Manual of the New Zealand Flora/Leguminosæ

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Herbs, shrubs, or trees, of very various habit. Leaves usually alternate, stipulate, compound, rarely simple, sometimes wanting. Flowers generally irregular, hermaphrodite, occasionally regular and polygamous. Sepals 5, usually cohering into a more or less deeply divided calyx, sometimes free, often unequal, occasionally 2-lipped. Petals 5, seldom fewer, perigynous or rarely hypogynous, either papilionaceous or more or less regularly spreading. Stamens 10, rarely less or more, perigynous or almost hypogynous; filaments either free or all connate into a tube surrounding the ovary, or more generally 9 of them united and 1 free. Ovary free, 1-celled, consisting of a single carpel; style simple; ovules 1 to many, attached to the ventral suture. Fruit a pod splitting open along both sutures, rarely indehiscent or transversely breaking up into 1-seeded joints. Seeds nearly always exalbuminous; embryo with large foliaceous or amygdaloidal cotyledons and a short radicle.


All the indigenous genera belong to this suborder, which is characterized as follows: Corolla irregular and papilionaceous, seldom almost regular. Petals imbricate, the uppermost (or standard) always outside in the bud. Stamens definite, usually 10.

With the exception of Compositæ, this is the largest order of flowering plants, comprising over 400 genera and about 7000 species. Next to Gramineæ, it is the most serviceable to man for food; and it produces more substances used in the arts and medicine than any other order. Its distribution is practically world-wide; but it is singularly rare in New Zealand, the proportion of species being much smaller than in any other country of equal size. In fact, the paucity of Leguminosæ is one of the most remarkable peculiarities of the New Zealand flora, especially taking into account that the order is the one most strongly developed in Australia, the nearest land-area to New Zealand. Of the 7 indigenous genera, Carmichælia has an outlying species in Lord Howe Island, but is otherwise restricted to New Zealand; while the two closely allied genera Corallospartium and Notospartium are endemic. Clianthus has 1, or perhaps 2, species in Australia, and 1 in the Malay Archipelago; Swainsona is largely represented in Australia; while Canavalia and Sophora are widely distributed in warm climates. A list of the naturalised species, with references to descriptions, will be found in the appendix.

* Shrubs, sometimes very small; branches flattened, compressed or nearly terete, grooved or striate, leafless or nearly so when adult.
Branches stout, terete, deeply grooved. Pods compressed, 1-seeded, dehiscing along the sutures 1. Corallospartium.
Branchlets compressed or terete. Pods short, few-seeded; valves falling away from the persistent thickened sutures, to which the seeds remain attached, or rarely the pod is indehiscent 2. Carmichælia.
Branchlets terete or compressed, slender, pendulous. Pods narrow-linear, torulose, 2–10-seeded, indehiscent 3. Notospartium.
** Branches not flattened nor compressed, leafy.
Shrub. Racemes pendulous; flowers large, crimson. Pod terete, many-seeded 4. Clianthus.
Small alpine herb. Racemes erect. Pod membranous, inflated 5. Swainsona.
Large twiner. Leaves 3-foliolate. Calyx 2-lipped. Stamens monadelphous. Pod large and broad 6. Canavalia.
Tree or shrub. Leaves pinnate with many leaflets. Racemes pendulous. Flowers large, yellow. Stamens free. Pod moniliform 7. Sophora.

1. CORALLOSPARTIUM, J. B. Armstrong.

A leafless shrub. Stems and branches stout, cyllindric, deeply grooved. Flowers in dense fascicles at the notches of the branchlets. Calyx woolly, campanulate, 5-toothed; teeth about equal. Standard large, broad, reflexed, contracted into a short claw. Wings falcate, oblong, obtuse, auricled towards the base, shorter than the keel. Keel about equalling the standard, incurved, oblong, obtuse. Upper stamen free, the others connate into a sheath. Ovary densely villous; style silky at the base; ovules 2–4. Pod 2-valved, deltoid, rounded and winged at the back, straight in front, shortly beaked, villous; valves thin, faintly reticulated, edges not thickened nor consolidated into a replum. Seed solitary, reniform; radicle with a double flexure.

A genus of a single species, endemic in New Zealand. It is technically separated from Carmichælia by the 2-valved pod without a persistent replum.

1. C. crassicaule, Armstr. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiii. (1881) 333.—Stems erect, 1–6 ft. high, ⅓–¾ in. diam., sparingly branched, yellow, stout, erect, cylindrical, with numerous parallel tomentose grooves; branchlets compressed at the tips. Leaves rarely seen on mature plants, when present very fugacious, small, linear-oblong or ovate-oblong; of young plants broadly oblong or almost orbicular, entire or emarginate. Fascicles capitate, densely 8–20-flowered; pedicels short, slender, and with the calyces softly woolly. Flowers ¼–⅓ in. long, cream-coloured. Pod ¼ in. long.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 106. Carmichælia crassicaulis, Hook.f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 48.

Var. racemosa, Kirk, Students' Fl. 107.—Branchlets narrower, 1/8 in. broad, compressed. Flowers less than ¼ in. long, solitary or in 3–5-flowered racemes, which are solitary or fascicled. Pedicels and calyx not so woolly.

South Island: Canterbury—Mount Torlesse, Haast! Lake Lyndon, Enys! T. F. C.; Mount Dobson and other mountains flanking the Mackenzie Plains, T. F. C.; Lake Ohau, Haast. Otago—Lindis Pass, Hector and Buchanan; Naseby and westward to the Dunstan Mountains, Petrie! H. J. Matthews! 1500–4000 ft. Coral-broom. December–January.

One of the most remarkable plants in the colony; at once recognised by the robust deeply grooved branchlets, densely fascicled flowers, and woolly calyx. It appears to be confined to arid situations on the eastern slopes of the Southern Alps.


Erect or depressed shrubs, some species attaining a height of 6–10 ft., others reduced to broad matted patches hardly rising more than an inch or two above the ground. Branchlets flattened or terete, grooved or striate, green. Leaves often absent, except in seedlings; when present deciduous after the flowers have fallen, 1-foliolate or pinnately 3–5-foliolate. Flowers small, in lateral racemes springing from notches on the edges of the branchlets, rarely solitary. Calyx campanulate or cup-shaped, 5-toothed. Standard orbicular, usually reflexed, contracted into a short claw. Wings more or less falcate, oblong, obtuse, auricled towards the base. Keel oblong, incurved, obtuse, shorter or longer than the standard. Upper stamen free, the others connate into a sheath. Ovary narrowed into a slender beardless style; stigma minute, terminal; ovules numerous. Pod small, coriaceous, narrow-oblong to almost orbicular, straight or oblique, compressed or turgid, narrowed into a short or long subulate beak; valves with the edges thickened and consolidated, forming a kind of framework called the replum, from which the faces of the valves come away; or in a few species the valves remain attached to the replum and the pod is indehiscent. Seeds 1–12, reniform or oblong; radicle usually with a double fold.

A very remarkable genus, confined to New Zealand, with the exception of one species found in Lord Howe Island. Its habit is peculiar, most of the species being leafless or nearly so when mature, the green flattened or terete branchlets (cladodes) performing the functions of true leaves. The structure of the pod is most exceptional, the margins of the valves and placentas being thickened and consolidated into a framework (replum), to which the seeds are attached. In dehiscence the faces of the valves either come away altogether from the replum, which may persist for a long time with the seeds hanging from it, or the valves may separate at one side or end, remaining attached at the other. In the four species constituting the section Huttonella the valves do not usually separate from the replum, which is frequently incomplete, and the pod is thus indehiscent. Had this character been constant, Huttonella might well have been kept as a distinct genus, as proposed by Kirk. But fruiting specimens of C. juncea in Mr. Colenso's herbarium show that the valves occasionally separate from the replum in that species, and Mr. Petrie informs me that the same thing occurs in his C. compacta.

The discrimination of the species is probably more difficult in Carmichælia than in any other genus in the New Zealand flora, and the student will find it almost impossible to name his specimens with accuracy until he has collected most of the species and become familiar with their characters. In most cases characters based upon the vegetative organs are by themselves useless. The leaves, when they can be examined, are singularly uniform; and the branchlets are not only highly variable in width, but may be flattened in spring and nearly terete in autumn. The flowers vary in size and colour in the different species, but present no important structural modifications. The pods afford the most trustworthy characters, and in several cases are alone quite sufficient for the identification of the species. The following analysis of the species is in many respects imperfect, and will doubtless require considerable modification. A really comprehensive and accurate account cannot be drawn up until the species have been carefully studied in the field at different seasons of the year, and in all stages of growth. It is specially important, in order to form a safe basis for future work, that flowering and fruiting specimens should be taken from the same plant.

A. Much depressed leafless plants forming matted patches 1-4 in. high. Flowers usually reddish.
* Branchlets thin, linear or narrow linear.
Flowers solitary or racemose. Pods obliquely ovate-orbicular, usually 1-seeded 1. C. Enysii.
Flowers solitary; peduncles long. Pods 3–4-seeded 2. C. uniflora.
Flowers racemose. Pods 3–6-seeded 3. C. nana.
** Branchlets very stout and thick, flattened, with rounded edges.
Flowers racemose. Pods large, turgid, 6–14-seeded 4. C. Monroi.
B. Erect or spreading shrubs 1–10 ft. high. Flowers usually purplish or streaked with purple, rarely white. Valves of the pod separating from the persistent replum.
* Usually leafless when mature (sometimes leafy in 8, C. subulata).
† Branchlets broad, flat, and thin.
Branchlets ⅓–½ in. broad. Flowers large, ¾–1 in. Pod 1 in., turgid 5. C. Williamsii.
Branchlets 1/51/3 in. Flowers small, 1/81/6 in. Pod ⅓–½ in.; valves slightly convex. Seeds red 6. C australis.
†† Branchlets narrow, terete, plano-convex or compressed.
Branchlets very stout, often terete, 1/121/8 in. diam. Pod ¼–½ in., turgid. Seeds 2–6 7. C Petriei.
Branchlets slender, compressed or plano-convex, 1/201/10 in. diam. Pod ¼–⅓ in., turgid, subulate, acuminate. Seeds usually 2 8. C. subulata.
Branchlets slender, terete or plano-convex, 1/151/10 in. diam. Pod ⅓ in., oblong, turgid, narrowed below 9. C. virgata.
Branchlets very slender, almost filiform. Pod small, 1/61/5 in., obliquely oblong. Seed 1, rarely 2 10. C. diffusa.
** Usually leafy in spring and early summer (sometimes leafless in C. flagelliformis).
† Pod more or less compressed, or only slightly convex.
Branchlets glabrous, deeply grooved, erect. Racemes 5–12-flowered. Flowers large, ¼ in. Pod oblong, beak rather long 11. C. grandiflora.
Branchlets pubescent, compressed, drooping. Racemes 10–20-flowered. Flowers small, 1/81/6 in. Pod oblong, narrowed into a long beak 12. C. odorata.
Branchlets glabrous, compressed or terete. Racemes 10–40-flowered. Pod narrowed into a long beak 13. C. angustata.
Branchlets slender, grooved, often fastigiate. Racemes 3–7-flowered. Flowers small. Pod obliquely ovate, suddenly narrowed into a long beak 14. C. flagelliformis.
†† Pod conspicuously turgid.
Stems slender, often twining. Branchlets almost filiform, grooved. Flowers large, ⅓–½ in. Pod elliptic, beak very long 15. C. gracilis.
C (Huttonella). Erect or prostrate shrubs 1–4 ft. high. Flowers small. Pod small, usually indehiscent, swollen, often broader than deep; beak turned abruptly upwards.
* Leafless when mature.
Erect. Branchlets numerous, terete. Racemes lax. Flowers 1/5 in. 16. C. compacta.
Erect. Branchlets few, terete. Racemes dense. Flowers 1/6 in. 17. C. curta.
Erect or prostrate. Branchlets terete or compressed. Racemes dense. Flowers 1/101/8 in. 18. C. juncea.
** Leafy when mature.
Prostrate. Branchlets compressed 19. C. prona.

1. C. Enysii, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 379, t. 30.—A much-dwarfed depressed excessively branched glabrous plant, forming dense patches 1–2 in. high; stems and lower branches thick and woody, matted. Branchlets small, ⅓–¾ in. long, 1/251/10 in. broad, erect or suberect, compressed, thin, striate. Leaves of young plants orbicular, emarginate. Flowers minute, 1/61/4 in. long, solitary or in 3–6-flowered fascicles or racemes; pedicels slender, usually silky. Calyx carapanulate; teeth short, acute. Standard with a narrow claw; wings as long as the keel. Pod 1/51/3 in. long, compressed, ovate-orbicular, often oblique, sometimes obliquely deltoid; replum incomplete; beak stout, broad at the base, recurved. Seed usually 1, rarely 2–3.—Students' Fl. 108.

Var. orbiculata. Kirk, l.c.—Larger and stouter, 2–4 in. high; branchlets 1/6 in. broad. Pods with rugulose valves.—C. orbiculata. Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxii. (1890) 459.

North Island: South-eastern base of Ruapehu, Kirk! Var. orbiculata: Rangipo Desert, H. Hill! Kirk! Petrie! South Island: Broken River, Enys! Kirk! Ashburton Mountains, Potts; Maniototo Plain, Petrie! Var. orbiculata: Mount Ida, Petrie! 1500–3000 ft. December–January.

A most distinct and remarkable species, apparently rare and local. The pod dehisces by one of the valves separating from the replum down one side, but remaining attached at the tip and other side.

2. C. uniflora, T. Kirk in Gard. Chron. (1884) i. 512.—A much-dwarfed slender matted plant, forming large patches; stems often subterranean, putting out slender branches 1–2 in. high. Branchlets very narrow, 1/301/20 in., thin, compressed, glabrous, sometimes almost herbaceous. Leaves not seen. Flowers solitary, ⅓ in. long, purplish-red; peduncles very long and slender, almost capillary, glabrous or puberulous, bracteolate about the middle. Calyx campanulate, glabrous or silky; teeth short, broad, acute. Standard broad, with a short broad claw; wings shorter than the keel. Pod ⅓–½ in. long, linear-oblong; valves slightly wrinkled; beak straight or oblique. Seeds 2–6.—Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 379; Buch. l.c. 394. C. Suteri, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxiii. (1891) 383.

South Island: Canterbury—Lake Grassmere, Lochnavar, Poulter River, Enys! Otira River, Cockayne! Mount Cook District, Suter! T. F. C. Otago—Waitaki Valley, Buchanan! Lake Hawea, Petrie! 1000–3000 ft. December–January. Probably not uncommon, but easily overlooked.

8. C. nana, Col. ex Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 49.—A dwarf rigid glabrous plant, forming broad matted patches. Branchlets 2–4 in. long, 1/61/2 in. broad, thin, much flattened, strict, erect, minutely grooved or striate. Leaves not seen. Racemes 2–4-flowered; pedicels long, very slender, glabrous or with a few silky hairs. Flowers ⅓–½ in. long, purplish-red. Calyx campanulate, usually silky; teeth short, broadly triangular, subacute. Standard broad, with a short broad claw; wings shorter than the keel. Pods ⅓–½ in. long, linear-oblong, often narrowed towards the base; beak short, straight. Seeds 2–6.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 109. C. australis b nana, Benth. in Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 50.

North Island: Elevated open country between Lake Taupo, Ngauruhoe, and Ruapehu. South Island: Nelson to Central Otago, abundant in stony river-valleys. Altitudinal range from almost sea-level to 2800 ft. December–January.

One of the most widely spread species of the genus. Its nearest ally is C. uniflora, from which it is separated by the broader and more obtuse branchlets and racemed flowers.

4. C. Monroi, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 49.—A small excessively branched rigid and woody plant, forming low compact masses 6–24 in. diam. or more and 2–6 in. high. Branchlets crowded, very stout, flattened with rounded edges, grooved, 1/81/5 in. broad. Leaves only seen on young plants, cuneate or obcordate, emarginate, silky. Racemes 2–3-flowered, solitary or fascicled; pedicels long, slender, silky. Flowers ⅓ in. long, purplish-red. Calyx silky, sometimes densely so; teeth long, narrow-triangular, acute. Standard longer than the keel, broad, emarginate; wings shorter than the keel. Pods ⅓–⅔ in. long, unusually turgid, straight or falcate; valves conspicuously wrinkled and corrugated when mature; beak short, usually oblique, sometimes straight. Seeds 4–14, brownish or reddish-brown mottled with darker.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 109. C. corrugata, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xv. (1883) 320.

South Island: Dry gravelly places on the mountains, Marlborough to Otago, not uncommon. Altitudinal range from 250ft. to fully 4000 ft. December–February.

A well-marked plant, easily distinguished by the depressed habit, short stout woody branchlets, lax racemes, and large remarkably turgid many-seeded pod.

5. C. Williamsii, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xii. (1880) 394.—An erect much-branched shrub 3–8 ft. high. Branchlets ⅓–½ in. broad, thin, much compressed, finely and closely striate or grooved, glabrous or slightly pubescent when young; notches distant, alternate. Leaves seldom produced except on young plants, 1–3-foliolate; leaflets obovate or obcordate. Flowers large, ¾–1 in. long, yellowish-red, pendulous, solitary or in 2–6-flowered fascicles or racemes; pedicels short, slender, silky. Calyx large, narrow-campanulate or almost tubular, pubescent; teeth linear-subulate, acute. Standard rather larger than the keel, sharply recurved one-third of the way from the base; wings narrow-oblong, falcate, shorter than the keel. Pod 1–1¼ in. long, on stout erect pedicels, oblong, turgid; beak long, straight or oblique. Seeds 9–12, red mottled with black.—Students' Fl. 110.

North Island: Rare and local. East Cape district, from Te Kaha and Raukokore to Hicks Bay, Bishop Williams! Petrie! Adams! November–December.

A very distinct species. The broad thin branchlets, large flowers, and large turgid pod separate it from all others.

6. C. australis, R. Br. in Bot. Reg. xi. (1825) t. 912.—An erect much-branched glabrous usually leafless shrub 3–12 ft. high. Branchlets straight, often much elongated, 1/101/3 in. broad, thin and flat, finely and closely striate; notches alternate, close or rather distant. Leaves seldom seen except on young plants, ¾–2 in. long, 1-foliolate or 3–5-foliolate; leaflets obcordate or obovate-cuneate, membranous, sessile. Racemes variable in length, 3–12-flowered, solitary or fascicled; pedicels puberulous or glabrous. Flowers crowded, small, 1/81/6 in. long, pale-purplish. Calyx campanulate, teeth minute. Standard much broader than long, retuse, claw very short; keel equal in length or slightly shorter; wings oblong, almost as long as the keel. Pod oblong, compressed, ⅓–½ in. long, suddenly narrowed into a short acute beak; valves slightly convex; replum stout, persistent long after the valves have fallen. Seeds 1–4, red, usually spotted with black.—A. Cunn. Precur. n. 574; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 50; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 50; Kirk, Students' Fl. 110. C. Cunninghamii, Raoul, Choix, t. 28b. Boissiæa scolopendrina, A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 346.

Var. strictissima, Kirk, Students' Fl. 110.—Branchlets 1/43/8 in. broad. Racemes strict, many-flowered, dense. Pedicels very short. Pods not seen.

North Island: Abundant from the North Cape to Wanganui and Hawke's Bay. South Island: Queen Charlotte Sound, J. Rutland! Var. strictissima: White Cliffs, Taranaki, T. F. C. Sea-level to 2800 ft. Makaka. November–December.

7. C. Petriei, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 111.—A stout sparingly branched shrub 1–6 ft. high, with rigid terete or subterete branches. Branchlets stout, 1/121/8 in. diam., compressed at the tips, plano-convex or terete below, grooved or striate. Leaves not seen. Racemes laxly 3–8-flowered, solitary or many together, often forming dense fascicles; pedicels slender, and with the rachis silky-pubescent or almost villous. Flowers rather small, 1/6 in. long. Calyx campanulate, silky; teeth short, broad, acute. Standard broader than long, exceeding the keel and wings. Ovary occasionally pubescent. Pods ¼–⅓ in. long, broadly oblong, turgid, oblique at the tip; valves thick, reticulated; beak short, stout. Seeds 1–4, usually 2–3.—C. violacea, Kirk, l.c. 112.

Var. robusta.—Pods longer, ⅓–½ in., elliptic-oblong. Seeds 3–6. Other character much as in the type.—C. robusta. Kirk, l.c.

South Island: Mount Cook district, T. F. C.; Central Otago, not uncommon, Petrie! Var. robusta: Nelson—Wairau Valley, T. F. C. Canterbury—Broken River basin, Enys! Kirk! Petrie! T. F. C.; Kowai River, Petrie!

The distinguishing characters of this species lie in its stout rigid habit, almost terete branchlets, numerous often fascicled racemes of rather small flowers, and the turgid pod. Mr. Kirk's C. robusta cannot be separated except by the longer and proportionately narrower pod with a larger number of seeds, and is best kept as a variety.

8. C. subulata, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 112.—A slender erect often leafy glabrous shrub 1-3 ft. high, with almost terete branches. Branchlets 1/201/10 in. broad, compressed or plano-convex, strict and rigid, grooved or striated. Leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets oblong-obovate, retuse. Racemes laxly 3–6-flowered, one or several together; pedicels silky or almost glabrous, shorter than the flowers. Calyx campanulate; teeth minute, acute. Standard broader than long, about equal in length to the wings and keel. Pod 1/43/8 in. long, turgid, subulate, acuminate; beak short, stout, straight. Seeds 1–4, usually 2.

South Island: Marlborough—Blenheim and Wakamarina, Kirk! Canterbury—Apparently not uncommon on the plains, Kirk! Petrie! T. F. C.; Akaroa, Kirk! Broken River, Enys! Otago—Near Dunedin, Petrie!

This appears to be characterized by the strict and slender sometimes almost filiform branchlets, small flowers, and turgid subulate pods. Herbarium specimens in flower alone are easily confounded with C. flagelliformis, but the pods are altogether different.

9. C. virgata, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 112.—An erect rigid glabrous shrub 3–4 ft. high, branched from the base. Branchlets numerous, terete or plano-convex, grooved. Leaves not seen. Racemes few, 3–5-flowered, lax; pedicels and rachis glabrous or puberulous. Calyx campanulate, glabrous; teeth short, acute. Standard broader than long, equalling the wings and exceeding the keel. Pods (not quite ripe) ⅓ in. long, oblong, turgid, narrowed below; beak short, straight, subulate. Seeds 1–3.

South Island: Otago—Petrie; Southland, at Makarewa and Orepuki, Kirk!

I am only acquainted with this plant through a few imperfect specimens in Mr. Kirk's herbarium, and have therefore reproduced in its main features the description given in the "Students' Flora." Mr. Kirk remarks that it is "distinguished by the paucity of its racemes, small whitish flowers, and oblong pod narrowed at both ends." I fear that it is much too closely allied to C. subulata.

10. C. diffusa, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. (1893) 272.— A small erect or spreading glabrous much-branched shrub 1–2 ft. high. Branchlets slender, 1/201/15 wide, compressed or plano-convex or almost terete, striate. Leaves not seen. Racemes numerous, short, 3–6-flowered; pedicels shorter than the flowers. Calyx cup-shaped, mouth ciliolate; teeth minute, sometimes hardly evident Pods very small, 1/61/5 in. long, obliquely oblong, slightly narrowed at the base; valves slightly convex; beak short, stout, subulate.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 112.

South Island: Canterbury—Near Lincoln, Kirk! Otago—Buchanan! Otepopo River, Petrie!

I have seen few specimens, and those by no means good, of this curious little species. It appears to have the habit of C. flagelliformis var. corymbosa, differing only in the smaller size and smaller pod, and will probably prove to be a form of that plant. Mr. Kirk's specimens from Dry River, Wellington, quoted in the "Students' Flora," are certainly referable to C. flagelliformis.

11. C. grandiflora, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 49.—An erect or spreading much-branched glabrous shrub 2–6 ft. high, usually leafy in spring and summer. Branchlets spreading or rarely fastigiate, 1/121/8 in. broad, compressed, deeply grooved. Leaves numerous, pinnately 3–5-foliolate; leaflets narrowly or broadly obcordate-cuneate, glabrous. Racemes ⅓–1 in. long, pedunculate, laxly 5–12-flowered; pedicels shorter than the calyx. Flowers white or pale-purple, ¼ in. long. Calyx large, campanulate; teeth acute, ciliolate or glabrous. Standard broader than long, exceeding the keel; wings as long as the keel. Pods oblong, 1/43/8 in. long, gradually narrowed into a rather long subulate beak; valves slightly convex. Seeds 2–4.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 110. C. australis var. grandiflora, Benth. in Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 50.

Var. divaricata, Kirk. Students' Fl. l.c.—Branches divaricating at right angles, flexuous, compressed at the tips, subterete below. Racemes slender, 5–15 flowered; flowers much smaller. Pod elliptic-oblong, narrowed at both ends; beak very short.

South Island: Mountain districts from Nelson to Otago; most abundant on the western side. Var. divaricata: Upper Waimakariri district, at Mount White and the Poulter River, Enys! near Greymouth, Helms! Ascends to 3500 ft.; descends to sea-level in the West Coast sounds. December–January.

The chief characters of this variable plant are the leafy habit, glabrous deeply grooved branchlets, lax many-flowered racemes, comparatively large flowers, and small pod with slightly convex valves and rather long beak. It attains its greatest luxuriance in the moist river-valleys of Westland.

12. C. odorata, Col. ex Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 50.—A much-branched shrub 3–10 ft. high, leafy in spring and early summer. Branchlets 1/201/8 in. broad, distichous, slender, pendulous, compressed or plano-convex, grooved, pubescent towards the tips. Leaves very numerous, small, ¼–¾ in. long, silky-pubescent, pinnately 3–7-foliolate; leaflets oblong-obcuneate or narrow-obovate, notched at the apex. Racemes slender, strict, erect (apparently drooping in herbarium specimens on account of the branches being pendulous), 10–20-flowered, pubescent, especially when young. Flowers small, 1/81/6 in. long. Calyx-teeth short, acute, ciliolate. Standard broader than long, about equalling the wings and keel. Ovary glabrous. Pod 1/61/4 in. long, obliquely ovate, abruptly narrowed into a long stout subulate beak; valves flat or very slightly convex. Seeds 2, rarely more.—Handb. N.Z. Fl. 50; Kirk, Students' Fl. 113.

Var. pilosa, Kirk, l.c.—Habit and flowers of C. odorata, but ovary silky, and pod hairy until nearly mature.—C. pilosa, Col. ex Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 50; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 49.

North Island: Ruahine Mountains to Cook Strait. South Island: Pelorus Sound, Kirk! Nelson, Monro, Travers. Ascends to 2500 ft. November–January.

Separated from C. grandiflora, to which it is very closely allied, by the drooping slender pubescent branchlets, smaller flowers, and shorter flatter and broader pod with a longer beak. C. pilosa has not been gathered since its original discovery by Mr. Colenso, more than fifty years ago; but, judging from the description, it does not differ from C. odorata except in the pubescent ovary. This is a character which has been occasionally noted in several of the species, but which does not seem in itself to be sufficient for specific distinction.

13. C. angustata, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 114.—An erect glabrous shrub 1–3 ft. high, leafy in spring and summer; branches spreading, terete. Branchlets 1/201/12 in. broad, slender, filiform, sometimes compressed at the tips. Leaves glabrous, ¾–1½ in. long, pinnately 3–5-foliolate; leaflets obcordate-cuneate, glaucous beneath. Flowers not seen. Fruiting racemes numerous, spreading or erect, slender, 1–1½ in. long. Pods 20–40, obliquely oblong, compressed, abruptly narrowed into a stout subulate beak. Seeds usually 2.

South Island: Nelson—Plentiful in the Buller Valley, near the junction of the Lyell, Kirk!

I am only acquainted with this plant through the specimens in Mr. Kirk's herbarium. It will probably prove to be a variety of C. odorata, from which it only differs in the less compressed branchlets and in being glabrous. From C. grandiflora it can be distinguished by the more slender habit, terete branchlets, large leaves, and numerous flattened pods.

14. C. flagelliformis, Col. ex Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 51.—A much-branched shrub 3–8 ft. high, very variable in habit; branches erect or spreading. Branchlets numerous, very slender, 1/201/10 in. broad, erect and fastigiate or spreading, sometimes drooping, compressed or plano-convex, grooved. Leaves of young plants 1–1½ in. long, pinnately 3–5-foliolate; leaflets oblong-cuneate, notched at the tip; of mature plants smaller, usually 3-foliolate. Racemes 1 or 2–3 together, laxly 3–7-flowered, often reduced to fascicles; pedicels usually pubescent. Flowers minute, 1/101/8 in. long. Calyx campanulate; teeth small, acute, ciliolate. Standard very broad, retuse, about equalling the wings and longer than the keel. Pods solitary or several together, ¼–⅓ in. long, erect, compressed, obliquely oblong or ovate, sometimes nearly orbicular; beak long, stout, subulate. Seeds 1–4, usually 2.—Handb. N.Z. Fl. 50; Kirk, Students' Fl. 114. C. australis, Raoul, Choix, t. 28a (non R. Br.). C. multicaulis, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. (1893) 329. C. micrantha, Col. l.c. xxvi. (1894) 313. Lotus arboreus, Forst. Prodr. n. 258.

Var. corymbosa, Kirk, Students' Fl. 114.—Branchlets slender, often flaccid and drooping, striate. Pod shorter, broadly oblong, much compressed, oblique; valves thin. Seed usually 1.—C. corymbosa, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxi. (1889) 80.

Var. Hookeri.—Smaller, 2–4 ft. Racemes very numerous, densely fascicled. Flowers larger, 1/6 in. Pod ovate-oblong, less compressed; beak shorter.—C. Hookeri, Kirk, l.c. 115.

Var. acuminata.—Pods 1/43/8 in., broadest at the base, almost obpyriform, somewhat falcate, acuminate; beak oblique. Otherwise as in the type, but flowers not known.—C. acuminata. Kirk, l.c.

North and South Islands: Not uncommon from the Upper Thames and Waikato southwards. Var. corymbosa: Hawke's Bay, Colenso! Var. Hookeri: South of Wellington Province, Kirk! Var. acuminata: Palliser Bay, Kirk! Sea-level to 3000 ft. November–January.

As a species C. flagelliformis is best distinguished by the slender grooved branchlets, minute flowers, which are either in open racemes or fascicled, and in the short broad pod, which is much compressed, and ends in a stout subulate beak sometimes 1/10 in. long. In dry places it is usually leafless when adult, but frequently produces leaves in moist situations, or where shaded. Mr. Kirk's C. Hookeri appears to me to differ in no essential character; and his C. acuminata is founded on a single fruiting specimen, which altogether agrees with C. flagelliformis except for a slight difference in the shape of the pod.

15. C. gracilis, Armstr. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiii. (1880) 336.—A slender shrub 3–6 ft. high; stems weak, flexuous, terete, sparingly branched, often interlaced or scrambling over other bushes, more or less leafy, especially when growing in sheltered places. Branchlets almost filiform, grooved, silky or pilose. Leaves ½–1 in. long, pinnately 3–5-foliolate; petioles silky; leaflets 1/61/3 in., broadly obcordate, glabrous. Racemes loosely 2–6-flowered; pedicels slender, silky. Flowers rather large, ⅓–½ in. Calyx campanulate; teeth long and narrow, acute, silky within. Standard broad, 2-lobed, slightly longer than the keel. Pods ½ in. long, elliptic, turgid; replum thick; beak very long, straight, stout, subulate. Seeds 2.—C. Kirkii, Hook. f. in Ic. Plant. t. 1332; Kirk, Students' Fl. 113.

South Island: Canterbury—Vicinity of Christchurch, Armstrong! Haast! Cockayne! Otago—Cardrona Valley, Kirk! Otepopo River, Sowburn, Petrie! Sea-level to 1500 ft. November–December.

A distinct species, at once recognised by the weak terete stems, large flowers, and large turgid pod with a long almost pungent beak.

16. C. compacta, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii. (1885) 272.—An erect much and closely branched shrub 2–4 ft. high. Branchlets numerous, strict, erect, 1/151/10 in. diam., terete or nearly so, striate. Leaves not seen. Racemes ½–¾ in. long, numerous, lax, pedunculate, 3–8-flowered; pedicels slender, glabrous, usually longer than the flowers. Flowers 1/5 in. long, pinkish-white, fragrant. Calyx somewhat tumid, campanulate, glabrous; teeth shallow, acute. Standard broader than long, 2-lobed, about equalling the wings; keel-petals much shorter, broad above, claws long. Pod 1/61/5 in. long, indehiscent, obovoid, turgid, compressed from back to front so that the width is greater than the depth; valves reticulate; beak short, subulate, oblique or recurved. Seeds 1–2.—Huttonella compacta, Kirk, Students' Fl. 115.

South Island: Otago—Clutha Valley, between Lake Wakatipu and Clyde, Petrie! November–December.

This can be distinguished from the other species of the section Huttonella by the crowded terete branchlets, long and lax racemes of rather large flowers, and the larger pod.

17. C. curta, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. (1893) 271.—An erect sparingly branched glabrous shrub 1–2 ft. high. Branchlets 1/61/3 in. broad, slender, terete or nearly so, subcompressed at the tips, grooved or striate. Leaves not seen. Racemes variable in length, distant, 6–10-flowered; rachis elongating after flowering; pedicels short, silky. Flowers 1/6 in. long. Calyx more or less pubescent, campanulate; teeth short, acute. Standard broader than long, retuse, exceeding the wings; keel with a short claw. Ovary silky. Pod 1/61/5 in. long, pendulous, turgid, oblong-obovoid, glabrous when mature; valves thin; beak slender, curved upwards. Seeds 2–3.—Huttonella curta, Kirk, Students' Fl. 116.

South Island: Otago—Waitaki Valley, at Duntroon and Kurow, Petrie!

Allied to C. juncea, but separated by the longer distant racemes, larger flowers, and larger pod. In none of the flowers which I have examined could I find the callosity on the wings mentioned by Mr. Kirk.

18. C. juncea, Col. ex Hook. f. Ft. Nov. Zel. i. 51.—An erect or rarely prostrate glabrous branching shrub 1–2 ft. high. Branchlets very slender, 1/251/15 in. broad, compressed or almost terete, grooved. Leaves not seen. Racemes short, often fascicled, 2–8-flowered; pedicels pubescent, rather longer than the calyx. Flowers minute, 1/101/8 in. long. Calyx campanulate, silky; teeth very small, acute. Standard broader than long, slightly exceeding the keel; wings narrow, somewhat shorter. Pod usually indehiscent, very small, 1/121/10 in. long, oblong or ovoid-oblong, turgid or almost inflated; valves thin and membranous; beak slender, curved or sharply bent. Seeds 1–2, rarely 3.—Handb.N.Z. Fl. 50. Huttonella juncea. Kirk, Students' Fl. 116.

North Island: East Cape, Sinclair; Hawke's Bay and Taupo, Colenso! Rotorua, Kirk. South Island: Akaroa, Raoul; Canterbury Plains, Haast. Otago— Waitaki Valley, Maniototo Plains, Lake District, Petrie! Apparently rare and local. The only North Island specimens I have seen are Mr. Colenso's, collected many years ago, and which must be taken as the type of the species. Those from Otago, in Mr. Petrie's herbarium, differ in the stouter and more strict branches and rather longer pods, the beak of which is abruptly bent, forming almost a right angle with the pod. It is possible that two species are confounded under the name of C. juncea, as Mr. Kirk has suggested; but more complete sets of specimens are required to settle the matter.

19. C. prona, Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxvii. (1895) 350.—A small much-branched prostrate shrub; stems and branches closely appressed to the ground, 4–12 in. long, rarely more. Branchlets 1/201/12 in. diam., compressed, grooved. Leaves often numerous, l-foliolate or pinnately 3–5-foliolate, silky; terminal leaflet much larger than the rest, oblong or oblong-obovate, cuneate at the base, deeply retuse at the tip. Racemes small, 3–7-flowered; pedicels short, silky. Flowers minute, 1/101/8 in. long. Calyx campanulate; teeth acute. Standard broader than long, retuse; wings shorter than the keel. Pod 18 in. long, broadly oblong, turgid; valves thin; beak short, abruptly turned upwards. Seed solitary.—Huttonella prona, Kirk, Students' Fl. 116.

South Island: Canterbury—Lake Lyndon, altitude 2800ft., J. D. Enys! Kirk! Cockayne! T. F. C. December–January.

The leafy prostrate habit and flattened branches distinguish this species from its allies.


Leafless shrubs with slender much-compressed pendulous branchlets. Flowers rather small, in lateral racemes. Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed; teeth short, about equal. Standard obovate- obcordate, narrowed into a short claw, shortly reflexed; wings oblong, shorter than the keel, with an incurved auricle at the base; keel hatchet-shaped, obtuse. Upper stamen free, remainder connate into a sheath. Ovary sessile or nearly so, linear; ovules numerous; style incurved. Pod shortly stipitate, linear, straight or falcate, compressed, 3–10-jointed, membranous, indehiscent; beak short. Seeds 1 to each joint, oblong; radicle twisted, with a double flexure.

A genus of 2 closely allied species, both confined to New Zealand. It has the leafless habit and compressed branchlets of Carmichælia, but differs in the linear many-jointed pod, and in other respects.

Flowers pink. Pods ¾–1½ in. long, 1/8 in. wide, straight 1. N. Carmichæliæ.
Flowers purple. Pods ¾–1 in. long, 1/15 in. wide, falcate, torulose 2. N. torulosum.

1. N. Carmichæliæ, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 51.—A slender much-branched shrub 4–10 ft. high. Branchlets 1/201/10 in. broad, glabrous, compressed, grooved, with distant alternate scales. Leaves only seen on young plants, 1-foliolate, obcordate or orbicular, entire or emarginate, sometimes mucronate. Racemes 1–2 in. long, 8–20-flowered; pedicels longer than the calyces, and with the rachis silky-pubescent. Flowers ¼–⅓ in. long, pink. Calyx silky; teeth short, triangular. Pod ¾–1 in. long, linear, 3–8-jointed. Seeds 1 to each joint, orbicular-reniform.—Bot. Mag. t. 6741; Kirk, Student's Fl. 117.

South Island: Rare and local. Marlborough—Waihopai River, Monro; Upper Awatere, Sinclair; Kaikoura Mountains, Buchanan! Medway Creek, Kirk! Nelson— Mount Fyffe, Rev. F. H. Spencer; Amuri, J.B.Armstrong! 800–2000ft. Pink broom. December–January.

2. N. torulosum, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 117.—A much-branched glabrous shrub 4–8 ft. high; branches flexuous or trailing in young plants, pendulous in the mature state. Branchlets 1/201/15 in. diam., slender, strict, terete or slightly compressed at the tips, grooved. Leaves only seen in young plants, 1-foliolate, broadly oblong or obovate to orbicular, emarginate. Racemes 1–2 in. long, strict, glabrous. 3–10-flowered; pedicels barely longer than the calyx. Calyx campanulate, glabrous; teeth broad, subacute. Standard narrower than in N. carmichæliæ, reflexed; wings exceeding the keel. Pod ¾–1 in. long, 1/15 in. wide, falcate, compressed, about 8–10-jointed; joints swollen. Seeds 1 to each joint, reniform, compressed.

South Island: Nelson—Gorge of the Mason River, Haast! Rev. F. H. Spencer. S. D. Barker, Cockayne! Whale's Back, Cockayne. Canterbury—Mount Peel and Waikari, Barker.

The only specimens I have seen of this curious plant are two fragmentary ones past flowering in Mr. Kirk's herbarium, and some fruiting specimens in Mr. Petrie's, collected by Mr. Cockayne. Better material is required before a good description can be prepared.

4. CLIANTHUS, Banks and Sol.

Glabrous or villous herbs or undershrubs, usually woody below; branches weak, ascending or spreading, sometimes almost climbing. Leaves pinnate; leaflets numerous. Flowers large, red, in pendulous racemes. Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed. Standard acuminate, sharply reflexed over the calyx; wings much shorter, lanceolate or oblong; keel equalling the standard, boat-shaped, incurved, acute. Ovary stipitate; ovules numerous; style subulate, incurved, bearded below the apex. Pod terete, narrow-oblong, turgid, beaked. Seeds numerous, reniform.

Besides the New Zealand species, which is endemic, there is one from Australia, and another (perhaps not truly congeneric) from the island of Ceram.

1. C. puniceus, Banks and Sol. ex Lindl. in Trans. Hort. Soc. Ser. ii. (1835) 521.—A very handsome much-branched undershrub 3–6 ft. high, more or less clothed with appressed silky pubescence; branches spreading, younger ones succulent, almost herbaceous. Leaves 3–6 in. long, unequally pinnate; leaflets 8-14 pairs, ½–1 in. long, sessile, linear-oblong, obtuse or retuse. Racemes 6–15-flowered, pendulous. Flowers bright-scarlet, 2–3 in. long. Standard ovate, acuminate; wings lanceolate, falcate, acute, less than half the length of the keel; keel large, falcate, acuminate. Pods 2–3 in. long, turgid, many-seeded.— Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 1775; A. Cunn. Precur. 572; Raoul, Choix, 49; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 49; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 52; Kirk, Students' Fl. 118. Donia punicea, Don. Syst. ii. 468.

Var. maximus, Kirk, l.c.—Leaflets larger, sometimes 1½ in. long. Flowers rather smaller. Standard broadly ovate, acuminate, often with a dark spot at the base; wings oblong, broad, rounded at the apex.—C. maximus, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xviii. (1886) 294.

North Island: Exceedingly rare and local in a wild state, and fast becoming extinct. Small islets in the Bay of Islands, Colenso; Great Barrier Island, Kirk; Mercury Bay, Banks and Solander; several localities in the East Cape district, Banks and Solander! Bishop Williams! Waimarama, Nairn. Formerly cultivated by the Maoris in many localities on the shores of the North Island. Kowhai-ngutu-kaka. August–November.

The brilliancy of the flowers renders this plant a universal favourite, and it is now commonly cultivated in gardens throughout the colony under the name of "red kowhai." I agree with Mr. Kirk in considering that Mr. Colenso's C. maximus is not entitled to the rank of a species.

5. SWAINSONA, Salisb.

Herbs or undershrubs. Stems erect or prostrate, sometimes climbing. Leaves unequally pinnate; leaflets usually numerous. Flowers in axillary racemes. Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed; teeth nearly equal. Standard orbicular or reniform, spreading or reflexed, shortly clawed; wings oblong, falcate or slightly twisted; keel broad, incurved, obtuse or produced into a twisted beak. Upper stamen free; remainder connate into a sheath. Ovary sessile or stalked; ovules numerous; style slender, incurved, bearded along the inner edge. Pod ovoid or oblong, turgid or inflated, membranous or coriaceous, 2-valved or almost indehiscent. Seeds several, small, usually reniform.

With the exception of the following species, which is endemic in New Zealand, the genus is confined to Australia. It is very closely allied to the northern genera Colutea and Astragalus.

1. S. novae-zealandiae, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 51.—A small herbaceous perennial 2–4 in. high, more or less clothed with silky pubescence. Rhizome creeping, slender. Stems numerous, erect or spreading, branched above. Leaves 1–2 in. long; leaflets 6–8 pairs, ¼ in. long, opposite, oblong or narrow-obovate, obtuse or retuse, sessile. Stipules broadly ovate, obtuse. Racemes 3–8-flowered, on stout peduncles longer or shorter than the leaves; pedicels not equalling the calyx, bracteolate at the base. Flowers purplish, ⅓ in. long. Calyx silky-hairy, with linear teeth as long as the tube, 2-bracteolate at the base. Pod large, inflated, 1 in. long, acute at both ends; valves thin, coriaceous. Seeds 5–10, small.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 118.

South Island: Nelson—Mountains flanking the Clarence Valley, Travers, T. F. C. Marlborough—Kaikoura Mountains, Buchanan! Canterbury—Kowai River, Haast! Coleridge Pass, Enys! Kirk! Otago—Mount St. Bathan's, Petrie! 2000–5000 ft. December–January.


Climbing or prostrate herbs, often of large size. Leaves 3-foliolate, stipellate. Flowers rather large, in axillary racemes. Calyx-limb 2-lipped; the upper lip large and projecting, entire or 2-lobed; the lower shortly 3-toothed. Standard broad, reflexed; wings shorter, oblong or linear, falcate or twisted; keel incurved, obtuse or obtusely rostrate. Stamens all connate into a tube; anthers uniform. Ovary shortly stipitate; ovules numerous; style filiform, beardless; stigma terminal. Pod large, oblong or linear, 2-valved, with a distinct rib on each valve near the upper suture. Seeds rounded, or oblong, compressed; hilum linear.

Species about 12; 2 or 3 of them, including the New Zealand one, widely spread in the tropics, the remainder mostly American.

1. C. obtusifolia, D.C. Prodr. ii. 404.—Stems long, trailing, glabrous or the young shoots silky-pubescent. Leaflets 2–4 in. long, broadly obovate or orbicular, obtuse or emarginate, texture firm. Racemes few-flowered, on stout erect peduncles 6–10 in. long, usually overtopping the leaves. Flowers pinkish. Standard orbicular, ¾ in. diam. Pod 4–5 in. long by 1 in. broad, the longitudinal wings very narrow. Seeds 2–8.—Benth. Fl. Austral. ii. 256; Kirk, Students' Fl. 121.

Kermadec Islands: Scrambling over rocks and shrubs on Meyer Island, T. F. C. A common plant on the shores of almost all tropical countries.

7. SOPHORA, Linn.

Small trees or shrubs. Leaves imparipinnate. Flowers in racemes or panicles, large, showy. Calyx oblique, broadly campanulate; teeth very short. Standard broadly obovate or orbicular, erect or spreading; wings oblong, oblique, shorter than the keel. Stamens 10, free or rarely obscurely connate at the base; anthers versatile. Ovary shortly stipitate; ovules numerous; style incurved; stigma minute, terminal. Pod moniliform, elongated, terete or 4-winged or -angled, fleshy or coriaceous or woody, indehiscent or 2-valved, each seed enclosed in a separate cell. Seeds oblong to globose, few or many.

Species about 22, found in most warm countries. The New Zealand species belongs to the section Edwardsia, characterized by the short standard, exserted stamens, and 4-winged pod.

1. S. tetraptera, J. Mull. Ic. Plant, t. 1.—A very variable shrub or small tree 15–40 ft. high, with a trunk 6–24 in. diam.; branches of young trees slender, flexuous, often interlaced; young shoots, leaves, inflorescence, and calyces more or less clothed with silky fulvous pubescence. Leaves exstipulate, 1–6 in. long; pinnæ 4–40 pairs, sessile or shortly petiolulate, ¼–1 in. long, linear-oblong to obcordate or orbicular, rounded or retuse at the tip. Racemes 2–8-flowered, pendulous. Flowers large, golden-yellow, 1–2 in. long. Calyx gibbous, hemispherical, mouth oblique. Standard hardly reflexed, broadly obovate, obtuse; keel and wings oblong. Pod 2–8 in. long, moniliform, 4-angled, and with 4 narrow longitudinal wings; valves hardly dehiscent. Seeds 3–8, oblong.—Forst. Prodr. n. 183; Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 53; Kirk, Students' Fl. 122.

Var. grandiflora, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 53.—Leaflets 10–25 pairs, longer and narrower, linear-oblong. Flowers larger, 2 in. long. Standard a fourth shorter than the wings, obviously reflexed.—Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 50. S. tetra ptera, Bot. Mag. t. 167. Edwardsia grandiflora, Salisb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. ix. (1808) 299; A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 344; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 571; Hook.f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 52.

Var. microphylla, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 53.—Leaflets 25–40 pairs, small, oblong or obovate to orbicular. Flowers 1–1½ in. Standard narrower, as long as the wings or nearly so, hardly reflexed.—Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 51. S. microphylla, Ait. Hort. Kew. ii. 43; Bot. Mag. t. 1442. S. Chathamica, Cockayne in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxiv. (1902) 319 (name only). Edwardsia microphylla, Salisb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. ix. (1808) 299; A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 344; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 570. E. Macnabiana, Bot. Mag. t. 3735. E. grandiflora var. microphylla. Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 52.

Var. prostrata, Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 52.—Stems prostrate. Leaflets 2–4 pairs. Flowers small, solitary or in pairs. Standard hardly shorter than the wings. Pods small, downy, barely winged; seeds 1–3.—S. prostrata, Buch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. (1884) 395, t. 36.

North and South Islands, Chatham Islands: Var. microphylla: Abundant from the North Cape to Southland. Var. grandiflora: From the East Cape to Wellington, and reported from the South Island, but I have seen no specimens from thence. Var. prostrata: Mountains of Marlborough and Canterbury. Sea-level to 2500 ft. Kowhai. August–October. Also found in Lord Howe Island, Easter Island, Juan Fernandez, and Chili.

The three varieties described above have a very distinct appearance, and many botanists will prefer to treat them as separate species. The timber is hard, strong, and durable, but can rarely be obtained of sufficient size for economic purposes.