professors thereof. For (that I may instance one of many) who could be more magnificent than ALPHONSVS, who out of his owne praise-worthy and memorable bounty, did bestow upon the Tables of the Cœlestiall motions, above fodre hundred thousand Ducats. Notwithstanding the Aristippusses of our time, doe thinke it might better have beene bestowed on sports and idle pleasures. But yet these men doe not consider that ALPHONSVS by this meanes hath gotten to himselfe everlasting glory, while the fame of other Kings is buried in obscurity. But yet how lame and defective are these costly Tables! And not to be compared with the labours of our Parent. Because they never made any observation from the HEAVENS, but by comparing the observations of the ancients, and noting the Progresse of the Starres, they have pacthed up this bundle of Tables. This defect divers learned men have endeavoured to supply, and especially the most famous COPERNICVS, who yet was
much hindred by wanting fit Instruments, so that hee could not attaine to his desire, although he hath more perfectly rectified the motions than any of his Predecessors. Wherefore with confident modesty we dare affirme, that our Parene hath excelled all the Astronomers of former ages, in the accurate restoring of the motions, and that neyther any King or Prince except ALPHONSVS, hath bestowed so much upon Astronomy, so that he did not onely employ his whole Revenewes, arising from his Lands and offices which he held under the King of Denmarke, but also of his owne proper stocke, he layd out aboue a hundred thousand Thaleri. But when after the death of this praise-worthy King, the charges grew so great, that he was almost tyred therwith, being sent for out of his Country by your Maiesties command, he endeavored to make the Tables of the Cœlestiall motions dedicated to RVDOLPHVS, to exceed the Tables of ALPHONSVS and COPERNICVS, that so your Maiesty (having promised to helpe him in the charges thereof Astronomy might live by your Maiesties liberality, and your Maiesties name might live eternally by Astronomy. When having thus intended to doe, God tooke him away both in the middle of his age and Worke, to the great hinderance of Learning, and the losse of us his heyres. Now therefore, that we may benefit Posterity, whereof we ought to have especiall regard, we beseech your Maiesty by the holy rites of Vrania the heavenly Muse, that you would not in these troublesome times of Warre, neglect the opportunity of gaining eternall praise, by finishing those Tables, which albeit they require some charge, yet it is a worke that may well beseeme your Imperiall Maiesty. For as the Poet said, Sint Mæjenates, non dierunt, Flacce, Marones.
So we may say, that if we could have such Patrons as ALBERTVS, FREDERICK, and CHARLES the Great, there will not be wanting such, who will cheerefully undertake this labour, and finish that which remaineth. Whereby we dare promise, that your Maiestie by rectifying the study of Astronomy, shall gaine perpetuall fame and glory, which shall continue as long as the Starres endure. And so to conclude this our Dedication, wee commend your most sacred Maiesty to the Protection of Almighty God, and our selves as beeing the heyres of TYCHO BRAHE to your Maiesties protection. From Prague the day before the Calends of August, in the yeare of Christ, 1602.
Your Majesties most obedient Servants
The Heyres of
THE TRANSLATOVR TO THE READER
THis Books like to a Commet will appeare
For to be gaz'd at in the following yeare,
Which though *[t 1] in time perhaps it come behind,
Yet heere the Reader shall most amply find
Renowned TYCHO's owne Prognostication'
Of the new Starre in this same new Translation,
Whereof a Learned and most grave Divine
Hath made some observations for this Time.
But wee make TYCHO speake even word for word.
Yet with that leave which *[t 2] HORACE doth afford,
Who thinkes it merits a Translators name
To change the wordes, and yet the sence retaine,
For this same Starre it selfe before did shroud
Within the Latine, hid as in a Cloud,
But now it is unvayl'd, and heere in sight
It shineth forth againe, as cleere and bright
As when it first appeared in the Skie,
And was the object of each wandring Eye.
*[t 3] Astrologie is but the speech of Starres,
Which doe fore-tell vs both of Peace and Warres,
And by this Starre great TYCHO did intend
To shew the World was comming to an end.
It was no nine dayes wonder, but, shall last
Vntill old *[t 4] Cronos with his Sythe be past,
And all thinges bee into a Chaos hurl'd,
And that an end doe come upon the World:
The thought whereof, should still a motive bee
To make vs thinke on our Eternitie.
Mens super astra valet.
V. V. S.
- Tempore posterior.
- Nec verbum verbo curabis reddere, fidus Interpres.
- Astrologie is a word compounded of [?] and λογία, signifying; The speech of the Starres.
- * Or Time.
An Elogie made and written by
IAMES the VI. King of Scots, in
Commendation of TYCHO BRAHE
his Workes, and
QV am temerè est ausus Phaëton, vel praestat Apollo
Qui regit ignivomos Æthere anhelus equos.
Plus TYCHO; cuncta astra regis: tibi cedit Apollo
Charus & Vraniae es hospes, alumnus, amor.
WHat Phaeton dar'd, was by Apollo done
Who rul'd the fiery Horses of the Sunne.
More TYCHO doth; hee rules the Starres above
And is Vrania's Favorite, and Love.
LEARNED Ticho Brahe his Propheticall Conclusion of the New and much admired Starre of the North, 1572.
Ticho Brahe his Propheticall Con-
clusion of the New and much admired
Starre of the North,
Translated according to his Originall Astronomi-
THat which I intended to deliver to posterity, concerning the New and admirable Starre which appeared in the yeare 1572. in the beginning of November, and neare unto the Constellation of Cassiopeae, I have now finished, and by Gods assistance (from whom wee acknowledge all things to bee received) brought it to a desired end. And I thinke that in those things which I have propounded and explained, no materiall point is omitted, having taken such paines in finding out the truth, and clearing it from the pollutions of error, that all those who understand the Mathematickes, and will
consider of things with a sincere judgment, shall find no occasion eyther to doubt or contradict.
But yet to the end that those things which I purposed to divulge concerning this strange and wonderfull Starre, being written according to the Rules of Astronomy, and compared with other mens opinions, might attaine to the greater perfection; I thought it meet in the former part of this Booke, to intreat of some things in generall, thereby to lay a ground-worke, not onely to the Explanation of this Starre, but also to the whole Science of Astronomy.
Therefore in the first two Chapters, we have handled all matters appertaining to the exact rectifying and renewing of the course of the Sunne, & of the Moone his Sister, according to their own motions in the Heavens. After this, I have described no lesse than eight hundred of the fixed Starres, and have assigned them their severall places, according to their Longitude and Latitude. For by that amiable bright morning and evening Starre of Venus, wee have set forth by many approved trials, the limits of the fixed Starres, in respect of the Æquinoctiall points, and have added to these all the other chiefe Starres, which doe appeare neare the Zodiacke: and so at last we discended to the rectification of the Starres belonging to the Constellation of Cassiopea, the knowledge whereof, we knew would availe much to our present purpose. And now albeit, the performance hereof in due manner required more study and labour, then the unexperienced can judge, who are ready to alledge that I have tooke more paines
in searching out and declaring the nature of this Starre according to the fundamentall Rules of Astronomie, then indeed was necessary. Yet to the end, that some solid and certaine truth might bee knowne concerning this unusuall appearance, I thought fit to lay a sound and firme foundation to build upon, which could not be performed without the rectification of the course of the Sunne, and the fixed Starres.
So that I doubt not, but I shall obtaine pardon of those which will consider things with an equall and favorable judgement; But if I seeme to have heaped divers matters together, in more ample manner, than the proper attributes of this Starre did require, I have done it to that end, that so I might profit the whole Art of Astronomy, and might vindicate it from divers faults as occasion was offered; for which I hope I shall rather deserve thankes, than the envie of those which are studious of this Sublime Science. And moreover this Starre, of which I purposed chiefly to intreat, albeit it were ascitious and chanceable; yet because it shined forth most miraculously, and contrary to the Lawes of Nature, even in the highest Firmament, like to the other Naturall Starres, and stood there fixed and immoveable for the space of a whole yeare and more, it seemed fit that some diligent paines should be taken, in considering and unfolding the circumstances belonging thereunto.
Besides, we shall alwayes gratefully acknowledge the labour of Hypparchus; who with great diligence hath noted out unto us, the places of all the Starres
which are seene in the Eight Sphære, which hee hath left unto us by his Will, by the occasion onely of one new Starre which was seene in his time, although it is likely that it was not to be copared with that which appeared in our dayes, neither in magnitude, nor shining brightnesse, not yet in the duration, and continuance thereof.
For albeit, it shined without a taile or any scattered beames, (for then it had beene a Comet) yet neverthelesse it might be likened to some of those appearances, which are beheld in the forme of obscure starres without any streaming beard at all, and so doe exercise some proper motion, as that did which was seene in the yeare 1585. But howsoever, it doth not repent us of our labour which we have bestowed, according as our time and leysure would permit us; in asmuch as we trust that those things which we have delivered will be much availeable, not onely to point out the due place and position of this novell Starre, but also of all the other starres in the firmament, and likewise for the exact measuring of the course of the Planets. For if our Ancestors had used that diligence which they ought to have done, in decyphering the motions of the Sunne, and in rectifying the true places of the fixed starres according to their Longitude and Latitude, we might then have spared that labour, which we bestowed in the two first Chapters, and might presently have declared those things which concerned the Starre it selfe, whose description we had undertaken. Therefore, I thought it fit to prefixe some observations concerning the Sunne, the Moone, and the fixed
starres; because we shall have occasion to mention them hereafter.
Now in the other part of this Booke, I have faithfully and accurately exhibited out of our owne observations, these things which properly appertaine to this new Starre, and after that I had declared these observations which could be gathered eyther by ocular animadversion, or by the extrinsecall adjuncts thereunto belonging, I have also set downe the forme and use of those Instruments, that so the certainty thereof might appeare. After this, I demonstrated the very place of the Starre, in respect of the Eclipticke, and Equator, and by working of the small divisions, at last reduc'd them into whole numbers. And so passing to the unfolding of the Paralax, I have cleerely prooved by divers invincible reasons that it had none at all, and that it was exalted, not onely above the Elementary Region, and the confines of the Moone, but farre beyond the Orbes of the Planets, even to the highest Spheare of the fixed starres, and so at last I have measured his true magnitude, and that I might the more truly compare it both to the Earth, and to the Celestial bodies, I have also prescribed the orders, and quantities of the Planets, and fixed starres, according as they are placed in the Heavens, though somewhat different from my Predecessors in the same kinde.
Lastly, in the third Partition, I have compared the opinions of other men concerning this matter, and have examined them by the Touchstone of truth.
And first, I have shewed their consents, who in
this did agree with us, that this Starre did admit of no Particular; and next their assertions, who did attribute unto it some diversitie of aspect, yet not so great as to make it sublunary. In the third place, I have searched out their suppositions, who have determined nothing Mathematically concerning it, but have brought in some absurd coniectures farre differing from the truth; namely, that it was not a new Starre, but that it received an accidentall light from some of the old Starres, while some againe indeavored to thrust it out of the Heavens, and to place it nearer the Moone, have drawne it downe to the Æthereall Element. And so in the three last Chapters, I have weighed their opinions who have eyther come neere unto the truth, or wadred fro it concerning this new Starre, which I have done, that so the truth might appeare and shine forth, more clearely, and not by flattery to obtaine the favour of any one, by reciting their opinions, who have iudged somewhat neare the matter, nor yet to enveigh against those who have produced strange conceits very wide from the purpose; but I have onely tooke care, that the truth might not be violated in any thing, but have endeavoured to suppresse their boasting endeavours, who eyther through ignorance, or wilfulnesse have opposed themselves against it, and have openly reiected and confuted their erronious opinions. For so the truth shall bee more easily brought to light, not onely by inducing probable conceits, but also by removing contrary and erronious supponsions.
But when I consider with my selfe, how many vaine opinions there have beene concerning this Starre, both in respect of his scituation and distance from the Earth (when yet they were more easie to be found out, in regard of the immobilitie of the Starre, and in that it appeared alwayes aboue the Horizon, than in Commets which are alotted some motion) I doe not so much wonder at it, seeing not onely the motions of the Starres are not hitherto declared in such an accurate manner as is fitting; but also, that there doe so many questions and controversies arise in Philosophy and Divinity.
For if that which plainely appeared to the sight, and might easily be measured and demonstrated Geometrically by fit Instruments, was yet subject to so great variety and difference of Iudgements: how much more those things which are not discernable by the senses, nor subject to humaine industry, but are so full of doubts and perplexities, that truth (which is alwayes but one, as the center in the Circie) is very hardly or never found out. Hence arises so great a confusion of opinions in every Science, and divers severall questions are discussed, not onely in naturall Philosophy, but also in Divine and Morall matters, that it is hard to find out, and firmely to establish any certainty, which may bee equall to Geometricall demonstrations, or which cannot bee contradicted. Such are the blind apprehension of mans nature, and in such a darknesse of error doe we spend our dayes heere on Earth. And therefore
moved by these considerations, I have illustrated and discovered whatsoever I thought did belong to the consideration of the unusuall Starre, both by declaring the true nature thereof, as also by detecting the errours of divers and sundry Writers: Now there remaineth yet two other questions to bee unfolded, whereof the one is Physicall, concerning the matter and procreation of this Starre; the other Astrologicall, concerning the effects and signification thereof, whereof I purposed not to intreat seriously, or by way of iudiciall divination to set downe any certainty in this present Worke, in as much as they are not subiect to the senses nor to any Geometriall demonstration, but are onely grounded upon probable coniectures, and not on Mathematicall Principles: Yet neverthelesse, because many doe desire a Physicall and Prognosticall explanation of this Starre, and are very desirous to see them set forth, especially, the latter: therefore for the satisfaction of their minds, I will declare my opinion concerning this Starre, but yet with this caution; that those things which I shall disclose are not to be compared in respect of their indubitable certainty, with that which I have propounded demonstratively in the former part of my Booke; for these Prognostick matters are grounded onely upon conjecturall probabilitie. Therefore I will not insist long upon them, but speake of them as briefely as I may; and for this purpose I have reserved them to be handled here in the conclusion of my whole Booke, that so I might the more sparingly intreat of them.
Therefore, concerning the matter of this adventi-
tious Starre, that I may first give you my opinion, I thinke it was Cœlestiall, not differing from the matter of the other Starres, but yet in this it did admit of some diversitie, that it was not exalted to such a perfection, nor solid composition of the parts, as appeareth in the everlasting and continuing Starres: and therefore it had no perpetuall duration, as these have, but was subiect in processe of time to dissolution; forasmuch as this Starre could not consist of any elementary matter, sith that cannot be carried into the highest part of the ayre, nor can obtaine there any firme place of abiding. Besides, this Starre did at the first in his magnitude exceed the whole Globe of the Earth, and was three hundred times bigger then the whole circumference thereof, and therefore what sublunary matter could be sufficient to the conformation of it?
But some may say, how or whence could it bee framed of Cœlestiall matter; I answere that the Heavens did afford it themselves, in like manner as the Earth the Sea, and the Ayre; if at any time they exhibite some strange sight, doe produce it out of their owne proper substance. For although the Heaven it selfe be thinne and pervious, giving way to the motion of the Starres without any hinderance, yet it is not altogether incorporeall, for then it should be infinite and without place. Therefore the very matter of Heaven, though it be subtile, and possible to the courses of the Planets, yet being compacted and condensated into one Globe, and being illustrated by the light of the Sunne, might give forme and fashion to this Starre. Which because it
had not his beginning from the common order of nature, therefore it could not have a continuall duration equall to the rest; as in like manner, new and monstrous generations arising and compounded out of the Elements cannot long endure. And albeit the large vastnesse of the Cœlestiall world may afford sufficient matter for the conformation of any adventitious Starre, yet there is no where more plenty then neere unto Via lactea or the Milkie way, which I suppose to be a certaine heavenly substance not differing from the matter of the other Starres, but diffus'd, and spread abroad, yet not distinctly conglobated in one body, as the Starres are: and hence I conjecture it came to passe, that this Starre appeared in the edge of the milkie way, and had the same substance as the Galaxia hath. Besides, there is discerned a certain marke or scarre as it were in that part of the Galaxia, wherein this Starre was seated, as in a cleare night when the milkie way is not vailed with cloudes we may easily perceive. Which marke or scarre I never saw before this Starre did arise, neither did I ever reade of it. But howsoever, the substance of the milkie Zone is able to supply matter for the framing of this Starre, which because it had not attained so excellent a consummation, and solid existence, as the genuine and naturall Starres have, therefore it was subiect to dissolution and dissipation, eyther by its owne nature, or by the multiplicitie of the beames of the Sunne and other Starres.
Neither is Aristotle here to be allowed of, who disapproving of the opinions of others, doth himselfe bring in no lesse absurdities, while hee maketh
the Galaxia to be a certaine sublunary concretion attracted and formed out of the Starres which are above it; so that it becommeth a Meteor, in the highest part of the Ayre, not unlike to the Comets, which he (grounding one absurdity upon another) supposeth to be generated there. For if it were so, the Milkie way would not have continued in the same forme, place, and Magnitude, as it hath done from the beginning of the world. And besides, other Starres would attaine unto the like Luminous concretion; And moreover, this Galaxia of Aristotle, would then admit of a Paralax, and according to the opticke consideration, by the shining of the fixed Starres through it, it would beget a strange refraction, differing from that which is occasion'd by the vapors that are seene about the Horizon, which seldome riseth to the twentieth degree of Altitude, when this proceeding from the Via lactea would reach to the greatest height. All which, Aristotle rather guested at, grounding it upon coniecture rather than on the doctrine of the Mathematicks & opticks; and therefore it is no marvell, if he hath endeavoured, to banish those seldome appearing Comets out of the heaven, and to equall them to sublunary Meteors, whereby he hath thrust downe the Galaxia beneath the Moone, and hath made it participant of a sublunary nature. Hence it is, that Aristotle and other Philosophers, have ioyned the description and explication of the Galaxia, together with the Commets, because they knew not, the affinity which is betweene, having onely learned by experience, or by the relation of ancient writers, that these beamy Starrs
have their originall and beginning neere to the Milkie way. Neither can it be a Solæcisme, in that I affirme, that this new Starre was framed of Cœlestiall matter, being the same whereof the Galaxia and other Starres doe consist, yet not so well compacted; when we may discerne the like productions in the Earth, which bringeth forth mettals and precious stones. Yet though all mettals and Iems have one and the same matter, yet all are not concocted and brought to the same subtility, and maturity by the powerfull working of nature; hence it is, that some are sooner corrupted; others very hardly; so that pure gold and silver, in respect of the homogemly and perfection of their parts, are able to resist the violence of the fire, without any losse or detriment at all, when more imperfect mettals, as Lead and Tinne, are soone calcinated into ashes, or else vanish into smoake; In like manner, this Starre might bee framed of Cœlestiall matter, although it had not attained to such a perfect existence as the naturall Starres; and therefore, it could not with them be able to endure the beames of the Sunne and Starres, and the motion of the Heaven, and withall it was subiect to a successiue alteration, untill at last it was quite dissolu'd. But why this Starre although it had the same matter with the Galaxia, which is not obnoxious to corruption, yet was in time extinct, I wil declare some reasons hereafter. Wherfore having spoken sufficiently of the first part, namely of the Physicall nature of this Starre, I will now discend to give you my coniecturall opinion, concerning the signification of this Starre as it did betoken some thing that was to come.
I know there were some (otherwise learned men) who did hold, that these new appearances which are sometimes seene in the Heavens, have no effectuall operation, or significatios, being (it may be) led unto that opinion, because those things which Astrologers foretell concerning the effects of such adventitious Starres, are full of vanity, and doe seldome come to passe, or prove true in the end. Yet notwithstanding in my opinion, we should not take away all power of Divination, from such admirable and strange appearances, because Astrologers cannot by evident demonstration presage of their events. But rather, such are to be taxed, who rashly deliver their uncertaine conjectures; and the weaknesse of mans judgment, which is ready to wander from the truth is to be pardoned, but we ought not to imagine that God and Nature doth vainely mocke us, with such new formed bodies, which doe presage nothing to the world. Yet truly the Prognostication and fore-knowledge of and concerning such strange appearances in the heavens, is very hard to finde out, and doth oftentimes delude the understanding of man, seeing we doe not certainly know the influences of the other Starres. Whence it may come to passe, that Astrology, which entreateth of the effects of the Starres, may deliver that which is true, as well as Astronomy, which onely declareth their motions and appearances, since the cause cannot want an effect, whether it is to be knowne or not. Neither hath humaine industry beene able to search out the motions of the Starres, although they are most certain. So that it is lesse marvaile, that their effects which
are not obvious to the sense should lye so deeply hidden, and oftentimes deceive mens judgements.
For if there were ever any difficulty in discerning, and foretelling the significations of the Starres, truly this new Starre, which appeared in our age for a whole yeare together, doth require much labour and diligence, in revealing the Portent thereof, and in shewing what it might signifie.
Especially, since there were never any apparitions like unto it, from whence any knowledge might be gathered by the likenesse of events, for Arts of divination are not grounded on any Principles, but upon experimentall observation. But no apparition like this was ever testified by any monument of antiquity, to have beene seene and beheld of men, except that which Pliny mentioneth to have beene observed by Hypparchus, which in regard it had a proper motion (as wee may gather from the words of Pliny) cannot be compared with this new Star, which alwayes stood fixed in one place. Yet it is probable, that as the Starre which Hypparchus beheld, did foresignifie the declining of the Græcian Monarchy, and the enlarging of the Roman Empire. So farre, that the whole world should be in subjection to this one City; so likewise, some strange alteration in the publike government of Estates and Commmon-weales, shall ensue in the following yeares. For, as this was a rare and wonderfull Starre, shining forth in the heavens unexpectedly, so it is likely and probable, that it will produce strange, great, and wonderfull effects, but what they shall be in particular, I thinke
no mortall man is able to guesse, being as farre distant from our knowledge, as the rising of this Starre was before it did appeare.
Yet the forme of it, when it shewed it selfe from the beginning, shining forth with a joviall, cleere, and bright lustre, doth seeme to fore-shew a prosperous and peaceable estate of humane affaires; but yet the Martiall fiery glistering thereof, doth foresignifie that some violence and trouble shall be intermingled with it. And besides, by this joviall figure, it seemeth to portend, a great alteration, if not an utter subversio of Religion; so that those devices which by outward shewes and Pharisaicall Hypocrisie, have long time bewitched ignorant people, shall now come to their full point and end: and even as this new false Starre shined foorth at the beginning, with a cleare and amiable aspect, but yet at last did change in colour, and lessen in proportion, untill at length it vanished quite away: So those false Planets, which by an outward plausible appearance, doe seduce and leade men from the light of the truth, shall be quite extinguished. Also, it is worthy of consideration, that albeit this Starre was so neare to the Semicircle of the Colure, that his beames almost touched it, yet his whole body was seated toward the Vernall Quarter, and in respect of the Poles of the world, in the middle of the first degree of Aries, which may seeme to declare, that some great Light is now at hand, which shall enlighten and by degrees expell the former darknesse; as the Sunne having passed the Vernall poynt of the Æquinoctiall, doth make the day longer than the night, which before had
the advantage of the day. And as this Starre appeared in the highest heavens, to the view of the whole world, so it is credible, that there shall happen a great Catastrophe and universall change throughout all the chiefe Nations of the Earth, especially those which are scituated Northward from the Æquinoctiall.
Moreover, forasmuch as this Starre was placed in the eight Spheare, above the Orbes of the Planets, it seemeth that the predictions issuing from it, do not only concerne one peculiar tract of Land, but all the Nations of the world; and therefore it will bee the longer before the effects will be declared by succeeding events. Which, as they shall not begin, untill some yeares after the apparition, so they shall continue for a long time afterward. And if wee may take leave to conjecture by Astrologicall computation of time, concerning the first beginning of that which is portended, we may guesse it will be nine yeares after the great conjunction, whereof this Starre was the Prodromus or fore-runner. If therefore wee frame our Astrologicall direction by the place of this Cojunction, which was in the one and twentieth degree of Aquarius, the events of this Starre shall begin to shew themselves, nine yeares after this Conjunction. And when this is finished, in the yeare of Christ 1583. and in the latter end of the Moneth of Aprill, the confirmation and end of this Equinoctiall progression to the place of the new Starre, will fall out in the yeare 1592. when the third Septinary of yeares after the first appearing of the Starre shall be accomplished. And those Noble Heroes which
shall happen to be borne at the first rising of this Starre, being ordained to be the Authors and atchievers of those great mutations, shall about that time come to full ripenesse of age, that they may be fit and able for the performance of such great enterprises, and for the reducing of these Predictions into act. And in the fourth Septenary of yeares, when they have attained to their chiefe strength, they shall make the truth of these conjectures appeare most plainly· But if we take our direction by comparing the place of this Conjunction from the Zodiacke, or the degrees of the Eclipticke, unto the place of this new Starre, then it is likely that the force and influence of this Starre, will chiefly shew it selfe in the yeare of our Lord 1632. for all the significations of this Star doe depend on the Trigonall revolution and tansmutation of the Planets. And therefore if this rbee the seventh revolution of the Planets, the first whereof was in the dayes of Enoch, the second in Noahs time, and at the Vniversall Deluge, the third in the dayes of Moses, when the people were freed from the Egyptian servitude, the fourth in the dayes of the Kings of Israel, the fift in the time of Christs Incarnation, when the Roman Empire was at the highest, and the sixt in the dayes of Charles the Great, when the Empire was translated to the Germanes, this last and seventh, is as it were the Sabbath to all the rest, and doth foreshew something of greater consequence than all the former, wherein it is worthy of observation, that all the trigonall revolutions, as the first, third, and fift, were very profitable and advantagious to the world; and so it is not unlikely that this
seventh revolution being an unequall number, doth point out and fore-signifie the happy estate of things which is to come. Neyther doth this conjecture differ from the Prophesies of wise men which were illuminated with divine knowledge, who have foretold, that before the universall consummation & end of all things, there shall be a peaceable and quiet age, wherein the divers formes of Religions and politike government, shall be changed and be made agreeable and conformable to the will of God. Which assertion we may collect out of the Prophets, who did fore-tell, that at last there should be a golden age; In which they shall breake their swords into Ploughshares, and their speares into pruning-hookes, Nation shall not lift up a sword against Nation, neither shall they learne Warre any more: But they shall sit every man vnder his Vine, and vnder his Fig-tree, and none shall make them afraid: As the Prophet Micah hath it. Chap. 4. And Isaiah, Chap. 11. doth foretell of it, in this manner: The Woolfe also shall dwell with the Lambe, and the Leopard shall lye downe with the Kid, and the Calfe and the young Lyon, and the Fatling together, and a little Childe shall leade them, and the Cow and the Beare shall feed; their young ones shall lye downe together: and the Lyon shall eate straw like an Oxe. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the Aspe, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the Cockatrice Den, they shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountaine: for the Earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the Sea.
Also, in the sixty Chapter of Isaiah, speaking of the mysticall Hierusalem, and perfect state of Christiani-
ty, he saith, For brasse I will bring gold, and for yron I will bring silver, and for wood brasse, and for stones yron: I will also make thy Officers peace, and thine exactors Righteousnesse: Violence shall no more be heard in thy land, wasting nor destruction within thy borders, but thou shalt call thy walls Salvation, and thy gates praise; & at length he concluded thus; for, I the Lord will hasten it in his time. Besides, many other places are found both in the Prophets, and the Revelation, which doe promise this unexpected happinesse. Therefore that this Prophesie may be fulfilled, which was delivered by divine inspiration, it must needs come to passe, even before the end and consummation of the world. But seeing the event of these things shall come to passe in the new revolution of the Planets, before which this Starre appeared, some doe suppose, that the light of Religion doth now shine out cleerely having overcome the darknes of Error; but if it were so, whence are then those Controversies, and varieties of opinions which are defended by Learned men; insomuch that the warre of Pennes, is more dangerous than that of Swords. Truely, it is rather to bee feared, least wee take this dawning and breake of day, to be the cleere noone-light. Therefore, I suppose that this Starre doth signifie, that there shall be a new change both in Religion, and the estate of humaine affaires. Ventum ad supremum est patientur summa ruinam, qui Deus in Cœlis regit & reget omnia terris. That is to say, Wee are come now to the highest perfection, the power of Antichrist and the Pope shall decay and bee brought to ruine, and G O D who ruleth in Heaven shall rule all thinges on Earth.
But if any doe obiect, that the end of the world is at hand, and that therefore there will not be sufficient time to bring about a new Change. I answere, that Saint Paul doth assure us, that the Iewes shall be engraffed into the Church, before the finall consummation of the world, which (by humaine coniecture) must needs require some time before, they being scattered over the whole face of the Earth, shall be gathered into one Nation. Yet I thinke it not unnecessary to admonish and stirre up the mindes of men to thinke upon the end of the world, that so they may remember the Eternity which shall follow after it. But yet it is impossible to limit and set forth a certaine time for the consummation of the world, which only dependeth upon the good-will and pleasure of God, and is not reuealed to the Angels, and therfore canot be knowne by any humain prescience. But if some doe suppose, that the tract of Hand to which this Starre was verticall, is ominous aboue the rest, as if from thence the occasion and author of so great mutations are to bee expected, we must then chuse out those parts of the Earth, which had the new Starre in their Meridian at the time of the new Moone next following, which fel out, accounting the time by our Meridian, upon the fifteenth of November, seaven houres, thirteene minutes ⅔. in the afternoone; to which if we apply, the latitude or distance from the Equinoctiall agreeable to the declination of the Starre which was in 61.¾. so that the place on the Earth answerable thereunto, must needs be Rußia or Moschovia, especially that part thereof which is joyned unto Finland; for in that tract of Earth this
new Starre in the new Moone following, was in their Zenith, and iust over their heads, where it stood equally distant from the Horizon, and with a right angled aspect beheld this Countrey. Therefore, if this position of the Starre doe point out the place of the Earth, from whence these events shall arise, Moschovia seemes especially to be designed, before any other Regions, which are scituated towards the North, to whom this new Starre was every day Verticall. Whither therefore, the first occasions of so great disturbances and mutations shall arise from hence which afterward shall be sowed and dispersed into other parts of the world, I leave it to be decided by others. Truely that Gogus, whereof mention is made in the eight and thirtieth Chapter of Ezekiel, and to whom Esay Chapter 17. 56. and Micha Chap. 5. doe allude, and with whom Magog is named in the Revelation, Chap. 20. may be rightly understood of the Msochovite, as Castellio hath interpreted it in the 38. and 39. of Ezekiel; That Gog should be the leader of the Moscovites and Iberians, because the old translation reades it, that he should be the Prince of Mosoch; and Thubal. For seeing the Hebrewes reade it Mesech, and the Greekes and Latine interpreters doe reade it Mosoch, it is probable that the Moschovites are signified heereby; or else by this name, the whole Northerne tract of Earth is included. Therefore it is very likely, that Moschovia is principally denoted by this Starre, and Gogus the leader of the Moschovites, of whom it is foretold in the Prophets and the Revelation, who having made great slaughters in Europe, hee at last with his whole army shall
be overthrowne, and so the Earth shall be disburthened of her wicked inhabitants. For it is probable, that there must be a great clensing and extirpation of all Earthly impurities, before that peaceable and happie age (whereof the Prophets have spoken) shall come, but to shew the particular manner thereof is above humaine knowledge; wee purpose onely to make some coniectures in generall, for the event will shew it selfe.
Moreover, because a certaine ancient Prophesie of Sibylla Tiburtina, which was found in the yeare 1520. in Switzerland, engraven in a Marble stone in old latine Characters, which was discovered by the force of the water washing away the earth, may be fitly applyed to this Starre, I will heere insert it and ioyne it to our coniectures, for it is worthy of observation, beeing recited by Cornelius Gemma in his Treatise of Supernaturall Apparitions, in these words.
The Sybils Prophesie.
A Starre shall arise in Europe over the Iberians, at the great house of the North, whose beames shall vnexpectly inlighten the whole World. And this shall bee in a most desired time, when all Nations shall lay by their weapons and imbrace Peace; but they shall contend during the Interregnum, and strive to obtaine the reynes of Government; yet the ancient House shall prevaile, and shall be prosperous in Warre, vntill contrary fates shall encounter one with another. For in the same time
after this Starre is gone, another great Light shall shine foorth with Martiall sparkling beames, and shall inlarge his Empire even to the bounds of the Antipodes. After this there shall bee bloudy Comets, and flashings of fire seene in the Heavens, so that there shall be no safety any where. The firmament of Heaven shall bee dissolved, the Planets shall forget their courses, and the Spheares shall iustle one another, the fixed Starres shall out-goe the Planets. The Heavens shall bee leveld with the Seas, and after these thinges come to passe, there shall be continuall Night, destruction, ruine, condemnation and eternall darknesse.
G. S. G.
There were divers expositions of this Prophesie, at that time when it was first found out, some interpreting it of CHARLES the Fift, others drew the meaning of it to PHILIP King of Spaine, and some thought that the King of France was meant thereby; but I thinke, that it doth rather point out those Iberi, which inhabite Northward toward Moschovia. So that this Oracle of Sibilla Tiburtina, did not denote the Spaniards, but those Iberians, which are neare unto the Moschovites; especially, when she useth these words; Supra Iberos ad magnam Septentrionis domum: Over the Iberi at the great house of the North. And truly Moschovia, Scythia, and Tartaria, doe make a great part of Europe, so that it may well be called the great house of
the North. And therefore, seeing we have formerly shewed, that this unusuall Starre did cast his perpendicular beames and influence on the Country of Moschovia, it is not to be doubted but that this Starre, together with that tract of Land, doth agree with the Sybilline Oracle. But concerning the other matters which are mentioned, I will not touch upon them in particular, but leave them to other mens judgments. Moreover, some of the other Sybils, have prophesied concerning Gog and Magog, who should come in the latter times, and have expresly foretold of the rising of this Starre, and among the rest Sybilla Babilonica, thus saith:
Then a great Signe, shall from above be given,
And a bright Starre shall then arise in Heaven:
Which shall like to a glistring Crowne appeare,
And many dayes it shall stand fixed there.
What can be more evident, concerning this cleere Starre which was beheld in our time, for that was more bright and shining than any of the rest, and was round in forme like unto a Crowne, having no beames right shooting from it as Comets have, besides it continued for a whole yeare and kept his Station in the Firmament with the other Starres. And therefore, this Sybilline prediction, doth fitly describe the forme, light, scituation, duration, and consumption of this Starre, as if it had beene then seene. Besides, shee speaketh, of that great Commet, which imme-
diatly followed after this Starre, in these words
Within the West, a Blazing-Starre
Shall rise, which named Comets are.
And in another place, thus
After this Starre within the fourth yeare,
A flaming Comet shall appeare,
Which on the deepest Seas below,
His gloring beames abroad shall throw,
Behold, how iustly we doth limit out the time betweene the apparition of this new Starre, and the Comet following; for there were almost foure yeares betweene the vanishing of this new Starre and the rising of the Comet which followed. And by the Sea shore, meaneth the Westerne Ocean, for in this part of the world, presently after the setting of the Sunne, this Comet was seene; those who would know more concerning these predictions, let them reade the bookes of the Sybils, in which it doth appeare, that there shall be a Catastrophe and change of things before the vniversall consummation of the world. Yet in what order things shall come to passe, it is hard to guesse, either by the signification of this Starre, or by the Sybilline Oracles, or by Divine Prophesies. But yet is likely, that those happy times shall not preceed, but follow after a more troublesome time; even as this Starre at the first, did shine with a bright and cleare
lustre and with a Ioviall light, but afterward did assume a Martiall sparkling colour, as may bee gathered out of the words of the same Sybilla.
And God who dwelleth in the Heavens shall then
Save the remainder of the Sonnes of men,
Then Peace and knowledge of the truth shall flourish
The Earth her plentious fruits shall likewise cherish
It shall not bee devided as before
Nor to the plough be subiect any more.
Which also, the holy Prophets doe seeme to intimate, who foretell that the happy & peaceable estate of the Church, shall be after the destruction of this Gogus. But I thinke it not fit, to proceed any further in unfolding these mysteries, having promised to handle them sparingly; as also in regard, that these Prophesies, are not to be declared by humaine coniecture, neither can be Geometricially demonstrated, as those matters which belong to the knowledge of Astronomie. And so leaving these my coniectures, to the consideration of the Reader: I will heere leave of to entreat any further concerning this Starre.
Printed by B.A. and T.F. for Michael Sparke, at
the blue Bible in Greene-Arbor.
Deus & Rex.
Deus & Rex.
This King of Swed, Gustavus is by Name,
And both words doe include an Anagram.
For SVVED is DEVS, GVSTAVVS,it doth make
Augustus, shewing that hee doth pertake
Of Gods great power, and of Augustus Fame
Which both this Starre, and Titles doe proclaime,
Besides God-acre-field, which hee did winne
Where God did give the Victorie to the King.
Deus & Rex.