Manning, Henry Edward (DNB00)

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MANNING, HENRY EDWARD (1808–1892), cardinal-priest, youngest son of William Manning, West India merchant, of Billiter Square, London, by his second wife, Mary, daughter of Henry Lenoy Hunter of Beech Hall, near Reading, Berkshire, was born at his father's country house, Copped Hall, Totteridge, Hertfordshire, on 15 July 1808. On the father's side he was probably descended from a family settled in Jamaica in the time of Charles II; his mother's family is said to have been of Italian extraction, Hunter being a translation of the Italian name Venatore. His father, who made and lost a considerable fortune, sat in parliament in the tory interest from 1794 to 1830, and in 1812-18 was governor of the Bank of England. In 1815 he removed from Copped Hall to Coombe Bank, Sundridge, Kent. There Manning made friends with Charles and Christopher Wordsworth [q. v.], afterwards bishops of St. Andrews and Lincoln respectively, whose father, the Rev. Christopher Wordsworth [q. v.], brother of William Wordsworth the poet, and afterwards master of Trinity College, Cambridge, held the rectory of Sundridge from 1815 to 1820. Manning followed Charles Wordsworth to Harrow in 1822, and thence to Oxford, where he matriculated on 2 April 1827, entering Balliol College. He brought with him the reputation of an athlete and sportsman; he was a bold rider and a skilful oarsman, had played in more than one eleven at Lord's, and had killed a hare with his first shot, but had not greatly distinguished himself as a scholar. A certain air of authority had gained him the sobriquet of 'The General,' and he is said to have been inclined to dogmatise on matters of which he knew little or nothing (cf. Sir Francis Hastings Doyle, Reminiscences, p. 105).

Manning's private tutor was Charles Wordsworth, and among his fellow-pupils were Mr. Gladstone and James Robert Hope, afterwards Hope-Scott [q. v.], with both of whom he formed enduring friendships. He read hard, and took a first class in the classical schools in Michaelmas term 1830. He also acquired some knowledge of Italian—in his shaving time, it is said—but, like Newman, he remained entirely ignorant of German. He was one of the readiest and most effective of the speakers at the Union, of which he was president in Michaelmas term 1829, the term of the historic debate (26 Nov.) with the Cambridge men on the comparative merits of Byron and Shelley as poets, when he left the chair to sustain the cause of Byron. Nearly half a century later (22 Oct. 1873) he spoke at the banquet given in commemoration of the foundation of the society at the Oxford Corn Exchange.

Manning's natural bent was towards political life; but a parliamentary career being, in consequence of his father's losses, out of the question, he obtained soon after taking his degree (2 Dec. 1830) a subordinate post in the colonial office—probably as private secretary to one of the chief clerks, for he was not paid out of public funds—read political economy, and dined with the Political Economy Club. By the advice, however, of a pious lady of evangelical views, Miss Favell Lee Bevan, afterwards Mrs. Mortimer [q. v.], he returned to Oxford, and having been elected to a fellowship at Merton College on 27 April 1832, was ordained on 23 Dec, and at once took a curacy under the Rev. John Sargent, the evangelical rector of Woollavington-cum-Graffham, Sussex. On 6 June 1833 he proceeded M.A., and four days later (Sargent having recently died) was instituted to the rectory of Woollavington, and on 16 Sept. following to that of Graff ham. On 7 Nov. the same year he married the late rector's third daughter, Caroline, the ceremony being performed in Woollavington Church by the bride's brother-in-law, the Rev. Samuel Wilberforce [q. v.], afterwards successively bishop of Oxford! and Winchester. A model parish priest, Manning rebuilt both his churches, and cared for the bodies as well as the souls of his parishioners, by whom he was greatly beloved. Long afterwards, in one of the finest passages in his writings, he spoke of the love he felt for 'the little church under a green hillside, where the morning and evening prayers and the music of the English Bible for seventeen years became a part of my soul' (England and Christendom, p. 124). In 1837 Manning was appointed to the second rural deanery of Midhurst. The same year (24 July) Mrs. Manning died of consumption. The marriage, though childless, had been extremely happy, and Manning felt his wife's loss acutely, and to the end of his days religiously observed the anniversary of her death.

At his ordination Manning already believed in baptismal regeneration. In 1834 he adopted Hooker's doctrine of the eucharist, and about the same time he assimilated the doctrine of apostolical succession, and learned to attach a high value to tradition (cf. his first published sermon, The English Church; its Succession and Witness, London, 1836, and another, The Rule of Faith, London, 1838, 8vo). How far this rapid development was spontaneous, how far due to the influence of 'Tracts for the Times,' cannot be precisely determined. He was not at the time closely associated with any of the leaders of the tractarian movement, and he never contributed to the tracts. Whatever savoured of Erastianism was now utterly abhorrent to him. In the ecclesiastical commission of 1835 he discerned 'a virtual extinction of the polity of the church' (The Principle of the Ecclesiastical Commission examined, in a Letter to the Right Rev. Lord Bishop of Chichester, London, 1838, 8vo). He was feeling his way towards a scheme for a thorough system of national but clerically controlled education, and took an active part in the establishment of diocesan boards in connection with the National Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor. On 30 Dec. 1840 he was instituted to the archdeaconry of Chichester, and in his first 'charge' deplored the paralysis of convocation. In 1842 he was appointed select preacher at Oxford, and published, under the title 'The Unity of the Church,' London, 1842, 8vo, 2nd edit. 1845, an able exposition of Anglo-catholic principles, intended to serve as a complement, and, to some extent, as a corrective of Mr. Gladstone's essay on 'The State in its Relations with the Church.' He had still, however, no sympathy with Rome, and after arguing elaborately for visible organic unity as a note of the true church, devoted a footnote (pp. 152-4) and a few pages in the last chapter to the discussion of the Roman claim to primacy. 'Tract XC he thought casuistical, and deeply grieved Newman by preaching a strongly anti-papal sermon in St. Marys, Oxford, on Guy Fawkes' day 1843. Like Newman, he could fill St. Mary's on a week-day. His 'Sermons preached before the University of Oxford,' published in 1844 (Oxford, 8vo), are characterised by deep spirituality and occasional eloquence.

With W. G. Ward [q. v.] Manning had no personal acquaintance until Ward's degradation by the Oxford convocation, 13 Feb. 1845; against this step he recorded his vote, having come to Oxford in the worst of weather for the express purpose. After the sentence he met Ward in Dr. Pusey's rooms. A long conversation followed on Lutheranism, and Ward, defending the strongly anti-Lutheran position taken up in his book on 'The Ideal of a Christian Church,' drew from Manning the remark that that was the most Lutheran book he had ever read. The reference, of course, was to the extreme vehemence of its denunciatory passages. The connection thus formed ripened into a close friendship which lasted throughout Ward's life, though Manning was at first extremely pained by Ward's marriage.

After the secession of Ward and Newman, Manning became for a time one of the most trusted leaders of the high church party; nor was his confidence in the tenability of its position seriously shaken until he proved the difficulty of making it intelligible to foreigners during a tour on the continent, July 1847 to June 1848. He travelled slowly through Belgium and Germany to Italy, was much impressed by the apparent vitality of Romanism, and in May 1848 had an audience of Pope Pius IX, who praised the philanthropic spirit of English Christianity. On his return to England he found the church in a turmoil about the recent elevation of Renn Dickson Hampden [q. v.] to the episcopal bench. The education question had also entered on a new phase, in consequence of the determination of government to make grants in aid of new elementary schools conditional upon the insertion in their trust deeds of certain clauses providing for their management by local committees. These clauses were regarded by the clergy with much suspicion, and at a meeting of the National Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor, held in Westminster on 6 June 1849, the Rev. G. A. (now Archdeacon) Denison moved a resolution adverse to the acceptance of state aid on such terms, but afterwards withdrew it in favour of an amendment by Manning to much the same effect, but couched in more diplomatic language. A compromise was eventually arrived at. On 8 March 1850 judgment was given by the privy council in the case of George Cornelius Gorham [q. v.], who had been refused institution to a living on account of his unorthodox views on baptism, and twelve days later Manning's name appeared in the 'Times' at the head of the subscribers to a protest against the decision. On the defeat of the attempt subsequently made to settle the question by legislation, Manning published a letter to his bishop (Ashurst Turner Gilbert), entitled 'The Appellate Jurisdiction of the Crown in Matters Spiritual,' London, 1850, 8vo, in which, with more ingenuity than cogency, he argued that no such jurisdiction in fact existed. He also put in circulation a 'declaration' against the jurisdiction, which was signed by eighteen hundred of the clergy during the autumn. The acquiescence of the rest convinced him that the church of England was no branch of the church catholic. At the same time nothing was further from his thoughts than to become the founder of an Anglo-catholic free church. 'Three hundred years ago,' he said, when the suggestion was made, 'we left a good ship for a boat. I am not going to leave the boat for a tub.'

Meanwhile the excitement caused by the so-called papal aggression reached its height, and by the irony of fate Manning's last official act as archdeacon of Chichester was to preside at a 'No Popery' meeting of his clergy summoned (ministerially) by himself. The meeting was held in Chichester Cathedral Library on 22 Nov. 1850. Manning formally presided, but except to express his entire want of sympathy with the object of the meeting took no part in the proceedings. The meeting over, he resigned his archdeaconry and came to London, where, after some months of anxious thought, he was received into the church of Rome with his friend Hope at the residence attached to the Jesuits' Church, Farm Street, Mayfair, on Passion Sunday, 6 April 1851. On the following Sunday he received minor orders from Cardinal Wiseman, by whom he was ordained priest on 14 June. A confessional was at once assigned him in Farm Street Church. By his secession Manning sacrificed a dignified position in a church to which he was attached by the strongest ties of sentiment for a doubtful future in one regarded with intense hostility by all ranks of English society. He had been powerfully influenced by Newman's 'Development of Christian Doctrine,' and had in effect adopted its principles without realising either their practical result or the legal position of the church of England until the Gorham case compelled him to confront both the one and the other. A study of the 'Loci Theologici' of Melchior Canus then completed what Newman had begun. During the period of inward debate he suffered extremely. 'E da martirio venni a questa pace' (And from martyrdom came I to this peace), he wrote when it was over, slightly misquoting the closing words of canto xv. of Dante, 'Paradiso,' in which Cacciaguida describes his translation to heaven.

The winter of 1851 saw Manning established in Rome, where he spent the best part of the next three years in study at the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici and in the intimate society of Pius IX. The summers he divided between England and Ireland. His first appearance in a Roman catholic pulpit was made in the little chapel in Horseferry Road, Westminster, on 10 June 1852. The same year he published four lectures delivered in Southwark on 'The Grounds of Faith' (London, 8vo, 9th ed. 1888), in which he represented Romanism as the only alternative to rationalism. His first sermon in Rome, preached in the church of S. Andrea della Valle on 13 Jan. 1853, made a profound impression. In England he made several proselytes, among them his elder brother, Charles John Manning, whose wife had already seceded, and whose family followed suit, Edward Lowth Badeley, Q.C. [q. v.], and Archdeacon Robert Isaac Wilberforce [q. v.] In 1854 he received from the pope the degree of D.D., and began regular work in England, retaining his confessional at Farm Street, and throwing himself with great zeal into a movement for establishing reformatories. In 1857 he was made provost of the chapter of Westminster by the pope, who also sanctioned a rule which he had drawn up for a community of secular priests, modelled on that founded at Milan by St. Charles Borromeo in the sixteenth century, and subject to the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Westminster. Installed as superior of this 'Congregation of the Oblates of St. Charles,' as it was called, at the mother-house of St. Mary of the Angels, Westmoreland Road, Bayswater, on Whitsunday, 31 May 1857, Manning occupied himself during the next eight years with its direction, with preaching, the care of education, mission work in the slums of Westminster, and the literary defence of the temporal power of the pope. During this period he was frequently at Rome, where he preached several times at S. Andrea della Valle and other churches, and in 1860 was appointed by the pope his domestic prelate and protonotary apostolic, with episcopal rank and the title of Monsignore, to which the envious added the epithet Ignorante, in reference to his real or supposed want of perfect accomplishment in the refinements of theology and ceremonial etiquette. The honourable reception accorded to Garibaldi on his visit to England in the spring of 1864 drew from Manning a strong protest in the shape of a letter to the Right Hon. E. Cardwell, reprinted in his 'Miscellanies,' vol. i. The same year he published two letters 'To an Anglican Friend,' in which he expatiated on the progress of rationalism within the church of England as shown by the judgment of the privy council in regard to the 'Essays and Reviews' and the impotence of convocation in the matter. A third on 'The Workings of the Holy Spirit in the Church of England,' addressed to Dr. Pusey, elicited that theologian's celebrated 'Eirenicon.' All three letters, with a pastoral on 'The Reunion of Christendom,' issued in 1866, and an historical introduction, were reprinted in 1867 under the title 'England and Christendom' (London, 8vo).

On the death of Cardinal Wiseman, Manning preached his funeral sermon at St. Mary's, Moorfields (23 Feb. 1865). On 30 April following the pope, obedient to an inward voice which said ever to him 'mettetelo li,' 'mettetelo li' (place him there), nominated Manning to the vacant see of Westminster, though he had been passed over by the chapter. He was consecrated at St. Mary's, Moorfields, on 8 June, received the pallium at Rome on Michaelmas day, and was enthroned at St. Mary's, Moorfields, on 6 Nov. The same year he published 'The Temporal Mission of the Holy Ghost' (London, 8vo, later edits. 1877, 1888, 1892), in which he retracted certain 'errors' contained in his Anglican writings and expounded the Roman catholic doctrine of the functions of the Holy Spirit in his fourfold relation to the church, human reason, holy scripture, and tradition. Ten years later he published a complementary volume on 'The Temporal Mission of the Holy Ghost' (London, 8vo), in which he dealt with the work of the Holy Ghost in the individual soul. These two treatises contain his most characteristic and systematic teaching.

As an archbishop Manning was by no means disposed to minimise his authority, and his autocratic methods were at first the more irksome to the clergy within his jurisdiction by contrast with the easy-going ways of his predecessor. Gradually, however, he established cordial relations with all his subordinates. If exacting towards others, he by no means spared himself. During the greater part of his long tenure of office it was his custom to spend his summer holidays in visiting the principal towns of the northern dioceses, preaching, lecturing, and holding receptions as he went. A thorough ultramontane, he italianised the vestments of his priests and their pronunciation of Latin, discountenanced all music but the Gregorian, and heartily approved of the papal veto placed upon Newman's scheme for a Roman catholic hall at Oxford. The church, he held, must provide for the education of her children within her own unity, and the paramount need of the hour was primary education. Accordingly in 1866 he established the Westminster Diocesan Education Fund, for the maintenance and extension of Roman catholic primary schools. He also founded in various parts of the diocese, homes, orphanages, industrial, reformatory, and poor schools for Roman catholic children, and spared no pains to obtain their legal custody from boards of guardians and other authorities. By a quarter of a century of such patient labour he succeeded in doubling the number of children in receipt of education in his schools, though the Roman catholic population had not increased. (For details see his 'Lenten Pastoral' for 1890 and 'The Month' for February 1892.)

In order not to overtax the liberality of his people he suffered the scheme for a cathedral at Westminster to remain in abeyance, but founded in 1867 the pro-cathedral at Kensington. Plans, however, were drawn and funds accumulated for the cathedral, for which in 1868 the site of the disused Tothill Fields Prison was secured. In 1872 a roomy but barrack-like structure, which had served as a club for the guards in Carlisle Place, Vauxhall Bridge Road, was purchased at a low figure, and converted into an archiepiscopal residence. Thither Manning removed from the house in York Place, Baker Street, which had been his residence since his accession to the see, and there he resided in great simplicity, yet hospitable with the hospitality of the true Christian bishop, for the rest of his life.

To prepare the way for the œcumenical council of 1870, Manning issued two pastorals, viz. 'The Centenary of St. Peter and the General Council' (London, 1867, 8vo) and 'The Œcumenical Council and the Infallibility of the Roman Pontiff' (London, 1869, 8vo), in which he marshalled at great length the evidence for the thesis of the infallibility of the pope, at the same time dealing superciliously with Gallicanism—an attitude which drew a reply from Dupanloup. As a member of the 'Deputatio pro Rebus ad Fidem pertinentibus' Manning played a prominent part in the proceedings of the council. At its close he issued another pastoral expository of its several decrees, entitled 'The Vatican Council and its Definitions' (London, 1870, 8vo). The three letters were reissued in one volume entitled 'Petri Privilegium' in 1871 (London, 8vo).

Ever vigilant in regard to education, Manning had issued a pastoral on the subject in the autumn of 1869, warning his clergy that a great controversy was impending. While at Rome, amid the stress and strain of the council he found time to master the details of Mr. Forster's measure, and on his return he quietly matured his plans for the defence of the 'voluntary principle' under the new conditions imposed by the act of 1870. In 1872 he made an urgent appeal on behalf of his schools in a pastoral addressed to both clergy and laity, which with that of 1869 was reprinted the same year in a small volume entitled 'National Education and Parental Rights' (London, 8vo). The appeal met with a hearty response, and the schools continued not only to maintain their existence but to increase in numbers and efficiency. In regard to higher education he was less successful. A University College founded at Kensington in 1874 proved, under the management of Monsignor Capel, an entire failure and was closed in 1878. For the training of the clergy he founded in 1876 the diocesan seminary of St. Thomas, Hammersmith, which gave a great impulse to the establishment of similar institutions in other dioceses.

A sentence about the deification of the human nature of Christ in one of Manning's sermons at the pro-cathedral in 1878 (see The Divine Glory of the Sacred Heart, a sermon, London, 1873, 8vo) was impugned as heretical in a private letter by an Anglican clergyman, Dr. A. Nicholson. Manning replied through his secretary, Father Guiron, and a correspondence ensued, which was eventually published in the 'Guardian,' 17 Sept. Manning thereupon reviewed the controversy, defending his orthodoxy with much dialectical skill in a series of anonymous articles in the 'Tablet,' 27 Sept.-25 Oct., reprinted, under the pseudonym 'Catholicus,' and the title 'Dr. Nicholson's Accusation of the Archbishop of Westminster' (London, 1878, 8vo), and afterwards in his 'Miscellanies,' vol. ii.

A pamphlet on 'Cæsarism and Ultramontanism,' published by Manning in 1874, and two articles contributed by him to the 'Contemporary Review' in April and June of that year, in reply to certain criticisms by Mr. (now Sir) James Fitzjames Stephen, are also included in his 'Miscellanies,' vol. ii., and form an extremely coherent statement of the ultramontane theory of the relations of church and state. In 1875 he published 'The Vatican Decrees in their bearing on Civil Allegiance,' London. 8vo, a masterly reply to Mr. Gladstone's 'political expostulation' under the same title. Challenged by Lord Redesdale in the columns of the 'Daily Telegraph,' 9 Oct. 1875, to reconcile the infallibility of the Roman church with her practice of communion in one kind, he published several letters on that topic in the same newspaper. A reprint of them, entitled 'The Infallible Church and the Holy Communion of Christ's Body and Blood,' appeared the same year, London, 8vo.

Meanwhile Manning had received the berretta of a cardinal-priest from the pope, who assigned the church of S. Gregory the Great on the Cœlian for his title. There his enthronement took place in presence of a vast congregation, largely English, on 31 March 1875. He did not receive the hat until 31 Dec. 1877. Pius IX was then in his last illness, and Manning remained at Rome, and was present at his death on 7 Feb. 1878. At the election of his successor he voted with the majority of the conclave. In 1877 appeared 'The True Story of the Vatican Council,' a reprint of a series of articles contributed by him to the 'Nineteenth Century' in that year (London, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1884).

During the last twenty years of his life Manning was a pledged 'total abstainer,' and carried on a crusade as a lecturer and writer against the use of alcoholic stimulants. He was the founder (1868) of the temperance society known as 'The League of the Cross,' and was a strong advocate of the legislative restriction of the liquor traffic (cf. Miscellanies, vol. iii.) His philanthropy was as wide as it was untiring. He sat on the Mansion House committee for the relief of the starving poor of Paris in January 1871, was an active promoter of the Hospital Sunday and Hospital Saturday movements of 1872 and 1874, and pronounced his benison on the newly founded Agricultural Labourers' Union at a meeting in Exeter Hall on 10 Dec. 1872, and on lawful combinations of workmen generally, in a lecture on 'The Dignity and Rights of Labour' (repr. in Miscellanies, vol. ii. and in pamphlet form, 1887, London, 8vo). Before his submission to the see of Rome Manning's political principles were those of a moderate liberal, extremely suspicious of doctrinaire ideas and methods. After that great change they were of course mainly determined by it, but he did not often interfere directly in practical politics. He published, however, in 1868 a manifesto on the disestablishment of the Irish church and the reform of the Irish land laws in the shape of a letter to Lord Grey, reprinted in his 'Miscellanies,' vol. i.; and he was known to favour Mr. Gladstone's later Irish policy, including, with some reservations, the Home Rule Bill of 1886. On the religious issue which he conceived to be involved in the constitutional question raised by the return of Charles Bradlaugh to parliament in 1880, he contributed to the 'Nineteenth Century' and 'Contemporary Review' some animated 'Protests' against any modification of the existing law, and in a series of articles in the former publication he led in 1882-3 the agitation for the amendment of the Education Act of 1870 in the interest of voluntary schools (cf. Miscellanies, vol. iii., and a separate reprint of the articles on the Education Act, with other of his miscellanea, entitled 'National Education,' London, 1889, 8vo). In October 1886 he published in the 'Dublin Review' a direct appeal to Roman catholics to make the amendment of the Education Act a test question at the ensuing general election.

Manning sat on the royal commission of 1884-6 on the housing of the working classes, and signed, besides the principal report, which did little more than indicate the urgency and difficulty of the problem, a supplementary report in favour of the enfranchisement of leaseholds. He was also a member of the royal commission of 1886-7 on the Elementary Education Acts. In the proceedings of both commissions he took an active part, and in the signing of the reports was accorded precedence next after the chairman. The compromise embodied in the Education Act of 1891 was largely due to his skilful and patient advocacy of the claims of voluntary schools.

So far as consisted with his firm and uncompromising adhesion to ultramontane principles, Manning was a patriotic Englishman, full of pride in his country and loyalty to his queen. His sympathy with the needy and suffering was profound, and sometimes for the better of his political economy. In January 1888 he boldly maintained in the 'Nineteenth Century' the right of the sufferers by the prevalent industrial stagnation to 'work or Dread,' and, as a member of a deputation received by Lord Salisbury on 1 Feb. following, urged the advisability of instituting relief works. On occasion of the strike of the London dock labourers in August 1889 he warmly espoused their cause, and materially contributed to bring about an adjustment of the dispute. In December 1890 he published in the 'Nineteenth Century' an article on 'Irresponsible Wealth,' in which he advocated wholesale almsgiving as the social panacea.

Other causes in which Manning interested himself were the suppression of the East African slave-trade and of the Indian custom of 'child-marriage,' state-directed colonisation, and the raising of the minimum age for child-labour (cf. Times, 21 May 1886 and II Feb. 1887). He paid an eloquent tribute to Newman's memory at his requiem mass in the Brompton Oratory on 20 Aug. 1890. His own strength was now failing, but his energy remained unabated, and in the winter of 1891-2 he was hard at work on a scheme for providing maintenance for superannuated teachers, when an attack of bronchitis terminated his life at 8 a.m. on 14 Jan. As the end approached, he was clothed, by his own desire, in the full dress which he wore on state occasions, 'glad,' as he said after making his last profession of faith, 'to have been able to do everything in order,' His remains, after lying in state for some days, were removed to the Brompton Oratory, and were interred in St. Mary 8 cemetery, Kensal Green, on 22 Jan. His obsequies were attended by immense crowds. By his will he appointed three of the oblates of St. Charles and Canon Keens his executors; his property was sworn under 3,000l., and the net value did not exceed 760l.

By his distinguished appearance, fine manners, and exquisite tact, Manning was eminently qualified to make proselytes in the fashionable world. His portrait as he appeared in and to society has been painted by Lord Beaconsfield in the Cardinal Grandison of 'Lothair' and the Nigel Penruddock of 'Endymion.' His saintliness was of the most exalted type, deeply tinged with mysticism and entirely free from spiritual pride and moroseness. His work on 'The Eternal Priesthood' (London, 1883, 8vo) shows how lofty was his conception of priestly dignity and duty.

Manning was above the middle height, spare and agile in frame, with extremely regular and refined features, clear and penetrating grey eyes, and a high and expansive forehead. By the rigour of his asceticism he became in later life attenuated almost to emaciation. A miniature of him (done in 1812) as a child holding a seashell to his ear was the property of his elder brother, Charles John Manning, on whose decease in 1880 it passed to his widow. His portrait in oils, by George Richmond, R.A., painted in 1844, is in the possession of his sister, Mrs. Austen. His bust in marble, by Mr. J. Harvard Thomas, is at Archbishop's House; another in terra-cotta, by Mr. F. F. Stone, for which he gave several sittings shortly before his death, has since been completed.

A great ecclesiastical statesman and diplomatist, an eloquent and impressive preacher, a dogmatic theologian of considerable learning and rare power of logical and luminous exposition, an acute, subtle, and trenchant controversialist, Manning was disqualified for the part of mediator between Christianity and modern thought by the unspeculative and uncritical cast of his mind. At the outset of his career he set his face as a flint against rationalism, and after his secession he denounced it and ‘acatholic’ science generally in unmeasured terms (cf. his sermon The Rule of Faith, London, 888, 8vo; The Temporal Mission of the Holy Ghent, cc. ii.and the chapter on ‘The Gift of the Understanding’ in The Internal Mission of the Holy Ghost). Nevertheless he was a member of the Metaphysical Society, before which in 1871 he read a paper on 'The Relation of the Will to Thought,' published in the ‘Contemporary Review,’ vol. xvi. He also published in pamphlet form in 1872, London, 8vo, a paper on ‘The Dæmon of Socrates,’ read before the Royal Institution; and in the ‘Contemporary Review’ for November 1876 criticised Mr. Kirkman's ‘Philosophy without Assumptions’ from the point of new of St. Thomas Aquinas (see Miscellanies, vols. i. and ii.) A tract entitled ‘Religio Viatoris,’ published in 1887, London, 8vo (later editions 1888 and 1890), contains a summary statement of the philosophical basis of his faith. An article entitled ‘The Church its Own Witness,’ contributed to the ‘North American Review’ in September 1888 (Miscellanies, vol. iii.), is a favourable example of his apologetic method. His Roman catholic writings breathe a spirit of large charity towards those born without the pale of the Roman church. The people of England, he held, had never deliberately rejected the faith, but bad been robbed of it by their rulers; but he had no hope of their speedy return to the true fold. He anticipated the eventual extinction of the protestant religion throughout the world, to followed by a mighty struggle between the papacy and the forces of revolution (cf. England Christendam, pp. 92 et seq.; Miscellanies, i. 75 et seq., iii. 285 et seq., 305 et seq.)

Manning published numerous separate sermons besides those mentioned in the text, and seven 'Charges' delivered at the ordinary visitations of the archdeaconry of Chichester, 1841-3, 1845-6, and 1848-9. He also collected the chief sermons preached before his conversion (1842-50) in 4 vols. 8vo. Subsequently appeared ‘Sermons on Ecclesiastical Subjects, with an Introduction on the Relations of England to Christianity,’ Dublin, 1863-73, 8 vols. 8vo, and ‘Miscellanies,’ 1877-88, 8 vols. 8vo, which include his chief articles in magazines. 'Pastime Papers,' a collection of literary essays, papers posthumously, London, 8vo, 183. His more important works have been translated into French, German, and Italian. The following volumes of selections have also appeared: ‘Thoughts for those that Mourn,’ London, 1848, 16mo; ‘Devotional Readings,' Frome Selwood, 1868, 16mo; ‘Characteristics, Political, Philosophical, and Religious’ (ed. W. S. Lilly), London, 1886, 8vo; ‘Towards Evening,' London, 1887, l6mo.

[Dublin Review, April 1875, and April 1892; Oldcastle's (pseudonym for Wilfrid Maynall) Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster, 1886; Memorials of Cardinal Manning, 1892, A. W. Hutton's Cardinal Manning, 1892; White's Cardinal Manning, 1882; White's Cardinal Manning, 1882; Ornsby's Memoirs of James Robert Hope-Scott; Allies's Life's Decision. pp. 112, 150; Manning's Sermons on Ecclesiastical Subjects, pp. 5-9, and England and Christendom, pp. 3-11; Morley's Reminiscences, i. 423, 430, 446; Overton and Wordsworth's Life of Christopher Wordsworth, pp. 113, 448; Charles Wordworth’s Annals of my Early Life; Sir H. Taylor's Autobiography, p.239; A. J. C. Hare's Memorials of a Quiet Life, ii. 332; Stephens's Life of W. F. Hook, ii. 189, 245; Wilfrid Ward's William George Ward and the Oxford Movement, p. 343, and W. G. Ward and the Catholic Revival, passim; Contemporary Review, February 1892; Nineteenth Century, February 1892; Quarterly Review, July 1892; Strand Magazine, July 1891; Review of Reviews, February and May 1892; Cristofori's Storia dei Caldinali di Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome, 1888); Acta et Decreta Sacrosancti et Œcumenici Concilii Vaticani (Freiburg, 1872); Arthur's The Pope, the Kings, and the People, 1877; Times (see Palmer's Index), 1849-92; Guardian, 6 June 1849, 4-10 April, 17-24 July, 27 Nov. 1850; Tablet, 12 April 1851, 25 Feb., 13 May, 10 June, and 11 Nov. 1865, and January 1892; Lancet, 1872 ii. 761, 857, 866, 1874 ii. 562, 16 Jan. 1892; League of the Cross Magazine, April 1884 p. 70, June 1884 p. 97, November 1885 p. 1; Report of the Speeches at the Banquet in the Corn Exchange, Oxford, on Occassion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Oxford Union Soc. 22 Oct. 1873, Oxford 1874. 8vo; Parl. Papers (H.C.) 1849 xliii. 463, 1090, 1111, 1884-5 xxx. and xiii., 1886 xxv. c. 4863. 1887 xxix. c. 5056. xxx. c. 5158, 1888 xxxv. c. 5485; Foster's Alumni Oxen., Baronetage (s.v. 'Hunter’), and Index Ecclesiasticus; information from Sir R. G. Raper, secretary to the lord bishop and acting registrar of the diocese of Chichester; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. i. 419, 502; Gent. Mag. 1812, pt. ii. p. 92; see also Galaxy, January 1871, and Catholic World, March 1879.]

J. M. R.