Life and Journals of Kah-ke-wa-quo-nā-by/Chapter I
THIS day being set apart for prayer and fasting, endeavoured to pray to God to impress my mind with a sense of his goodness in sending his only begotten Son to redeem the lost race of mankind. In our prayermeeting this evening, we had a good time, so that some shouted for joy. — Friday, April 1st, 1825.
Saturday 2nd. — Visited brother John Wageezhagome, one of our Chiefs, who has just returned from a tour to the River Credit, in order to advise the pagan Indians to forsake their evil ways and to turn to the Christian Religion. He informed me he bad advised all those he saw to leave off drinking the fire-water, and to try to serve the Lord. He said they listened with attention, and made no objections to the things proposed to them.
Sabbath 3rd. — Gave a word of exhortation to a few of the Mohawk Indians about three miles below the Upper Mohawks. They paid good attention, and I was enabled to speak with much freedom. Attended the prayer-meeting at the Missionhouse, and we had a powerful time on account of the presence of the Lord to our souls. Several of my poor Messissauga brethren cried to God for mercy, and were made to rejoice in the pardon of the Great Spirit before the meeting closed. Blessed be my God and Saviour for what he is doing for my poor perishing countrymen!
Monday 4th. — Kept school this day; about two dozen of the Indian children attended. In the afternoon I felt very unwell, and had great fears that I was going to be attacked with the fever and ague.
Tuesday 5th. — Felt dull and stupid through the day. Went to the prayermeeting in the evening and there were many present. Brother Crawford opened the meeting by a word of exhortation and prayer. The power of the Most High descended upon our meeting, so that believers rejoiced and sinners wept. Brother C. desired me to give a word of exhortation, and to invite the mourners to come forward that we might pray for them. I had no sooner given the invitation than five or six of my Messissauga brethren came forward and fell upon their knees, and began to call upon God for mercy as hard as they could. O the joy and happiness I felt in my soul in seeing these starving souls flocking to the fold of Christ! Long have they remained ignorant of the power and goodness of God to save poor wretched sinners. Three or four found peace through faith in Christ.
Wednesday 6th. — Brother Crawford started this day to return to his native home, and had my own brother being going away I could not have felt more in parting than I did on this occasion. Brother C. has been with us about two years, during which time he has suffered many inconveniences and laboured with great zeal to do us good, and to bring us to the knowledge of Christ. I loved him for his work sake, and when we parted I wept much. May the Lord whom he serves reward his labours, bless his soul, and protect him on his journeyings! In the evening my brother John, brother Sunegoo, and myself went out fishing by torchlight. We caught more than 120 fish. Blessed be God for giving us such success, so as to enable us to feed many of our poor hungry brethren.
Friday 8th. — Kept school this day. In the evening at the prayermeeting a few were made happy. Several of our Messissauga sisters prayed most fervently for Brother Crawford's safety and welfare, so that he might be spared to return to us again.
Saturday 9th. — Kept school in the forenoon. In the afternoon I went up to my father's. Felt much cast down, but in the evening, whilst engaged in secret prayer, the Lord broke light into my soul, and I praised God with my whole heart.
Sabbath 10th. — Went in the morning to the Mission to worship with my Indian brethren. Brother Thomas Davis, the Mohawk Chief, opened the meeting by singing and prayer in the Mohawk. After this I gave a word of exhortation, first in the English, and then in the Chippeway. We had a good time. When the congregation had been dismissed my brother John and myself attended the Sunday school. There were twenty-two children present, who all behaved very well. Before we dismissed the school I gave the children a word of advice how they were to become good children. They listened very attentively to what was said to them. In the evening we had a powerful prayermeeting, so that nearly all in the chapel felt the love of God. For my part I felt such fullness of the love of God in my soul I hardly knew whether I was in the body or out of it. May the Lord carry on his work which he has graciously begun.
Tuesday 12th. — Rev. Robert Corson preached to us from 2 Corinthians iv. 17, 18. As many of our people had been much afflicted, the words of the text were very suitable, and we had a precious season of refreshing to our souls.
Thursday 14th. — My mind very uneasy, owing to heavy temptations and trials. O Lord deliver me from temptations and from the cruel power of Satan.
Friday 15th. — My brother's child was this day seized with fits, and to all human appearance will not be with us long in this world. When I looked upon the child my heart was filled with sorrow. In the evening at the prayermeeting; a good time.
Saturday 16th. — With a trembling hand I this day record the death of my nephew Augustus Jones, son of my brother John and Christiana his wife. The immortal spirit took its flight about 9 o'clock this morning. It was a severe stroke to us to see such a lovely child taken away from among us, but God called him and we must submit, for "the Lord gave and the Lord hath taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord." We are short-lived creatures, and all of us are travelling to our graves. Our people are greatly afflicted at the present time; many of them are confined to their beds with bad colds and fevers. O Lord, heal thine afflicted children and cause sickness to depart from them!
Sabbath 17th. — Met in the class in the forenoon. There were many present, and the Lord was present to bless our souls. In the afternoon the Rev. Thos. Whitehead preached at the funeral of my nephew, from these words, "Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him." Job xiii. 15. The congregation was large and attentive. My mind was much cast down, owing to the afflictions of my people. May God have mercy upon us, and save us from all harm. Amen.
Monday 18th. — At 10 o'clock, a. m., we committed the corpse of little Augustus to the grave. Henry Aaron, a Mohawk, spoke to the people at some length. When he got through I gave a word of exhortation on the shortness of life. My mind was more resigned to the will of God.
Tuesday 19th. — The Revs. Madden, Shepherdson, Corson, and Matthews visited our society. Brother Madden preached from, "For the time of all things is at hand, be ye therefore sober, and watch unto prayer." 2 Peter iv. 7. We had a very good meeting. I interpreted for brother M. In the evening we had a prayermeeting, and it was a time of refreshing to our souls. I felt much of the goodness of the Great Spirit to my soul, and my heart was enlarged to pray for the continued revival of the work of God amongst us.
Friday 22nd. — The Rev. A. Tony visited the school this morning. There were about 25 children present.
Sabbath 24th. — The Rev. A. Torry preached to us from these words, "And as he reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come, Felix trembled, and answered, Go thy way for this time." Acts xxiv. 25. The congregation was pretty large and attentive. At the close of the service Mr. Torry baptized four of my brethren. It rejoiced my heart to see the readiness with which my people receive the Gospel of Christ. In the afternoon, at 4 o'clock, we had a general prayermeeting. The presence of the Lord was felt by us, and we had a joyful time. I was so filled with the blessed Comforter that I praised God aloud. During the baptism of the four Indians my heart was filled with joy and peace in seeing my nation so ready and willing to receive the Gospel of Christ.
Friday 29th. — Went this day with my father, Mr. Torry, and Thos. Davis, in order to select a suitable ground for our Messissauga brethren to plant corn and potatoes this spring.
Saturday 30th. — In the forenoon, assisted in the Mission school. In the afternoon I went to the Salt Springs, about ten miles below the Upper Mohawks, in order to make preparations and circulate an appointment for preaching for Brother Tony on to-morrow.
Sabbath, May 1st, 1825. — About 10 o'clock, a. m., Brother Torry arrived at the Salt Springs. At 11 Brother T. preached to about 20 of the Mohawk and Messissauga Indians from Revelation xxii. 16, 17. After preaching we had a classmeeting. Several Indian converts spoke very feelingly, insomuch that the white people present were astonished and confounded at the mighty power of God in converting the poor Indians, and many of them blushed and said they were ashamed of themselves on account of their spiritual deadness and want of more faith in that Gospel which they had long professed to believe. May the Good Spirit stir up the white people that they may become as lights of the world, that the poor Indians who are looking upon them may see their good works, and so convince them of the reality of the Christian Religion. May they no longer be the means of their destruction by continuing to introduce the fire-waters, and other evil habits amongst them, as has been the custom ever since the white man first came to our country. Good Lord, I fear the white men will have to give an awful account at thy bar in the day of judgment for the evils they have inflicted upon the poor red man of the forest. Returned in the afternoon to the Mission at the Upper Mohawks.
Monday 2nd. — Made preparations for clearing and ploughing the land that my Messissauga brethren intend to plant this spring.
Tuesday 3rd. — I collected early this morning six or seven of my brethren to commence the clearing of the land. It being their first attempt in the way of civilization, I found them very awkward and ignorant in working on a farm, and I had to show them how to proceed to clear the land and how to hold the plough. They were very willing to be instructed. About noon we heard the sound of the horn for preaching, so returned to the Mission House, and heard the Rev. R. Corson preach from 2 Peter v. 6, 7. We had a comfortable time during the sermon.
Thursday 5th. — At our morning prayermeeting we had a precious time of rejoicing in the God of our salvation. Assisted my people in clearing the ground lent to us by father Thomas Davis, the Mohawk Chief. We all worked very hard, and by night we felt much fatigued.
Friday 6th. — In the evening at the prayermeeting, a very good time to our poor souls, for the Lord did bless us abundantly. May the Lord continue to carry on his work until every Indian tribe in Canada shall embrace the gospel of Christ, which is able to save all!
Sabbath 8th. — At 11 a. m. we assembled for public worship in our chapel, which was pretty well filled. Mr. T. Davis opened the meeting by singing and prayer. When he had finished his address to his Mohawk brethren, I gave a word of exhortation, and during my talk the spirit of the Most High rested upon us. Our classmeeting was much blessed of God. My soul was very happy.
Thursday 12th. — Engaged in purchasing seed potatoes for my people. In. the evening I visited the wigwam of Pedwawayahsenooqua, who related to me a remarkable dream she had. She dreamed that the heavens and the earth passed away with a great noise, and the Son of God made his appearance, and called her to himself. From this dream I took the opportunity to explain to her the awful day of judgment, and after talking to them for some time we had a word of prayer, and we found it good to call upon the name of the Lord.
Saturday 14th. — Went and procured a few yoke of oxen this morning, in order to plough the ground. My people have been clearing it as a planting ground. My mind was in a thick cloud, and I was much troubled on account of the same.
Sabbath 15th. — In the morning I attended our early prayermeeting. After breakfast I went with two of my Indian brethren to attend an appointment at the Salt Springs. There were about two dozen of Indians and Whites present. I delivered a word of exhortation from these words, "How shall we escape if we neglect so great salvation." Heb. ii. 3. In the afternoon, I heard the Rev. T. Whitehead preach in Brantford, from Luke xix. 10. Tuesday 17th. — My mother, John, and myself, planted some corn and potatoes at father's. On our return to the MissionChapel, we found our friends engaged at the prayermeeting. We had a pretty good time, but not with that overwhelming power which generally crowns our meetings. My mind very wandering, but I still hoped in God, who is my only refuge in every time of need.
Friday 20th. In our evening prayermeeting we had a most blessed time, so that some fell to the floor under the mighty power of the Spirit. Oh how it rejoices my soul to see my Indian brethren embrace the truths of the Gospel. May God continue to carry on his work amongst my poor Indian brethren!
Saturday 21st. — According to a previous appointment, Mrs. W. J. Kerr, (a daughter of the celebrated Mohawk Chief, Joseph Brant,) visited our School, and gave the children several articles as presents, which were sent to her from the benevolent ladies of the town of Niagara. Mrs. Kerr was highly pleased with the improvements made by the Indian children. Brother Torry also distributed a number of primers. The number of scholars was thirty-four. Mr. Torry dismissed by singing and prayer.
Sabbath 22nd. — At 11 a. .m, Brother Torry preached to us from Gen. xxxii. 24. It was, I think, one of the greatest meetings we have witnessed, on account of the mighty display of the power of God. There was a general shout of Glory and Hallelujah throughout the whole assembly. My soul was lost in wonder and amazement in witnessing such a display of the saving power of the Divine Spirit. I felt the glory in my own soul, and I praised the Lord. The burden of my prayer was, "Lord sanctify thy people throughout soul, body, and spirit."
Monday 23rd. — This day I started with brother Torry or the West, in order to visit some Chippeways and Munceys on the River Thames. Brother Torry preached in Dumfries, from Psalm cxvi. 7. The hearers were composed of different denominations, who all seemed very attentive, and I hoped some good was done. After meeting, we rode about six miles and lodged at Brother Mudge's for the night. My mind this day was greatly exercised for the salvation of the poor pagan Indians.
Tuesday 24th. — We started on our journey and rode about twenty-four miles to Brother Piper's, in Oxford, where we stayed all night. I was rather dull in spirit this day, but in the evening I retired to the woods for secret prayer and meditation. My spirit was greatly revived, and I was enabled to commit myself to the care of the Great Spirit.
Wednesday 25th. — We rode about two miles to Brother Harris', where we spent the day. We gave out an appointment for preaching at 4 o'clock, p. m. A pretty good congregation assembled, and Brother Torry preached; the people were attentive, and I trust some good was done to the people. I was wonderfully blessed in private prayer in the woods, for which I desire to be grateful to my Lord and Master. Oh how good the omnipotent God is to his creatures. Let the whole earth praise Him!
Thursday 26th. — After breakfast, we pursued our journey westward, and travelled thirty miles to Brother Connell's, in Westminster — published an appointment at early candle light; about eighteen or twenty attended. I opened the meeting by singing and prayer, and then gave a word of exhortation — had little or no liberty in speaking. Brother Torry also exhorted at some length, but the people appeared quite dull and stupid.
Friday 27th. — After breakfast we started on foot through the woods to visit Munceytown. We were accompanied by brother John Carey, (a pious and sensible young man who is willing to commence a school among the Indians should there be an opening for one) and Brother Kilburn, who kindly offered his services as our guide through the woods and Indian settlements. We travelled about sixteen miles to George Turkey's, a Chief of the Muncey Tribe, who received us very cordially. We began immediately to explain the object of our visit to him and his people. We explained to him the nature and the necessity of embracing the Christian religion. The Chief and his family heard with attention. We sung and prayed with them. After this the Chief took us to another hut, where he showed us some blankets and a few boards to sleep on. For my part I rested very well, but my companions complained not a little of their hard bed.
Saturday 28th. — After taking a little bread and cheese, we started for the Lower Muncey Village, about 3 miles from George Turkey's. Here we spent the day in conversing with the Indians about religion, and in ascertaining their numbers, and in circulating word for meeting on to-morrow. We were informed that there were about 200 old and young of these Munceys. We found them very ignorant about the Supreme Being. Many of these people understood the Ojebway, in which language I was enabled to converse with them on the things of God.
Visited two families of Ojebways. One of the women I had seen twelve or fourteen years since. Towards sunset we proposed to sing a hymn. Brother Kilburn, our pilot, raised the tune. In a few moments a number of the Indians gathered around us, and listened with both ears to our songs of praise. A drunken Indian came near whilst we were singing, and spoke angry words against us, but we took no notice of him, and he soon quietly left us. In the evening, there was a general stir amongst the Indians, and on enquiring as to the cause of this movement, I was told that there was a sick woman in the neighbourhood who was supposed to be bewitched, and that the Indians were going to have a great pow-wow dance in order to drive the witch or the witch-medicine out of the woman. Oh the ravages of superstition. How long shall Satan be permitted to deceive the poor heathen of our land. Come Lord, and pull down superstition!
Sabbath 29th. — About noon, we got the Munceys assembled together on the green grass for Divine worship. We sang hymns, and when about fifty had collected together, I spoke to them in the Chippeway tongue, and informed them the object of our visit to them, and desired them to hear us patiently. We again sang and prayed. Brother Torry then spoke to them on John iii. 6. The Indians sat still for a few minutes, and then began to be very uneasy, talking and laughing, and many walked off. The reason I believe why they were so inattentive, was that they did not understand the English language. Brother Torry seeing that he was only talking to the wind, dropped his discourse and desired me to address them. I rose up and spoke to them in the Chippeway as well as I could. We soon perceived a great change in their behaviour, and they listened with attention. Several of those who had left, now returned to hear. I explained to them the necessity of their embracing the Christian religion whilst the offers of life and salvation were held out to them. I also told them the great things the Lord had done and was still doing for the Indians at the Grand River and other places. I perceived some quite affected so as to shed tears, and my soul was greatly blessed and encouraged. We sung and prayed, and then shook hands with the Chiefs and principal men present, and informed them that to-morrow, about noon, we would again meet them in Council, in order to know whether they would allow us to establish a School and a place of Worship amongst them. They agreed to meet us at the time appointed. After this we started down the river to visit a Chippeway encampment, called Tumeko's Camp — about eight miles from Lower Muncey. We arrived at the encampment a little before sunset. After shaking hands with the old head Chief, I told him that we were Missionaries, and had come some distance to see them, and to tell about the words of the Great Spirit. The Chief replied that we had come quite unexpectedly to them, and therefore could not at present give us an answer, but that they would hear what we had to say on to-morrow morning. They showed us an empty wigwam, and told us that we might lodge there. Here we built a fire and got some boards to lie on. Brother K. caught a small fish on which we supped. We passed a wretched night as we had no blankets, but tried to sleep with our clothes on.
Monday 30th. — In the morning the Chiefs and some of the principal men met at one of the wigwams, and desired our attendance. There were four Chiefs present amongst this body of Indians, containing about fifteen rude huts or wigwams. We again explained to them the object of our visit to them. One of the Chiefs replied that the words we had spoken to them were strange words, and as Indians never changed their ways without first considering the matter seriously, and that as a number of their Chiefs and men were absent, they could not give us an answer at the present time, but that they would in about one moon and a half all meet, and then they would take the subject into their consideration, and be prepared to give us an answer by that time. We replied that we wished them to weigh the matter seriously, and so proceeded to discourse to them about religion, and shewed them the blessings and advantages they would derive from their having schools and religious meetings amongst them, and urged them to abandon the practice of drinking the fire-water. They replied that they had a religion of their own, handed down to them by their forefathers, in which they were now walking. As regards their drunkenness, they said that it was the white Christian people who had made them such drunkards as they were. That when they took anything to sell among the white people, whiskey was the first thing offered to them, and that when any of their children went to buy a bit of bread from the whites, perhaps the first thing handed them would be whiskey. I then informed them that all the whites were not good Christians, but that many of the whites were very wicked, and that the Great Spirit was angry with them for their sins; but that they were some amongst them who loved and served God, and wanted all other people to worship and serve the Good Spirit also. The reflection of these Chiefs cast upon the whites is too true; for had it not been that the white people introduced the fire-water amongst the Indians, they would never have become drunkards. What an awful account must the wicked whites give at the great day of judgment, when the blood of those Indians slain and ruined by strong drink will be required at their hands! May the Lord have mercy upon the poor white heathens!
We then took our leave of these poor Indians, who thanked us for visiting them, and said that they would meditate upon the things we had brought before them. We promised that we should again visit them in about two months and a half. Leaving the Chippeway village, we returned to the Muncey village, where we arrived about 10 o'clock, a. m. About noon the Chiefs and men got together on the grass, in order to meet in Council. We were informed that there were four Chiefs among this people, and that two Chiefs were in favour of having schools and religious meetings amongst them; but that the other two were strongly opposed to it, as they professed to live in the ways of their forefathers. Brother Torry requested them to state their objections. They had nothing to say, only that their fathers had lived and died in their old way, so they wished to follow them. They, however, promised to consider the subject; and that when we visited them again, they would let us know their mind more fully on the matter. We found the Indians in these parts very wild, and greatly wedded to their pagan customs and manners. They are very fond of disfiguring their faces with paint, for since our arrival here we have seen many painted faces, and two men came to our meeting who were fantastically painted all over the head and face with a sort of white clay. They looked more like wild animals than human beings. When our council and meeting was over we travelled on to George Turkey's. We suffered much from hunger this day, having eaten nothing but a bowl of corn soup which Widow Dolson, at Lower Muncey, gave us, and we were very thankful to get even this coarse meal. Spent the night at George Turkey's, with whom we conversed on the things of religion; who informed us that he was willing to become a Christian. He and Chief Westbrook agreed to allow us to commence a school amongst them at Upper Muncey; so we concluded to leave our young friend John Carey, and at once begin a school.
Tuesday 31st. — This morning we took our leave of Chief Turkey, and brother John Carey, who intends to commence a School among the Munceys at the Upper Village, when we were informed eight or ten children might be induced to attend the school. May God bless the labours of Brother Carey. We journeyed through the woods, and arrived at the North Talbot Street about 3 p. m. Having spent five days in the wilderness among the poor Indians, during which time we suffered much for want of food and sleep, we had no reason to complain, or regret having gone to our poor brethren with the Gospel of peace. The Lord greatly comforted and strengthened our hearts, so that we were enabled to endure hunger aud fatigue. Above all, we had the blessed assurance in our hearts that God would in due time convert these poor Indians.
Wednesday, June 1st, 1825. — Brother Torry gave out an appointment for preaching here on to-morrow, at 11 o'clock, a. m. My mind was very wandering this day.
Thursday 2nd. — Brother T. preached to a large congregation from Deut. vi. 6—9. We had a very good time, so that some shouted for joy.
Friday 3rd. — Left this morning for Talbot's Main Street, about thirty-five miles, on the Otter Creek, where Brother T. had an appointment. Brother T. preached to an overflowing house from Psalm cxvi. 7. Good attention was paid to the word preached, and some tears were shed. I also gave a word of exhortation in English.
Saturday 4th. — The Quarterly Meeting at Burdick's Chapel began this day. Brother T. preached from Genesis xxxii. 24. I exhorted after him, and we had a tolerably good time. Our evening prayer was rather dull.
Sabbath 5th. — At 9 o'clock, a. m., our love feast commenced. We did not seem to get into the spirit of humble love; however, some spoke with tears in their eyes, which indicated the sincerity of their hearts. Our love feast closed with the celebration of the Holy Communion. I do not recollect that ever I felt myself more unworthy of approaching the table of the Lord than I did at this time. O Lord, help me ever to remember the great atonement made for my poor soul. At 11, Brother T. preached to the congregation, which was said to be the largest ever seen in this place. The chapel was supposed to hold five hundred, and there were about one hundred outside. I gave a word of exhortation. It was, indeed, a melting time throughout the assembly. At this meeting, Samuel Wahbuneeb, an Indian, experienced a change of heart.
Monday 6th. — Started for Long Point, and rode about thirty-five miles to Brother Freeman's, where we stayed all night.
Tuesday 7th. — I parted from brother Torry, he going to his Mission down the Grand River, and I laid my course for home. Stopped a little time at Mount Pleasant to see the camp ground where we intend to hold a meeting shortly. A little after sunset I arrived at our Mission, and found our brethren engaged at their prayer meeting. When I came within hearing, I heard them praising the Lord God of Hosts, which indeed caused great joy to spring up in my soul. I felt thankful to find my Christian brethren still engaged in the service of the Great Spirit, and for bringing me back in peace and safety to our dear Mission house.
Wednesday 8th. — Went to father's, where I spent the day.
Thursday 9th. — Rode down to Hamilton, to deliver our School Reports to the Commissioners. My mind very wandering.
Sabbath 12th. — This was a day of rejoicing to us all. The Spirit of the Lord was present at our morning prayer meeting. At 8 a. m., I attended the Sunday School. There were forty-four scholars present — all behaved very well. At 11 a. m., our public worship began; Father Thomas Davis, the Mohawk Chief, opened the meeting by singing and prayer in Mohawk. After he got through, I gave a word of exhortation — first, in the Chippeway, and then in English. We then proceeded to hold our class meeting. I called upon my brother John to assist in leading the class, as there were a great many to speak to. During this meeting the overwhelming power of Divine grace descended upon the people, so that the slain of the Lord were seen all over the house. Some praised the Lord aloud, others fell to the floor as if they had been shot, and lay for some time as if dead. One young woman lay in this state about four hours. Our afternoon prayer meeting was also owned of the Lord. Three of our Indian brethren testified that the Great Spirit had pardoned their sins and made them happy.
Monday 13th. — Went up to father's to hoe our corn. My mind was in a right frame of prayer and praise to my God. O Lord may I always enjoy the fulness of thy love! Amen.
Tuesday 14th. — At our evening prayer meeting, the Lord again greatly blessed our souls. Three fell to the floor under the power of the Spirit.
Wednesday 15th. — I was employed in making a pair of shoes for myself. I felt low and dejected. May God revive my drooping soul!
Friday 17th. — Kept school in the forenoon. Our evening prayer meeting was very lively, and some fell to the floor. My soul was blessed at this meeting.
Saturday 18th. — Went to Brantford on business. In the afternoon held a prayer meeting at Chief Oneida Joseph's; six or seven attended, who all prayed, and we had a precious season.
Sabbath 19th. — In the morning at Sunday School. At 11 a. m., we met for public worship. A powerful time. Many shouted aloud, and some fell to the floor. I felt very happy, for which I thanked the Lord. Our afternoon meeting was also crowned with the Divine blessing. In family prayer this evening, the power of the Lord fell upon a young woman who had come to the house with two others. She sunk to the floor, and remained quite helpless. I sat up till about midnight, and then retired to rest. How long she remained in that state I cannot tell.
Monday 20th. — Started with a hunting party to hunt deer back of Burford township. We returned to the Mission on Wednesday. I had the good luck to kill one deer, on which we lived whilst in the woods, as none of my fellow-hunters killed any until the day we returned home, when one of them killed a small deer. We kept up our meetings whilst we were in the woods, and the Lord blessed our souls. The object of our hunting was to try to procure some meat for our approaching Camp meeting at Mount Pleasant.
Thursday 23rd. — Took a party to the Camp ground in order to erect our tents, so as to be ready to attend the meeting on to-morrow. Returned in the evening to the Mission.
Friday 24th. — All our brothers and sisters left this morning for the Camp meeting, where we arrived in good season, so that all our tents were completed long before the meeting was opened. The white people kept flocking in from all quarters and pitched their tents. Preaching did not begin until about eight in the evening, when the Presiding Elder, the Rev. Thos. Madden, delivered a suitable discourse unto us. The presence of the Lord appeared to be present on the encampment. After preaching our prayer meetings began. My Indian brethren seemed to get the first blessing, and began to rejoice in the Lord.
Saturday 25th. — We had a powerful time in the awakening of sinners, and reclaiming of backsliders.
Sabbath 26th. — The Lord was with us of a truth. Broken-hearted sinners began to cry for mercy, whilst others praised God for pardoning love. Thus did the Lord own and bless our Camp meeting.
Monday 27th. — In the morning, the Lord's Supper was administered, and the meeting closed. About fourteen of my Indian brethren experienced the blessings of pardon at this meeting. How many of the whites were converted, I cannot tell, but the number must have been considerable. Returned home to our Mission. Tuesday 28th. — At our morning public prayer meeting, the power of the Lord was present, and some fell to the floor and praised the Great Spirit aloud. In our afternoon prayer meeting, Brother Torry, Brother J. Richardson and his wife were present and exhorted us to go on in this good way. We had a good time, and some again fell to the floor under the overwhelming power of the Spirit. For my part, I felt to praise my Eternal God for pardoning love. Oh that the Lord would carry on his work until all the nations of the earth are brought to the knowledge of the truth.
Wednesday 29th. — I was this day employed in ploughing, and hoeing Indian corn; my mind was rather wandering.
Thursday 30th. — I went down with Mr. Daney, an Oneida Indian from the State of New York, to the Salt Springs, where Brother Torry had an appointment; he preached to a small congregation of whites and Indians, who paid great attention; after he finished I spoke a few words. We then proceeded to the river, where Mr. Daney received the ordinance of baptism by immersion, the first Baptist Indian I ever saw.
Friday, July 1st, 1825. — Went and viewed the corn fields of my people; some patches had been injured by the frost, but in general they looked well. In the prayer meeting this afternoon we had a precious time, so that saints rejoiced and sinners wept. May God carry on his work!
Sunday 3rd. — In the morning attended to the Sunday School. At 10 o'clock Brother Torry preached to us from John iv. 14. We had a tolerably good time. The people spoke very feelingly in class meeting.
From the 4th to the 6th was employed in getting ready to go to the Credit, in order to receive our annual presents and payments from Government. The first day we travelled as far as the beach to my uncle Ebenezer Jones', where we stayed that night, and the next day, on Friday morning the 8th, we started for the Credit; before sunset we arrived at my brother-in-law's, Captain John Cameron's, the only Indian belonging to the Credit tribe who at that time lived in a house and attended to civilized pursuits. Here all our people pitched their wigwams. I had a prayer meeting with them in the evening, and the Lord was present to bless us; but I was rather disturbed with a drunken white man, who came in during the time of worship and pretended to be happy. I told him to retire from the place, as he was not fit to be amongst praying Indians — so he did.
Saturday 9th. — Rode from the Credit to York in order to wait on Colonel Givins, who had sent for me; he received me in a friendly manner, and expressed much satisfaction at the account I gave him of the Christian Indians. In the evening I went to a prayer meeting in the town, found the people much engaged, and very humble.
Sabbath 10th, — Started early this morning from town, (Toronto) in order to preach at the Credit at 11 o'clock; when I arrived there I found the Indians had all gone to hear the Rev. D. Culp preach about two or three miles from that place; in consequence of this I made an appointment to preach at 3 p. m., so I rode on to hear Mr. Culp, and arrived just as the meeting commenced; a large congregation, but they appeared very dull. After the services ended we all returned to the Credit, and the people flocked from all directions to hear me preach on the flats by the river side; we assembled here on the green grass that all might have an opportunity of hearing.
I should judge there were about 300 people, Indians and whites. I spoke to my people first in Indian, and then exhorted in English; the power of the Lord came upon some of the Indians so that they fell to the earth, some rejoicing, and others crying for mercy. The congregation behaved very well, and a number of the gentry present expressed their surprise at what they saw and heard. Before sunset I held a classmeeting with the Indians; they spoke very feelingly of the dealings of God to their souls, and it was a time long to be remembered by us all. There were two of my nation present who joined with us to serve the Lord to-day — Bluejay and Benjamin Crane. My body through the day was very weak, hut my mind was supported by grace. O Lord! carry on the work which thou hast began amongst this people, until all shall serve thee!
Monday 11th. — Spent this day with the Indians; went with a party to the mouth of the River Credit to fish for salmon; caught about forty. Towards evening received the following letter from Colonel Givins, the Indian Agent:
Dear Sir — I have consulted the parties concerned, and it is universally agreed upon that the Indians should meet the day after tomorrow (Wednesday,) at the Humber, to receive their payments and presents, I therefore wish you to be there with your scholars and singers, as the Parson and gentlemen will be up with me to see them.
Yours very truly,
[Signed]J. GIVINS, S. I. A.
To Mr. Peter Jones, alias
Tuesday 12th. — We all started this morning for the Humber, which is about twelve miles from the Credit. Arrived there at 4 P.M., so that we had time to fix our wigwams for the night. At sunset we assembled together for prayers; I took my stand on a pile of stones, and delivered a short exhortation; while I was speaking a number of the Pagan Indians drew near to see and hear, many of whom were quite intoxicated; some appeared to be affected, while others mocked and derided; one old woman in particular, known by the name of Widow Wahbahnoosug, a relative of mine; but my brethren were happy in the Lord, and shouted praises to our Lord and King.
Wednesday 13th. — About 10 a. m., our payments and presents arrived in a boat from York, and soon after Colonel J. Givins came, who informed me that the Hon. Dr. Strachan was coming up to see the Christian Indians; he, with his lady, arrived about noon. The Doctor presented me with three books, and requested me, after the goods were issued, to assemble the Christian Indians together by themselves, that he might hear some of the children sing and read. While they were cutting and dividing the goods, I got the children together, and selected two hymns for them to sing. The Doctor, Colonel, and Lady Strachan were highly pleased. When the issue was over I assembled all the Christian Indians together; two of them read in the Testament and some in easy reading. The Doctor then spoke to us, expressing his happiness in seeing the work of the Lord among us. He then gave us some advice, thinking it would be best for us to settle on the Credit and erect a village, saying he thought the Government would assist us, and wished us to consult about the matter. After this he concluded with prayer. When the Doctor and Colonel left us we talked the subject over, and it was unanimously agreed that it would be best for us to take the Doctor's advice and settle ourselves at the Credit the next Spring. Previous to the arrival of Colonel Givins and the military officers, I had consulted with the prinicipal Christian men as to the propriety of our refusing to receive fire-water, which always accompanied the annual presents, to which they all agreed, and requested me to communicate the same to Colonel Givens, which I did. After conversing with the officers on the subject, they kindly complied with our wish, and the kegs of rum were taken back to York.
Thursday 14th. — Got ready for starting home to the Grand River, but first rode down to town to transact some business. Had another interview with Dr. Strachan, who appeared very friendly, and gave me some more advice as to the way we had better proceed to obtain assistance from Government in our proposed undertaking to settle at the Credit. Sent an appointment by the Indians to meet them at the Credit at 3 p. m., but was detailed in town much longer than I expected, which made me quite late; we however held a meeting, and the Lord poured out his spirit upon us, so that many rejoiced, and sinners were pricked to the heart. I was happy to see a large accession to our party of Christian Indians from the pagans who agreed to accompany us to the Grand River.
From the 15th to the 17th we were travelling home to the Grand River. Held several prayer meetings on the way. Arrived on Sunday morning, and heard Mr. Matthews, a local preacher, at 10 o'clock; it was a precious time both at preaching and class meeting.
Sunday 31st. — Rev. A. Torry commenced divine worship at 10 a. m.; I interpreted for him; the house was very crowded. At our class meeting there was much joy, for many of our people who had come up from the Credit had this day determined to enlist on the Lord's side, and forty-five of them were publicly baptized by the Rev. A. Torry. O the wonderful goodness of God to these poor benighted people! May He who has begun this glorious work carry it on! August 1st, 1825. — Made out a return of the number of Church Members, which was as follows: Mohawks, 27; Ojebways, or as they are commonly called, Messissaugas, 68; Whites, 6. Total 101.
Sunday, August 7th. — Mr. Mudge, an exhorter, spoke to us to-day with much feeling; we had a profitable season.
Tuesday 9th. — The Rev. R. Corson preached a funeral sermon on the death of, as he is generally known, Yankee Jem's child, who died yesterday.
Wednesday 10th. — Accompanied a hunting party to Burford, and if I had not had the good luck to kill one deer, we should have returned home more hungry than when we started. Reached home on the 12th, much fatigued with my journey, and had fears that I should be sick, but the Lord gave me strength again.
Tuesday 23rd. — Started this morning with five of my Indian brethren to the West, for the purpose of labouring for a season amongst the Munceys and Ojebways on the River Thames. Travelled about twenty miles and put up at a public house, where we had prayers in the evening. My mind was somewhat cast down this day.
Wednesday 24th. — Travelled about twenty-five miles this day to Westminster; baited our horses in Oxford, where we visited Mr. E. Harris, who was very low with a fever; prayed with him and then departed.
Thursday 25th. — Started early this morning for George Turkey's, the Muncey Chief, who received us on our last visit. When we arrived at Delaware, we saw a few Chippeways who were dressing deer skins; we spoke to them of the Christian religion; they listened with great attention, and said if their Chiefs were willing to become Christians they would be willing too. Arrived at Turkey's before sun set — found Mr. John Carey in good health: he was glad to see us, and informed me that he had eighteen native scholars, and that the Indians were quite friendly to him. In our evening devotions we had a solemn time; our party prayed fervently for the conversion of these Indians. Turkey himself appeared very devout.
Saturday 27th. — Started to visit an Ojebway settlement of Indians, called Tumeko's Camp, about twelve miles down the river. Arrived there at 3 o'clock, p. m.; after saluting old Tumeko, the Chief, and others, they showed us an empty wigwam, where we could stay, and gave us some green corn to roast; presently after they brought in a kettle of soup, upon which, we feasted. Here we were so beset with those little tormentors, puhbig (fleas), that sleep was out of the question; to obtain any rest, I made strings of basswood bark and tied my wrists and ankles tightly round. By this means I partly defeated their attacks.
Sunday 28th. — In the afternoon, we assembled the Chiefs and men together, in order to ascertain the state of their minds; we commenced by singing and prayer. I then endeavoured to point out to them the nature of the Christian religion, and the necessity for them to embrace it; they listened with great attention, and after I finished, they made their objections, stating that when God made the world he placed the Indians in this land and gave them their way of Worship; that the Hats (meaning the white people), were placed in another land over the great waters with their own way of worship, and concluded by saying that they would never quit their own way. They brought forward many other objections of a feeble nature. I answered some of them, but I saw that they were so determined to resist the Christian religion that all arguments for the present would be ineffectual. In my opinion one thing that made them oppose so strongly, was that they were making great preparations to hold a great pow-wow, or magic dance, when they intended to display all their magical arts and offer sacrifices of meat, soup, and whiskey to their gods. Oh the pain of mind I felt when I heard them solemnly protest against the Christian religion, knowing that there is no other name given under heaven whereby we can be saved, but the only name of Christ Jesus our Lord!
Monday 29th. — Early this morning we left these poor deluded people, and on our way, stopped for a short time at Lower Muncey, to ascertain the state of the minds of those Indians. I conversed with our old friend Widow Dolson, who on our first visit so kindly entertained us. She informed me that the men were preparing for a great hunt in order to get some meat for a feast that was to take place in a few days. I asked her how they would like to have a School and Missionary to preach to them. She answered some would be willing, and others strongly oppose it, but that the young men would agree to whatever the Chief's thought proper. We then proceded to George Turkey's; two of our men volunteered to go and visit a small body of Ojebways, on the head waters of the river Canan. We held prayers in the evening with Chief Turkey's family and others. They shewed great seriousness, and some of them called upon the Lord to have mercy on them. I believe the Lord has begun a good work in the hearts of this people, and I pray that he may carry it on till the work of conviction ends in conversion.
Tuesday 30th. — I went with Mr. Carey and one of our Indian brethren to the Back Street, where Mr. Carey expected the Rev. J. Jackson would preach, but finding him unwell, we were disappointed. Mr. C. requested me to lead the meeting, but I was compelled to decline through fear. Mr. C. then prayed and exhorted the people, after which I spoke a short time. The people were quite attentive, and I hope some good was done.
Wednesday 31st. — Started early this morning for Upper Muncey, expecting the arrival of the Rev. A. Torry about noon. Two or three Indians came for the purpose of hearing more about the Christian religion, but as I waited some time for Mr. J. Carey and Rev. A. Torry, they went away without my having any opportunity of speaking publicly to them.
Thursday, 1st September, 1825. — This day Rev. A. Torry arrived at George Turkey's. In the evening we all went to Lower Muncey, where there was to be a great feast of the offerings of the first fruits of the earth — which feast the Munceys hold annually. They brought a little of all that they raised, such as Indian corn, potatoes, pumpkins, beans, melons, and squashes, together with twelve deer. The Indian women were busily engaged cooking their provisions. Previous to the commencement of their exercises, they invited us strangers into a long Pagan Temple, prepared for such purposes. There is a door at each end, one opening to the east, and the other to the west. On entering we observed all the Indians seated on the ground round two fires. In the centre of the temple was a large post, round which was suspended a number of deer skins and wampum. I was also informed that wampum is kept buried at the foot of this post. Near the post sat two Indian singers, each with a large bundle of undressed deer skins, which served as drums. There were two young men appointed to watch the doors and keep the fires burning. The doors being closed, the young men brought each of them an armful of hemlock boughs, which being thrown on the fires, smothered them and caused a great smoke, in order that the smoke might fill every corner of the temple. Each man waved his blanket over the fire. This was done with the idea of purifying the temple and driving out the evil spirits. After the smoke subsided, an old Chief rose up, who was the master of the ceremony, with a turtle shell in his hand, which he began to rattle; he then delivered a speech to the people, telling them the object of their meeting, that they had come together to thank the Great Spirit for the growth and ripening of their corn, &c. When he finished his speech he began to dance, sing, and rattle the shell — the two singers sang with him, beating on their skins; when he took his seat he handed the shell to the next person, who performed in the same way. Thus it went on from one to the other all night. The purport of their speeches was recounting the mercies of the Great Spirit to them during the past year, and telling any remarkable dreams they had had. In the course of the night a number of them went out at the west door, making a wailing noise to the moon; they came in again at the east door. In the morning the meat and soup were divided amongst the people. These feasts often last several days. No drinking or improper conduct is allowed; the utmost solemnity prevails.
Sunday 4th.— Mr. Carey and I held a meeting with the Indians. I spoke to them of the Christian religion; they paid great attention, and I trust some good was done. Towards night I took a walk about two miles and found my horse.
Tuesday 6th. — Mr. B. accompanied me to Otter Creek, where I found my party engaged in religious exercises, conducted by Rev. A. Torry; we had a refreshing season while waiting on God.
Wednesday 7th. — Started for Long Point; in the evening arrived at Rev. G. Ryerson's, who received us cordially.
Thursday 8th. — Reached the Grand River Mission, where we found our friends well, and as much engaged as ever in the work of the Lord.
September 13th, 1825.— Started from the Grand River to attend the Conference, to be held at Fifty Mile Creek. During the sitting of the Conference a Missionary Meeting was held; Thomas Davis, the Mohawk Chief, made a speech. After the Conference I went to the Credit, and held a meeting on the Sunday, 2nd of October, a mile and a half from the mouth of the river.
Sunday, Oct. 2nd, 1825. — Preached to my Indian brethren at the Credit Flats during this day. Elder Case paid us a visit during this week.
Sunday, Oct. 16th. — Held meetings with the Indians on the Flats. During this week Elder Case visited and preached to us at the Flats. My brother John and I went to York on business.
Sunday, Oct. 23rd. — Held a meeting two miles west of the Credit, amongst the while people.
Thursday 27th. — Went to York and had an interview with the Lieut. Governor, Sir Peregrine Maitland, on the subject of forming a settlement at the Credit.
Sunday Oct. 30th. — Held meetings on the Credit Flats. During this week Col. Givins and Mr. Chewett, of the Surveyor General's Office, came up and laid out our town-plot. We all assisted in running out the same.
Sunday, Nov. 6th. — Preached at the Credit Flats. N. B. We, the Christian Indians, returned in this month to the Grand River, where our people wintered. The Rev. Wm. Case continued to manifest his ardent zeal for the prosperity of the Indians. He was now removed from this to the Bay of Quinte District, but in every way in his power aided us in the work amongst the Indians by correspondence, as the following letter will show:
|York, Oct. 5th, 1825.|
|Dear Brother — I have left money with Brother Patrick to procure a Book for Records, which please use after the following manner :—
After the first six pages (which leave blank for the purpose of introductory remarks, by way of history, concerning the society,) write out a list of the names of the members of the Society. In doing this, first give their Indian name, then the name by which they were baptized, and of what tribe. Then leave a blank for the
|insertion of other names hereafter, of about twelve pages. Then commence the baptisms. * * * * * * * *
You will see that the Book is deposited in safe keeping, free from wet and other injury.
|P. S. — Write me from this place by mail to Kingston, if any thing favourable takes place concerning Indian affairs. — Farewell.|
To the foregoing I sent the following reply:
|York, Nov. 10th, 1825.|
|Dear Brother — Shortly after I saw you, I received the Book for Church Records, and your directions. You likewise wished me to inform you if anything of importance took place respecting our Indian affairs.
There was nothing of importance took place on our first visit to York, but on the 27th of October last, my brother John and I had an interview with His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor respecting the settlement of our Christian Indians on the River Credit. He has kindly offered to build twenty dwelling houses, and a school house for us, between this and next spring. He manifested great satisfaction in hearing of the reformation amongst the Indians, and seems inclined to do something to help them. I do not know to what extent he will aid us in our establishment, but he has certainly opened the hand of liberality to us to build twenty hewed log houses, which will not cost a little.
The good Lord is still carrying on his work amongst us, in bringing poor Indians out of heathenish darkness to the most marvellous light of the Gospel. Yes, dear brother, you may rejoice over ten more converted Indians, since you saw us last at the River Credit. I have, indeed, for my part experienced the greatest blessings since I have been labouring amongst my nation. Frequently in our meetings the Lord pours out His Holy Spirit upon us, like as in the ancient days, so that the voice of praise to God is heard afar off. O! blessed be the name of God for what he has done for us poor Indians: it makes me rejoice while writing these few lines. We have not forgotten the request and promise you made when you
|took leave of us at the Credit, that we should pray for you and the Indians down in your quarter, and that you would pray for as. I have frequently heard the Indians pray for you that you might be successful in persuading both the white people and the poor Indians to become Christians, and I hope we have an interest in your prayers, that we may be faithful unto death. We intend returning home next week to winter at the Grand River, and in the Spring come down here again. A word of advice will be thankfully received.|
|I remain your unworthy friend,|
|PETER JONES, alias|
|To Rev. W. CASE.|
The following letter is from Mr. Carey, the Munceytown School Teacher, shewing the progress of the work in that place:
|Munceytown, October 22nd, 1825.|
|Dear Brother — This opportunity of writing to you by the hand of my father, I seize with pleasure, to inform you that my health is good, and my heart still bent to serve the cause of Christianity in this place. I have been disappointed in not getting up my house this winter, but I have nearly finished George Turkey's, and hope in a few days to be comfortable. Two young men came the other day and made application for attending the school; one from Big Bend, the other from Moravian Town.
Peter keeps steady. George Turkey appears in good earnest for the Kingdom of Heaven. All is peace here, and hopes are good.
* * * * * * * * * * My fellow citizens of the States, have sent me a good supply of books and stationery, and thanks be to God, I am better provided for than I expected to be in many respects.
What are your prospects amongst the Indians? What has become of the fine that went to your company from Tumeko's Tribe? are questions I want you to answer in your next, which do not fail to write as soon as you receive this. Remember me to your muchrespected father, your brother John, and little Johnny, and all that may enquire for me.
|The Lord keep you and me from falling into sin, is the prayer of|
|Your most obedient,|
The following I received from the Rev. W. Case, in answer to my last:
|York, 4th December, 1825.|
|Dear Brother, — I write you in haste to acknowledge your letter of 10th of November, and thank you for the interesting information it afforded. We were all much rejoiced to hear of the conversion of ten more of your nation, and of the perseverance of the Indian brethren. We are very desirous that you should make us a visit some time this winter or spring. There are a number of Ojebways at Belleville and the Bay Quinte, who would probably be profited as well as Mohawks. If you could be down in February we should like to send up with you a number of Ojebway boys; they are from nine to fifteen years old, and will be in from their hunting after January. If you can come, make your calculations to be at Bay Quinte by the 12th of February, and Belleville by the 19th, by which means we might have an opportunity of doing good to both Mohawks and Ojebways. The Mohawks have heard of the work at the Grand River, and I think are prepared to receive good. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * If you have time, translate and write out the Lord's prayer in Ojebway.|
|I would recommend you to teach the Lord's prayer and ten commandments to your people, and other sayings of Scripture.|
|The boys are old enough to come up on foot, but I should like them to have company. If you will write me at Kingston that you intend to come, I will have the boys ready.|
|Very affectionately your's in the love of Christ,|
|P. S. — My kind and respectful regards to your parents and friends. Please inform me in your letter about the boy who came 100 miles to school.|
|Mission House, Grand River, Dec. 28th, 1825.|
|Dear Brother, — Yesterday I received your letter of the 14th inst., and in answer, inform you that it gave me much satisfaction to hear from you, and of the opening prospects of doing the Indian tribes good in your District. I intend to visit you (if it be the will of Providence,) some time in February, that I may meet your wishes. I will endeavour to be down at one of your quarterly meetings.|
|With gratitude to Almighty God, I inform you that the work of reformation is still progressing. About twenty-four have joined us since the Conference, — seven Mohawks and seventeen Ojebways; but as I suppose Mr. Torry corresponds with you, it will be needless for me to enter into particulars. As to the boy who came from York to school, he has not attended since we came from the Credit, but tells me he intends to go to school after he gets settled: he is shortly to be married.|
|I hope, dear brother, we have an interest in your prayers, that the Lord may prosper His work amongst us, and that we may hold fast the beginning of our confidence in the Saviour. I have had many inward trials of late, but I trust the Lord has brought me out of them all. O pray for me, that I may be strong in the Lord, and that I may be humble!|
|I conclude, by wishing you much success in your labours, and that there may be an ingathering of souls unto Shiloh.|
|I am your unworthy friend and brother,|
|To the Rev. W. Case.|
The following extract is from a letter of the Rev. W. Case to Mr. Crawford, School Teacher among the Indians at the Upper Mohawk:
|Stoney Creek, 18th Jan, 1825.|
|My Dear Brother, —
* * * * * * * * * *
|they have their prejudices, and these must, by perseverance, be done away. I think we might do them good if we could visit them often, and I know of none more likely to get access to them than yourself and brother Peter Jones. Can you or he make them a visit during the winter or spring? We wish much an attempt for their reformation, or ruin will be the consequence of their intemperate habits, though they are as yet far less intemperate than the Indians on the Grand River were. What is brother Peter doing? Tell him that by all that is lovely in the sacred duties of religion, not to think of the world, its cares, and wealth, but to spend his life in the service of the Church of Christ, in bringing sinners to the knowledge of the truth. There is much for him to do, and he will be wanted, for there are new and important fields opening for faithful, humble labourers. * * * * * * * * *|
|What progress are you making in the Indian language? Have any more Indians been converted?|
- This excellent brother has since died happy in the Lord, January 14th, 1847.
- *This woman was soon truly converted, and has continued a faithful Christian ever since. A few winters after, she was afflicted with lameness, which prevented her walking, but so great was her attachment to the house of God that I have often seen her crawl through the snow in order to enjoy the ordinances. At a love feast I once heard her say that she was so happy that her sufferings were not worthy to be named. That she felt as if her body was one round heart hovering in the air, filled with the life of God, and ready to fly away to heaven.
- From that time to the present no ardent spirits have been issued to Christian Indians.