Manual of the New Zealand Flora/Rosaceæ

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Order XXIII. ROSACEÆ.

Herbs, shrubs, or trees. Leaves simple or compound, alternate or rarely opposite, stipulate. Flowers usually regular and hermaphrodite, sometimes unisexual. Calyx with the tube free or adnate to the ovary, limb 4–5-lobed, lobes imbricate or valvate. Petals 4–5, rarely wanting, free, inserted on the calyx at the base of the lobes, imbricate. Stamens many, rarely few, inserted on the calyx just within the petals; filaments subulate, often incurved in bud; anthers small, didymous. Ovary of 1 or more free or coherent 1-celled carpels, sometimes adnate to the calyx-tube; styles free or connate; ovules 1 or 2 to each carpel, anatropous. Fruit very various, superior, or more or less inferior and combined with the calyx-tube, of one or many achenes, drupes, or follicles, or a pome, more rarely a berry or capsule. Seeds erect or pendulous, albumen generally wanting; embryo with large plano-convex cotyledons and a stout radicle.

A large order, found all over the world, but most abundant in the temperate and colder parts of the Northern Hemisphere; comparatively rare in the tropics and in the south temperate zone. Genera about 75; species from 1200 to 1500. It includes most of the important cultivated fruits of northern origin, as peaches, plums, apricots, cherries, apples, pears, strawberries, raspberries, &c.; as well as the rose, with its numberless garden varieties. Of the 4 New Zealand genera, Acæna is mainly South American, but extends northwards to California and south-eastwards to Australia and New Zealand; the 3 others are widely spread in temperate regions. Many northern species have established themselves in New Zealand, as will be seen on referring to the list of introduced plants given in the appendix.

Scrambling or climbing shrubs with prickly stems. Fruit of many crowded succulent carpels 1. Rubus.
Herbs with pinnately lobed or divided leaves. Styles elongating after flowering. Fruit-carpels numerous, dry 2. Geum.
Herbs with pinnate leaves. Styles not elongating after flowering. Fruit-carpels numerous, dry 3. Potentilla.
Herbs with pinnate leaves. Fruiting-calyx usually with stiff bristles, often barbed at the top. Carpels 1, rarely 2 4. Acæna.


1. RUBUS, Linn.

Scrambling or climbing shrubs, rarely herbs, almost always prickly. Leaves alternate, simple or compound, usually palmately or pinnately divided into 3–5 lobes or segments or separate leaflets; stipules adnate to the petiole. Flowers in terminal or axillary panicles, rarely solitary. Calyx-tube broad, open; lobes 5, persistent. Petals 5. Stamens numerous. Disc coating the calyx-tube. Carpels many, seated on a convex receptacle; style subterminal; ovules 2, pendulous. Fruit composed of many succulent 1-seeded drupes, crowded upon an oblong or conical dry receptacle. Seed pendulous.

A large genus, common in the temperate portions of the Northern Hemisphere, rarer in the tropics and south temperate zone. The fruits of all the species are edible, and some of them, such as the raspberry and blackberry, both of which have become naturalised in New Zealand, are excellent. All the New Zealand species are endemic.

* Leaves 3–5-foliolate.
A lofty climber. Leaflets glabrous, cordate or truncate at the base. Panicles large. Flowers white 1. R. australis.
Climbing or scrambling, often forming a dense bush. Leaflets glabrous, rounded or cuneate at the base. Panicles small. Flowers yellowish 2. R. cissoides.
Climbing or scrambling, often forming a dense bush. Leaflets often tomentose beneath, broadly ovate. Fruit large, yellowish 3. R. schmidelioides.
** Leaves 1-foliolate.
Small, prostrate. Leaves sharply dentate. Fruit very large 4. R. parvus.


1. R. australis, Forst. Prodr. 224.—A tall climber, reaching the tops of the highest trees; stems stout, woody at the base; branches slender, drooping, armed with scattered recurved prickles. Leaves 3–5-foliolate or rarely pinnate with 2 pairs of leaflets and a terminal one; leaflets coriaceous, glabrous, very variable in size and shape, 2–5 in. long, ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate to linear-oblong or almost linear, acute or acuminate, truncate or cordate at the base, sharply serrate; petioles and midribs armed with recurved prickles. Panicles large, much branched, 6–24 in. long, leafy towards the base; pedicels short, glandular or pubescent. Flowers white, ⅓–½ in. diam., dioecious; males larger and more conspicuous than the females. Petals broadly ovate or oblong. Fruit ¼ in. diam., reddish-orange.—A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 340; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 567; Raoul, Choix, 49; Kirk, Students' Fl. 125. R. australis var. glaber, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 53, t. 14; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 54.

North and South Islands, Stewart Island: Abundant throughout. Ascends to 2800 ft. Tataramoa; Bush-lawyer. September–October.

Distinguished from the other species by its large size, glabrous leaflets cordate or truncate at the base, large panicles, white flowers, and small red fruit.


2. R. cissoides, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 569.—A scrambling or climbing shrub; branchlets slender, unarmed, usually much and closely interlaced, forming a dense bush. Leaves 3–5-foliolate; leaflets 2–5 in. long, narrow-ovate to lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, acuminate, rounded or cuneate at the base, sharply and irregularly serrate or lobed; petioles varying much in length, furnished with fewer and softer prickles than in R. australis. Panicles 2–6 in. long, often reduced to racemes; pedicels pubescent or glabrate. Flowers yellowish-white, ⅓ in. diam., dioecious. Calyx-lobes broadly ovate, tomentose. Petals linear-oblong. Fruit orange-red, much as in R. australis.Raoul, Choix, 49; Kirk, Students' Handb. 126. R. australis var. cissoides, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 53; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 54.

Var. pauperatus, Kirk, l.c.—Leaves reduced to prickly midribs, sometimes with a minute leaflet at the apex.—R. squarrosus, Kerner.

North and South Islands, Stewart Island: Not uncommon from the North Cape southwards, chiefly in lowland districts. September–November.


3. R. schmidelioides, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 568.—A scrambling or climbing shrub; branchlets usually unarmed, often intertwined, forming a dense bush; young shoots pubescent or tomentose. Leaves 3–5-foliolate; leaflets 2–4 in. long, orbicular-ovate or ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate, coriaceous, acute, rounded or cordate at the base, coarsely and irregularly toothed, usually tomentose or pubescent beneath; petioles and midribs with recurved prickles. Panicles 2–8 in. long; branches and pedicels stout, hispid or setose or pubescent. Flowers ⅓ in. diam., whitish, diœcious. Calyx tomentose. Petals broad, rounded. Fruit ⅓ in. diam., pale-yellowish, juicy.—Raoul, Choix, 49; Kirk, Students' Fl. 126. R. australis var. schmidelioides. Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 53; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 54.

Var. coloratus, Kirk, l.c.—Leaflets rugose, white beneath with apressed tomentum.

North and South Islands, Stewart Island: Not uncommon throughout, but mostly in lowland districts. October–November.


4. R. parvus, Buch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. vi. (1874) 243, t. 22, f. 2 and 3.—A dwarf prostrate glabrous shrub; stems creeping, 12–18 in. long, sometimes partly buried in the soil and rooting at the nodes; bark red; prickles few. Leaves 1-foliolate; leaflets bronzy, coriaceous, 1–3 in. long, linear or linear-lanceolate, acute, slightly cordate or truncate at the base, acutely dentate; teeth almost spinous; petioles and midrib with a few stout prickles. Flowers few, diœcious, in short terminal or axillary panicles or solitary; pedicels pubescent. Calyx-lobes silky-pubescent, acuminate, reflexed. Petals white, barely exceeding the calyx. Fruit large, ½–1 in. long, oblong, juicy.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 126.

South Island: River-valleys on the western side of the Southern Alps. Heaphy River, Dall; Buller Valley, Kirk; Lyell River, Dr. Gaze; Lake Brunner, Hector! Teremakau Valley, Kirk! Otira Valley, Cockayne! Petrie! Altitudinal range 250–3000 ft.

Apparently a very distinct species, easily recognised by its small size, 1-foliolate leaves with sharply dentate margins, long acuminate sepals, and large oblong fruit. I cannot agree with Mr. Kirk in thinking that it may be "an arrested form of R. australis."


2. GEUM, Linn.

Perennial herbs. Radical leaves crowded, often rosulate, pinnate or pinnatisect; leaflets toothed or incised, the terminal one often much larger than the others; stem-leaves usually small and bract-like. Flowers in a terminal corymbose panicle or solitary. Calyx persistent; lobes 5, usually alternating with 5 bracteoles. Petals 5. Stamens numerous, crowded. Carpels many; ovules solitary, erect; style terminal, filiform, elongating much after flowering, bent at or below the end. Achenes numerous, compressed, crowded on a dry receptacle, each one terminated by the persistent elongated naked or plumose style.

A genus comprising about 35 species, spread through the temperate and cold regions of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. One of the New Zealand species is widely distributed, another occurs in temperate South America, the rest are endemic.

* Achenes villous. Flowers white except in 1.
Stem leafy, 2–3 ft. high. Flowers yellow 1. G.urbanum.
Leaves chiefly radical, 3–5 in. long. Panicles few-flowered. Styles longer than the achenes 2. G. parviflorum.
Leaves all radical, ¾–1½ in. Flowers small, in 3–5-flowered racemes. Styles shorter than the achenes 3. G. sericeum.
Leaves all radical, 1–3 in. Flowers solitary, large, ¾ in. diam. Styles long 4. G.uniflorum.
** Achenes glabrous. Flowers small, white.
3–6 in. high. Flowers in cymose panicles 5. G . leiospermum.
1–2 in. high. Flowers solitary 6. G. pusillum.

G. alpinum, Buch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 216, is quite unknown to me, and there are no specimens in his herbarium. The original description is vague and insufficient, and the name had far better be dropped.


1. G. urbanum, Linn. Sp. Plant. n. 501, var. strictum.—An erect sparingly branched herb 1–3 ft. high, usually softly pubescent or villous in all its parts. Radical leaves very variable in size, 4–18 in. long including the petiole, pinnate; leaflets 3–5 pairs with much smaller ones intermixed, 1–3 in. long, ovate or obovate, cuneate at the base, sessile, variously toothed lobed or pinnatifid. Cauline leaves few, smaller, with fewer and more sharply toothed leaflets, sessile or nearly so; stipules leafy, coarsely toothed or lobed. Flowers ½–¾ in. diam., yellow, few together in a loose terminal panicle; peduncles slender, erect. Calyx-lobes ovate, acuminate, reflexed in fruit. Petals obovate, exceeding the calyx. Achenes very numerous, forming a dense oblong head, spreading and recurved, hispid with long silky hairs; awn long, hooked at the tip.—Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 55; Kirk, Students' Fl. 128. G. magellanicum, Comm. ex Pers. Syn. ii. 57; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 55.

North and South Islands: Not uncommon from the Paparata Valley and Waikato River southward. Sea-level to nearly 3000 ft. November–January.

The New Zealand variety has a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere, and is found in some parts of Asia as well. It differs from the European G. urbanum principally in the taller and more robust habit and larger flowers.


2. G. parviflorum, Sm. in Rees Cyclop. v. n. 12.—An erect or spreading perennial herb 4–18 in. high, everywhere clothed with silky or villous hairs, sometimes almost shaggy; rootstock stout, woody. Radical leaves 2–5 in. long, pinnate; terminal leaflet very large, ¾–2 in. diam., rouuded-reniform, obscurely 3–5-lobed, crenate, hairy on both surfaces; lateral leaflets 4–8 pairs, all minute, deeply cut and lobed. Cauline leaves or bracts few, small, deeply toothed. Panicles lax, few-flowered; pedicels long, slender. Flowers ½ in. diam., white. Calyx-lobes broadly ovate, obtuse or subacute. Petals broad, obtuse, longer than the calyx. Achenes very numerous, spreading, stipitate, clavate, villous; style slender, straight, villous below, glabrous and hooked at the tip, much longer than the achene.—Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. ii. 263; Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 56; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 55; Kirk, Students' Fl. 129.

North and South Islands: In hilly and mountain districts, from Mount Hikurangi and the Ruahine Range southwards. 1500–5000 ft. December–February. Also in South America, from Chili to Fuegia.


3. G. sericeum, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 129.—"Pubescent, silky or villous in all its parts. Leaves all radical, ¾–1 in. long including the petiole; terminal segment orbicular-cordate or reniform, minutely lobed or crenate-toothed, pubescent and rugose beneath, silky above; lateral leaflets minute or wanting. Scape strict, downy, 2–4 in. high, with 1–3 toothed bracts. Flowers few, small, white, racemose or solitary and terminal. Calyx-tube open, silky; segments narrow, ovate, subacute; bractlets short, ovate. Petals slightly exceeding the calyx, retuse. Receptacle glabrous. Achenes stipitate, obliquely ovate, villous, compressed; style much shorter than the achene, hooked at the tip. Heads not spreading."—Sieversia albiflora, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 9, t. 7.

Auckland Islands: Sir J. D. Hooker, Kirk.

There are no specimens of this in Mr. Kirk's herbarium, and I have therefore copied the description given in the "Students' Flora." Mr. Kirk remarks that it is separated from G. parviflorum by the short ovate bractlets, and compressed oblique achenes with very short styles silky nearly to the apex.


4. G. uniflorum, Buch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. ii. (1S70) 88.—Rootstock creeping, stout and woody, clothed with the reddish bases of the old leaves and stipules. Leaves all radical, 1–3 in. long; terminal leaflet large, ¾–1 in. diam., oblong- or rounded-reniform, obscurely lobed, deeply crenate-toothed; margins densely ciliated; surfaces with a few sparse long hairs or almost glabrous; lateral leaflets 1–2 pairs, minute, deeply toothed and ciliated. Scapes 3–6 in. high, slender, pubescent or villous; bracts 1–2, small, narrow, entire or toothed. Flower solitary, large, white, ¾–1¼ in. diam. Calyx-lobes linear-oblong, obtuse, villous with long hairs. Petals large, broadly obovate or almost orbicular. Achenes villous with long hairs, gradually narrowed into a very long style hooked at the tip.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 129.

South Island: Nelson—Mount Cobb, F. G. Gibbs! Discovery Peaks, H. H. Travers! Mount Buckland, Townson! Canterbury and Westland—Mountains above Arthur's Pass, T. F. C.; Kelly's Hill, Petrie and Cockayne! 3000–5000 ft. January–February.

A handsome and distinct species, easily recognised by the large white solitary flowers.


5. G. leiospermum, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxvi. (1894) 2 7.—Small, slender, 3–6 in. high, silky or villous in all its parts. Radical leaves rosulate, spreading, 1–2 in. long, pinnate; terminal leaflet ⅓–¾ in. diam., broadly ovate or rounded, sometimes obscurely lobed, closely and unequally sharply toothed; lateral leaflets 6–8 pairs, gradually diminishing towards the base of the petiole, sharply toothed or incised; cauline leaves or bracts few, deeply incised. Flowering-stems few or several, erect or spreading, strict, terete, clothed with a short fine pubescence intermixed with long silky hairs, branched above, forming a few-flowered cymose panicle. Flowers small, white, ¼–⅓ in. diam.; pedicels elongating in fruit. Calyx-tube turbinate; lobes ovate-deltoid, acute. Petals small, rounded. Fruiting receptacle silky. Achenes numerous, spreading, 112 in. long, perfectly glabrous, oblong-ovoid, somewhat turgid, narrowed into a short hooked or spirally recurved style.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 130.

South Island: Nelson—Mount Arthur Plateau, T. F. C.; Mount Murchison, W. Townson! Canterbury—Broken River, Enys! Otago—Upper Waipori, Mount Cardrona, Cambrians, Petrie! Ben Lomond, near Queenstown, B. C. Aston! Stewart Island: G. M. Thomson. 1000–4000 ft.

Readily distinguished from all the preceding species by the smooth and glabrous achenes narrowed into a very short recurved style.


6. G. pusillum, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxviii. (1896) 538.—Small, depressed, 1–2 in. high. Leaves few, all radical, rosulate, obovate-spathulate in outline, ¾–l in. long, sparsely covered with rather long strigose hairs, pinnate; terminal leaflet ¼–⅓ in. broad, rounded, crenate-toothed; lateral leaflets 5–8 pairs, gradually diminishing in size, bluntly toothed. Scapes 1–2 in. high, 1-flowered. simple, naked or with 1–3 minute bracts, finely and closely pubescent. Flowers minute, white. Calyx-tube broadly turbinate; lobes ovate-deltoid. Petals 5–6, small, elliptic-oblong. Fruiting receptacle elongated, villous. Achenes very small, perfectly glabrous, obliquely oblong or obovoid; style minute, reduced to a recurved point.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 130.

South Island: Otago—Old Man Range, altitude 5000 ft., Petrie!

Allied to G. leiospermum, but separated by the much reduced size, 1-flowered scapes, smaller flowers, and minute achenes, the style of which is reduced to little more than a hooked point.


3. POTENTILLA, Linn.

Perennial herbs, rarely shrubs. Leaves either pinnate or digitately 3–5-foliolate; stipules adnate to the petiole. Flowers solitary or in corymbose cymes. Calyx persistent, lobes 5 or rarely 4, valvate, alternating with as many bracteoles. Petals 5, rarely 4, usually broad. Stamens numerous. Disc annular or coating the calyx-tube. Carpels many, rarely few, seated on a small dry receptacle; style persistent or deciduous, terminal or lateral; ovule solitary, pendulous. Achenes usually numerous, crowded into a head surrounded by the persistent calyx.

A large genus in the arctic and temperate portions of the Northern Hemisphere, extending into the mountains of the tropics, but extremely rare in the Southern Hemisphere. The New Zealand species is almost cosmopolitan.


1. P. anserina, Linn. Sp. Plant. 495.—Rootstock tufted, giving off long creeping runners rooting at the nodes. Leaves all radical, numerous, 2–6 in. long, unequally pinnate, green and glabrous or slightly silky above, white with appressed silvery tomentum beneath; leaflets numerous, ⅓–1 in. long, oblong or obovate or rounded, alternate ones often minute, deeply and sharply toothed or incised. Peduncles from the rootstock or rooting nodes, 2–6 in. long, 1-flowered. Flowers ½–1 in. diam., yellow. Calyx silky and villous; lobes lanceolate or oblong; bracteoles lobed and cut. Petals obovate. Achenes glabrous or nearly so; receptacle villous.—Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 54; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 54; Kirk, Students Fl. 131.

Var. b, anserinoides.—Leaflets smaller, ¼–½ in. long, sessile or petioled.—P. anserinoides, Raoul, Choix, 28.

North and South Islands, Chatham Islands: Common in moist places from the Auckland Isthmus southwards, ascending to nearly 3000 ft. Silver-weed. December–January.

The typical form of the species is almost cosmopolitan; the var. anserinoides, which is often difficult to distinguish from it, is said to be endemic. It is much the most plentiful state in New Zealand.


4. ACÆNA, Linn.

Silky or glabrous perennial herbs; stems erect at the tips, decumbent or creeping at the base, or altogether prostrate. Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate; leaflets toothed or incised; stipules sheathing at the base, adnate to the petiole. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, small, crowded in a terminal globose head, or in an interrupted spike. Calyx-tube persistent, obconic or turbinate or campanulate, constricted at the mouth, terete or angled, naked or at length armed with simple or barbed spines; lobes 3-7, valvate, persistent or deciduous. Petals wanting. Stamens 1-10, very rarely more. Carpels 1-2, wholly immersed in the calyx-tube; style subterminal, short, exserted, dilated into a fimbriate or plumose stigma; ovule solitary, pendulous. Achenes solitary or rarely 2, enclosed in the hardened calyx, which is usually armed with subulate spines or bristles. Pericarp bony or membranous.

Species about 35, widely spread in the temperate regions of the Southern Hemisphere, but most plentiful in Chili and Peru. One of the New Zealand species is found in Australia and Tasmania, and another in Fuegia and the Falkland Islands; the remainder are all endemic.

A. Calyx-tube not compressed, 4-angled, usually with a stout spine at each angle, rarely spineless.
* Calyx-tube longer than broad.
Usually silky. Heads large, ¾–1¼ in.; spines long, red-purple. Achene narrowed at both ends style="vertical-align:bottom;" 1. A. novæ-zealandiæ.
Usually silky. Heads ½–¾ in. Achenes broadest near the base, narrowed upwards 2. A. sanguisorbæ.
Usually glabrous; leaves often glaucous. Heads ½–¾ in. Achenes narrowed at both ends 3. A. adscendens.
** Fruiting calyx broader than long.
Glabrous or sparingly silky. Heads pedunculate or sessile; spines bright-red, rarely wanting 4. A. microphylla.
Usually densely villous. Leaves pale, often hoary. Heads sessile; spines usually yellow 5. A. Buchanani.
B. Calyx-tube much compressed, spineless.
Perfectly glabrous. Heads large, ½–¾ in. 6. A. glabra.

A. Huttoni, R. Br. (ter) in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 382, is the European Potermm sanguisorba, Linn., which is sparingly naturalised in several parts of the colony.


1. A. novæ-zealandiæ, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iii. (1871) 177.—Stems prostrate, much branched, stout and woody at the base; branches ascending or erect, leafy, silky or nearly glabrous. Leaves 1½–3 in. long, usually glabrous above, silky beneath; leaflets 4-7 pairs, ⅓-¾ in. long, oblong or elliptical, rounded at both ends, coarsely serrate. Peduncles stout, terminating the branches, 2-6 in. long; heads globose, large, ¾-1¼ in. diam. in fruit. Calyx-tube narrow, obconic, 4-angled, pilose; lobes 4, persistent. Stamens 2-3. Fruiting-calyx narrow, 4-angled, slightly winged at the angles; bristles 4, very long, reddish-purple, barbed at the end. Achene coriaceous, narrow linear-oblong, widest in the middle, tapering to both ends.—Students' Fl. 133. A. macrantha, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxiii. (1891) 383.

North and South Islands: Not uncommon from the Auckland Isthmus southwards. November–January.

Very closely allied to A. sanguisorbæ, but a larger and coarser plant, with larger heads, longer purplish-red spines, and a longer and narrower achene. Mr. Kirk distinguishes a var. pallida, with paler foliage and the spines often greenish.


2. A. sanguisorbæ, Vahl. Enum. i. 294.—Stems prostrate, much branched, often woody at the base; branches leafy, ascending at the tips, more or less silky. Leaves very variable in size, 1-3 in. or more; leaflets 3-6 pairs, ¼–¾ in. long, oblong or obovate or almost orbicular, membranous, deeply toothed or serrate, glabrous or nearly so above, silky-hairy beneath, the upper pairs usually longer than the lower. Peduncles slender, 2–6 in. long; heads globose, ½–¾ in. diam. in fruit. Calyx-lobes 4, persistent. Stamens 2. Stigma broad, fimbriate. Fruiting-calyx 4-angled, with a long barbed bristle at each angle. Achene narrow, broadest below the middle, tapering to the apex.—A. Cunn. Precur. n. 566; Raoul, Choix, 49; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 54; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 56; Benth. Fl. Austral, ii. 434; Kirk, Students' Fl. 133. Ancistrum anserinæfolium, Forst. Char. Gen. 4. A. diandrum, Forst. Prodr. n. 52.

Var. pilosa, Kirk, l.c.—Leaves white with appressed silky hairs; teeth coarser.—Ancistrum decumbens, Gærtn. Fruct. i. 163, t. 32.

Kermadec Islands, North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, and Macquarie Islands: Abundant throughout, from sea-level to 3500 ft.; the var. pilosa usually subalpine. Piripiri. November-February. Also in Australia, Tasmania, and Tristan d'Acunha.

A well-known plant. The heads or "burrs " are often troublesome to sheep-farmers from the readiness with which they adhere to wool.


3. A. adscendens, Vahl. Enum. i. 297.—Stems stout, prostrate, much branched; branches leafy, erect or ascending at the tips, glabrous or sparingly hairy. Leaves 2-4 in. long; leaflets 4-6 pairs, 1/51/2 in. long, ovate or obovate or rounded, obtuse, membranous, often glaucous, coarsely and deeply toothed sometimes halfway to the midrib; teeth often tipped with a pencil of silky hairs. Peduncles stout, strict, 4-8 in. long, glabrous or slightly pubescent; heads ½–¾ in. diam. in fruit. Calyx-tube silky, obconic; lobes 4, persistent. Stamens 2. Stigma fimbriate. Fruiting-calyx narrow-obconic, 4-angled; bristles 4, short and stout, barbed at the tip. Achene tapering to both ends.—Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 10; ii. 268, t. 96; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 56; Kirk, Students' Fl. 133.

South Island: Not uncommon in mountain districts, altitude 2000–5000 ft. Macquarie Island: At sea-level, Fraser, Prof. Scott.

This is very closely allied to A. sanguisorbæ, but can usually be distinguished by the more glabrous habit, rounder glaucous and more deeply toothed leaflets, long stout peduncles, and short stout bristles. The stems and peduncles are often reddish-purple.


4. A. microphylla, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 55.—Stems prostrate, much branched, often forming extensive patches; branches short, slender, glabrous or nearly so. Leaves ¾–2 in. long, glabrous or sparingly silky, often glaucous, membranous; leaflets 3-6 pairs, 1/81/3 in. long, broadly ovate or rounded, deeply inciso-serrate or crenate, cuneate or rounded at the base. Heads globose, variable in size, ⅓–¾ in. diam. in fruit, on slender peduncles 1–3 in. long or sessile. Calyx-tube silky or glabrous, broadly turbinate; lobes 4, persistent. Stamens 2. Fruiting-calyx short, broader than long, 4-angled, slightly winged at the angles; bristles 4, stout, spreading, bright-red, often wanting. Achenes usually 2, bony.—Handb. N.Z. Fl. 56; Kirk, Students' Fl. 134.

Var. depressa, Kirk, l.c.—Branches closely appressed to the ground. Leaves smaller. Heads few-flowered, sessile or very shortly peduncled.—A. depressa, Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. ix. (1877) 548.

Var. inermis, Kirk, l.c.—Leaves longer, 1–4 in. long, usually glaucous; leaflets 1/61/3 in. Fruiting-calyx without bristles.—A. inermis, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 54; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 57.

North and South Islands: Not uncommon in mountain districts from the East Cape southwards. Sea-level to 3500 ft. November-January.

A very variable plant. I agree with Mr. Kirk in uniting A. depressa and A. inermis with it. The length of the peduncle is a very variable character, and heads with or without bristles can easily be found on the same plant. Mr. Kirk states that the achene is solitary, but I find usually two in each fruiting-calyx, as described by Hooker.


5. A. Buchanani, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 57.—Stems and branches numerous, prostrate, closely appressed to the ground; young ones more or less villous with silky hairs. Leaves ½–1 in. long, hoary or silky, sometimes densely so; leaflets 3–6 pairs, broadly oblong-ovate or rounded, deeply minutely toothed. Heads small, 3–10-flowered, sessile. Calyx-tube broadly turbinate, 4-angled, densely villous; lobes 4, persistent. Stamens 2. Stigma fimbriate. Fruiting-calyx short and broad, 4-angled and ridged, pilose; bristles 4, stout, spreading, yellow, usually hairy above or barbed. Achenes 1 or 2, bony.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 134.

South Island: Otago—Lake District, Hector and Buchanan! upper part of the Clutha Valley, Petrie!

This can be recognised by the small size, pale-greyish colour, villous leaves and branches, small sessile heads, and yellow bristles.


6. A. glabra, Buch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iv. (1872) 226, t. 14.—Everywhere perfectly glabrous. Stems much branched, prostrate, stout and woody at the base; branches erect or ascending, leafy. Leaves ¾–1¼ in. long; leaflets 3–4 pairs, 1/51/3 in. long, obovate or oblong-obovate, cuneate at the base, deeply and coarsely toothed. Peduncles 2–5 in. long, stout; heads globose, ½–¾ in. diam., often unisexual. Calyx-tube much compressed, the lateral angles produced into a broad wing-like process on each side; lobes 4, broad, persistent. Male flowers with 20–40 stamens; females with 1 or 2; stigma fimbriate. Fruiting-calyx always unarmed, red. Achene narrow, tapering to both ends.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 134.

South Island: Nelson-Wairau Gorge, Rough, T. F. C.; Upper Clarence Valley, Kirk! T. F. C.; Lake Guyon, H. H. Travers! Marlborough-Mount Mouatt and Awatere Valley, Kirk! Canterbury-Mount Torlesse, Petrie! Broken River, T. F. C. Otago-Mount Ida, Petrie! mountains above Lake Harris, Kirk. 2500-4500 ft. January–February.

A very distinct species, easily recognised by the perfectly glabrous habit and large unarmed heads. It differs from all the other species of the genus in the numerous stamens of the male flowers.