Motif-Index of Folk-Literature/Volume 1
A Classification of Narrative Elements in
Folktales, Ballads, Myths, Fables, Mediaeval Romances
Exempla, Fabliaux, Jest-Books and
REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION BY
INDIANA UNIVERSITY PRESS
All Rights Reserved
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TO MY WIFE
PREFACE TO REVISED EDITION
In the two decades which have now elapsed since the first edition of this work began to appear, the need for a revision and enlargement has become more and more insistent. As the Index has been used for analyzing tales and myths from every quarter of the globe and from almost every narrative literary genre, a large amount of bibliographical material and many new items for the classification have accumulated, so that the revision about doubles the size and scope of the original.
Several very large and important areas have been comprehensively surveyed for motifs during recent years and find place in the present index.
As a result of nearly twenty years of work Professor Tom Peete Cross succeeded in covering the rich field of early Irish literature. Dr. Inger M. Boberg has indexed a large section of the Icelandic sagas and Eddas. There have also been very extensive motif-indexes of the oral tales of India, of the West Indies, of the British and American tale tradition, and of the Talmudic-Midrashic literature — to mention only a few of these important areas. Collections from other parts of the world and from many literary traditions have been examined so as to make the present revision as truly representative as possible of traditional narrative over the entire world.
The introduction to the first edition has been revised to indicate an occasional modification of fact or point of view, to clarify matters about which questions have been raised, and especially to indicate the ways in which the scope of the original index has been widened.
The actual index system has been reconsidered at every point and occasionally changed, but such changes are always minor and are sufficiently indicated. They should facilitate the making of new motif-indexes as well as satisfy the demand of logical arrangement.
The doubling of the scope of material covered, the frequent improvements in the technique of classification, and the amplifying of bibliographic references in the new edition should make the work more useful as a tool for literary and folkloristic research and as a reference work covering a field never before made easily available to the general reader.
PURPOSE OF THE PRESENT WORK
With each passing year the need of a comprehensive classification of the materials in all kinds of traditional narrative becomes more apparent. Our great libraries of folklore, enriched by the ceaseless activity of field workers and scholars, grow daily more difficult to explore. Tales, ballads, myths, and traditions have poured in from all parts of the earth, both civilized and uncivilized, so that no man, however great his industry and skill in languages, can read the thousands of volumes in a lifetime. By a careful division of labor, scholars have, however, examined many parts of this field, with the result that the body of writings about traditional narrative also grows beyond the compass of one man's mastery.
That some kind of systematic indexing of this vast accumulation should be undertaken has been long realized. Though several beginnings of such a work have been made during the past century, no plan has been completed with sufficient thoroughness to warrant general acceptance.
For the special field of the folktale, to be sure, the classification of Antti Aarne has been found useful. In this index some eight hundred complete stories current in Europe have been logically arranged, and by its system the tales of more than a dozen European peoples have now been catalogued. For the European area such an arrangement of tales as Aarne's proves reasonably satisfactory, since popular traditions assume much the same pattern throughout, and the same narrative-complexes are found over much of the continent.
Outside of Europe, however, Aarne's index is of little use. In the remoter parts of the world, whither any adequate study must lead us, the European tale-types are applicable to very few stories. Yet there is much common matter in the folk-literature of the world. The similarities consist not so often in complete tales as in single motifs. Accordingly, if an attempt is made to reduce the traditional narrative material of the whole earth to order (as, for example, the scientists have done with the worldwide phenomena of biology) it must be by means of a classification of single motifs — those details out of which full-fledged narratives are composed. It is these simple elements which can form a common basis for a systematic arrangement of the whole body of traditional literature. Only after such cataloguing will it be possible to make adequate use of the collections now existing in print and in manuscript.
The work here presented is an attempt at such a classification. In preparing it I have had in mind above all the practical need of using simple principles that will be easily apparent to everyone. According to this plan, motifs dealing with one subject are handled together, irrespective of the literary form in which they may appear. No attempt has been made to determine the psychological basis of various motifs or their structural value in narrative art, for though such considerations have value, they are not, I think, of much practical help toward the orderly arrangement of the stories and myths of a people.
The present problem of classification is analogous to that of the books in a great library. All works on history, of whatever nature and whether good or bad, appear together there, and these in turn are divided into Roman History, French History, and the like. Side by side with Gibbon and Mommsen rests an amateurish dissertation on some minute fact in the life of the Empire. The library cataloguer is not concerned with the merit of the work he includes, nor can he arrange the books according to any principle of literary criticism about which there may be debate. The "literature of knowledge and the literature of power" are illuminating as principles of criticism; they will not serve as a plan for the arrangement of books. The orderly listing of narrative motifs is likewise best accomplished by the simple and usually easy method of placing together all which deal with the same subject.
Acting upon this principle of practical usefulness, I have also made the index very inclusive of various kinds of motifs. Sometimes the interest of a student of traditional narrative may be centered on a certain type of character in a tale, sometimes on an action, sometimes on attendant circumstances of the action. Hence I have endeavored to use all the elements of tales that have in the past been objects of special study and similar elements that are likely to serve as such objects in the future. A glance at the synopsis will indicate the varied nature of the contents of the classification. At some point or other will be found all kinds of motifs or themes which make up the systems of such writers as Wesselski or Christensen, and perhaps many others which a more philosophical approach than mine would rule out. But in spite of the danger of including material that on strictly critical grounds may be unjustified, I have felt that it is in general better to list all elements of a tale that are likely to have interest to the folklorist or the student of literary history. Such an inclusive list may well form the basis for philosophical discussion, but it is in itself quite uncritical of the material involved. The end of this study will have been attained if the multiform materials it treats become thereby easier of investigation and more convenient for reference.
SCOPE OF THE CLASSIFICATION
The purpose of the present study, then, has been to arrange in a single logical classification the elements which make up traditional narrative literature. Stories that have formed part of a tradition, whether oral or literary, find a place here. The folktale, the myth, the ballad, the fable, the mediaeval romance, the fabliau, the jest, the exemplum, and the local tradition have all been included, though some of these divisions have been inadequately recorded. In general, I have used any narrative, whether popular or literary, so long as it has formed a strong enough tradition to cause its frequent repetition.
Certain aspects of folklore have been definitely omitted. I have not treated superstitions, customs, religious beliefs, riddles, or proverbs, except as they happen to form an organic part of a narrative. To have included these would have doubled the size of the index.
Within the chosen field I have made every effort to have the list of motifs as full as possible. Accordingly, in my reading I have been especially desirous of broadening the field of investigation. Certain works introduce the reader to a new world of narrative interest and to a large number of new motifs. Such have been very valuable for my purpose. And the investigations of other folklorists who from their wide reading have brought together lists of versions of tales have also served to increase the scope of the classification.
Some indication of the works from which the largest number of motifs have been gathered may be of interest:
Folktale and Myth.
The Mythology of all Races, 14 volumes.
Feilberg, Bidrag til en Ordbog over Jyske Almuesmål — a remarkable general collection of notes on folklore motifs.
MacCulloch, Childhood of Fiction.
Cox, Cinderella, a pioneer study of the motifs of a single folktale.
Köhler, Kleinere Schriften — the erudite folktale annotations of the leading folklorist of the 1870's.
Penzer, The Pentamerone of Basile — covering the earliest of all European folktale collections.
FFCommunications. This distinguished series, to which the present work belongs, has surveys of the tales of many different countries and monographs on particular tales.
Dähnhardt's Natursagen, especially for its origin legends connected with biblical tradition.
FFCommunications since 1930.
Numerous monographs on special widely distributed tales and motifs.
(b) European tales and European tradition in other continents
Volumes on Celtic, Eddic, Baltic, Slavic, Finno-Ugric, and Greek mythology in The Mythology of All Races.
Surveys of tales of Finland, Estonia, Finnish-Sweden, Norway, Flanders, Czechoslovakia, Livonia, Russia, Spain, Roumania, Hungary, Iceland, Wallonia — mostly in FFCommunications.
The principal reliance for European tales, traditions and myths: Bolte and Polívka.
Notes on Icelandic sagas from Prof. Chester N. Gould.
Dr. Boberg's motif-index of Icelandic Fornaldarsögur and the Eddas.
Motif-index of McKay's More West Highland Tales.
Folktale surveys and monographs in FFCommunications since 1930 — some of prime importance.
Espinosa's new edition of Cuentos Populares Españoles, with extensive notes and motif-indexes.
Dawkins's two important new works on modern Greek tales.
T. P. Cross's monumental Motif-Index of Early Irish Literature, with extensive folktale material.
A group of important monographs on folktales, particularly Dr. Rooth's study of Cinderella and Dr. Roberts's of the Frau Holle tale.
Baughman's study of the British and American folktale — with bibliography of nearly 1,000 titles.
Flowers's motif-index of the tales of the West Indies (200 titles).
The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore — tales and legends indexed by motif.
Halpert's analysis of the folktales of the New Jersey Pines country.
Carrière's collection from the French of Missouri and Sister Marie-Ursule from the Quebec French.
Rael's studies of the Spanish tales of New Mexico.
Klipple's exhaustive treatment of the African tales of European and Asiatic tradition (about 500 titles covered).
Frank Goodwyn's unpublished study of the Pedro de Urdemales cycle in Latin America.
Child's English and Scottish Popular Ballads (for narrative motifs).
Many additions to Greek mythology from special studies of the Troy story and from Grote's extensive notes in his History of Greece.
Anton Nyerges's motif-index of Cheremis folktales in Sebeok's Studies in Cheremis Folklore.
(c) The Near East and India
Arabian Nights — some notes from Burton's well-known edition, as well as the summaries from Chauvin, mentioned above.
Penzer's ten-volume Ocean of Story, with its excellent notes and indexes covering the classical Indic collections.
A sampling of the Jewish field in Moses Gaster's Exempla of the Rabbis, in Bin Gorion's Der Born Judas, and in Frazer's Folklore in the Old Testament.
For Buddhistic legend, Cowell's Jātaka (6 volumes), and Chavannes' Cinq cent contes et apologues (4 volumes) — the latter emanating from China.
Persian literary tales like the Thousand and One Days, analyzed in Chauvin.
Volumes on Semitic, Armenian, and Indic Mythology from The Mythology of All Races.
Neuman's large motif-index of Talmudic-Midrashic Literature, opening up much biblical and other Jewish material.
Theodor Gaster's Thespis and Oldest Stories in the World, which explore some Near East material difficult of access.
Thompson-Balys, Motif and Type-Index of the Oral Tales of India. Comprehensive — over 200 works indexed.
Bødker's notes on the Panchatantra, from his edition of an old Danish translation.
The Buddhist world explored anew in Malalasekera's Dictionary of Pali Proper Names.
(d) The Far East
For Japan, Mitford's rather inadequate collection.
Scott's Indo-Chinese Mythology.
Graham's new Ch'uan Miao collection, for which I have furnished the type-index.
Hiroko Ikeda's extensive analysis of both published and unpublished Japanese tales.
Zong In-Sob's new Folk Tales from Korea.
Hatt's study of Asiatic influences in American Folklore.
Fansler's Filipino Folktales, with his comparative notes.
The general Pacific area, as covered in Dixon's Oceanic Mythology.
Beckwith's Hawaiian Mythology.
A comprehensive study, now in progress, of the principal tale and myth collections of Australia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia. References are made directly to these works.
Special studies, such as Luomola's Maui of the Thousand Tricks.
(f) North and South American Indian
Alexander's North American Mythology and Latin American Mythology.
Gay ton and Newman's comparative study of the California area.
Mrs. Pessoa's monograph on the flood myths of North and South America.
The Handbook of South American Indians, which in its six volumes gives a good summary of the myths of tribes over the continent.
Various other collections, especially those of Alfred Métraux.
Additional North American Indian references furnished by Dr. Remedios Wycoco Moore in her unpublished Ph. D. thesis Types of North American Indian Tales.
Further notes from various collections, chosen so as to be representative of different areas.
Of all fields of traditional literature included in this index, that concerning local legends is least complete. The list is based upon several general books, such as Werhahn's Die Sage and the various surveys of Sagen in the FFCommunications. In addition, a large number of monographs on special legends have been used.
Solheim's index to Norsk Folkminnelag has added much in this field.
Many newer monographs appearing as special publications and in learned journals have been used.
Kristensen's Danske Sagn.
Ward's and Herbert's Catalogue of Romances in the British Museum.
Special works such as Miss Schoepperle's Tristan and Isolt, Dickson's Valentine and Orson and Hertz's studies of various romances.
Reinhard's study of Geis in the Romance has opened up a special cross section of material.
Exempla and Saints' Legends.
Crane's Exempla of Jacques de Vitry.
The Catalogue of Romances in the British Museum.
Gaster's Exempla of the Rabbis.
Many motifs belonging to this genre are also included in the studies of novelle and jestbooks, mentioned shortly.
Saintyves, Les Saints Successeurs des Dieux.
Loomis, White Magic.
Jestbooks and Novelle.
The jests, of which so many collections were made in the Renaissance, also find a place here. Many have been omitted, particularly those whose only point is obscenity or those depending on some play upon words that cannot be carried over to another language. The foundation of this part of the index has been the very learned works of Wesselski on Hodscha Nasreddin, Bebel, Arlotto, and others, and of Bolte in his editions of Frey's Gartengesellschaft, Montanus' Schwankbücher, and similar collections. In addition, of course, monographs on particular jests have been used.
A whole series of motifs from the French conteurs of the Renaissance, such as Les cent nouvelles nouvelles and the Heptameron of Marguerite of Navarre have been furnished by a group of students at the University of South Carolina, whose help is acknowledged in the proper place.
Childers's Motif Index of the Cuentos of Juan Timoneda helps fill out this part of the index.
The English jestbooks from The Hundred Merry Tales onward have been explored.
Arthur Christensen's two books on noodles, Molboernes Vise Gerninger and Dumme Folk trace these jests over the world.
Except for special studies of the various fabliaux, the principal sources for the motifs in that field were Bédier's Les Fabliaux and von der Hagen's Gesammtabenteuer.
The new Sources and Analogues of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales has good studies of certain fabliaux.
Since the principal purpose in mind was to list the fables, the basis of that part of the work was Wienert's classification of the Greek and Roman fables (FFCommunications No. 56), supplemented by the oriental fables listed in Chauvin's Arabian Bibliographie. The literary history of these tales is well known, so that no attempt was made to supply all of them with bibliographical apparatus, but only to place them definitely in the body of fable literature. In all, some five hundred fables appear in the classification.
Certain additions have been suggested by Professor Ben Perry's monumental Aesopica, though the expected volume of comparative notes has not been available.
Zeitschrift des Vereins für Volkskunde.
Journal of American Folklore
Anuario de la Sociedad Folklorica de Mexico
Les Archives de Folklore
Annual bibliographies in Publications of the Modern Language Association of America and in Southern Folklore Quarterly.
Hessische Blätter für Volkskunde
A number of local folklore journals from South America, the United States, and France.
Books and periodicals which have been explored with some thoroughness in the search for motif-studies are indicated in the general bibliography by an asterisk. Works which are arranged according to the present index are marked specially (☉). They need no page reference.
Not all material found in books read has been used, for, of course, much does not belong in this classification. But when I have been in serious doubt, I have always included an item, and only after real consideration has any special treatment of narrative material been rejected.
For the purpose of deciding on inclusion or exclusion, I have had no hard and fast principle. Anything that goes to make up a traditional narrative has been used. When the term motif is employed, it is always in a very loose sense, and is made to include any of the elements of narrative structure. In general, any item in tales that other investigators have made notes on has been accepted. Sometimes, as in those treated in Chapter A, the events of creation, or the nature of the creator of of the gods, may be the subject of interest. Again, as in Chapter C, the index may involve incidents based on certain principles of conduct (e. g. tabu); sometimes extraordinary objects or creatures (magic or merely marvelous) may be the focus of attention. Most of the items are found worthy of note because of something out of the ordinary, something of sufficiently striking character to become a part of tradition, oral or literary. Commonplace experiences, such as eating and sleeping, are not traditional in this sense. But they may become so by having attached to them something remarkable or worthy of rememberihg. Mere eating is usually of no particular interest in a story. Eating on a magic table, food furnished by helpful animals, food that gives magic strength — these become significant and are likely to be handed down by the teller of tales.
Aside from the general principle just given, no rule has been followed in choosing what should go into the classification. I have tried to include all that becomes a part of tradition — all that is found worth retaining when tale, ballad, jest, or myth is transmitted by word of mouth or on the written page from generation to generation or from land to land.
PLAN OF THE WORK
This classification of materials is the result of a gradual evolution, not of any preconceived plan. It has grown out of an attempt to arrange conveniently a large number of notes made from widely divergent fields of narrative. Many groupings have been made and later combined, with others which are clearly related; many also have been split up into two or more headings. In the course of time there have emerged from this experimental process twenty-three divisions which have been finally retained.
(a) The chapters in the classification.
In a very general fashion the groups may be said to progress from the mythological and the supernatural toward the realistic and sometimes the humorous. But no such progress is to be observed in all parts of the index: the last half is nearly all realistic.
In Chapter A are handled motifs having to do with creation and with the nature of the world: creators, gods, and demigods; the creation and nature of the universe, and especially of the earth; the beginnings of life; the creation and establishment of the animal and vegetable world.
Chapter B is concerned with animals. Not all tales in which animals figure are placed here, for most frequently it is the action and not the particular actor that is significant in such stories. In Chapter B, on the contrary, appear animals that are in some way remarkable as such: mythical animals like the dragon, magic animals like the truth-telling bird, animals with human traits, animal kingdoms, weddings, and the like. Then there are the many helpful or grateful beasts, marriages of animals to human beings, and other fanciful ideas about animals.
Just as the motifs in Chapter B suggest some possible relation to the institution of totemism, those in Chapter C are based upon the primitive idea of tabu. Forbidden things of all kinds are here listed, as well as the opposite of that concept, the unique compulsion.
The most extensive group is that devoted to magic (Chapter D). The divisions are quite simple: transformation and disenchantment, magic objects and their employment, magic powers and other manifestations.
The motifs listed in Chapter E concern ideas about the dead — resuscitation, ghosts, and reincarnation — as well as ideas concerning the nature of the soul.
Aside from magic and the return of the dead, traditional literature records many marvels: journeys to other worlds; extraordinary creatures such as fairies, spirits, and demons; wondrous places, such as castles in the sea; and marvelous persons and events. These form Chapter F.
Because of the prominence of dreadful beings, such as ogres, witches, and the like, these have been given a special division, G. It will be seen that there is naturally much relation between Chapters E, F, and G; for example, between ogres and evil spirits, or between fairies and witches or ghosts. These relationships are noted by means of cross-references.
Beginning with Chapter H, the purely supernatural assumes a minor importance, though it is still occasionally present. Chapter H has been formed gradually from three separate divisions in the original plan. These, however, are all comprehended under the term "Tests". Tales of recognition are really tests of identity; riddles and the like, tests of cleverness; and tasks and quests, tests of prowess. In addition are to be found sundry tests of character and other qualities.
Chapter J was likewise originally three chapters — Wisdom, Cleverness, Foolishness. Their fundamental unity is apparent: the motivation is always mental. The first part (Wisdom) consists in large part of fable material. The tales of cleverness and of stupidity come in large measure from jest books.
In the motifs in Chapter J the attention is directed primarily to the mental quality of the character. In K, on the contrary, primary importance is given to action. A very large part of narrative literature deals with deceptions. The work of thieves and rascals, deceptive captures and escapes, seductions, adultery, disguises, and illusions constitute one of the most extensive chapters in the classification.
The rest of the work is made up of smaller chapters. In "L" appear such reversals of fortune as the success of the unpromising child or the downfall of the proud. "M" deals with such definite ordaining of the future as irrevocable judgments, bargains, promises, and oaths. In "N" the large part that luck plays in narrative is shown. Tales of gambling, and of the favors and evil gifts of the Goddess Fortuna appear here.
Chapter P concerns the social system. Not all tales about kings and princes belong here, but only such motifs as rest upon some feature of the social order: customs concerning kings, or the relation of the social ranks and the professions, or anything noteworthy in the administration of such activities as law or army. A very great number of cross-references appear in this chapter.
In "Q" are recorded rewards and punishments, in "R" motifs concerning captives and fugitives, and in "S" instances of great cruelty. In "T" are treated together the motifs dealing with sex, though there are, of course, many other parts of the index where such motifs are also of interest. Here particularly come wooing, marriage, married life, and the birth of children, as well as sundry types of sexual relations.
In Chapter U are gathered a small number of motifs, mostly from fable literature, that are of a homiletic tendency. A tale is told with the sole purpose of showing the nature of life. "Thus goes the world" is the text of such tales.
Many incidents depend upon religious differences or upon certain objects of religious worship. These motifs make up Chapter V. In "W" stories designed to illustrate traits of character are classified. The last of the systematic divisions, "X", contains incidents whose purpose is entirely humorous. Many cross-references to merry tales listed elsewhere are, of course, given.
At the end, in Chapter Z, appear several small classifications which hardly deserve a chapter each. In the future should other small classifications seem desirable, they can easily be added as new parts of Chapter Z.
The fact that the classification does with relative completeness really cover the ground chosen was shown during the last six months of work on the first edition of the index. Motifs were excerpted on slips to the number of several thousand, quite without regard to the system. When the time came to throw the slips into the proper place, they nearly always ranged themselves easily and rapidly. This test gave me some confidence in the practical usefulness of the index as a means of cataloguing the materials of traditional narrative. Subsequent experience of those making indexes has confirmed this conviction.
(b). Organization within the Chapters.
Within the chapter the items are arranged in grand divisions, to each of which is assigned a hundred numbers, or some multiple of a hundred numbers. Thus B0—B99 concerns mythical animals; B100—B199, magic animals; B200—B299, animals with human qualities; etc.
In a similar manner, within the grand division the arrangement is by tens or groups of tens. The first of these "tens" in a grand division treats the general idea of the grand division. Specific ideas are then taken up in the succeeding divisions. The last division in a grand division deals with miscellaneous material concerning the grand division. Thus in the grand division B0—B99 (Mythical animals) we have the following divisions: B0—B9. Mythical animals — general. — B10—B19. Mythical beasts. — B20—B29. Beast-men. — B30—B39. Mythical birds. — B40—B49. Bird-beasts. — B50—B59. Bird-men. — B60—B69. Mythical fish. — B70—B79. Fish-beasts. — B80—B89. Fish-men. — B90—B99. Other mythical animals.
Within the division (e. g. B10—B19) the arrangement is according to a similar principle. The first number (ending in "0") refers to the general concept for the division. Succeeding numbers are used for specific aspects, and the last number for miscellaneous or additional material concerning the division. Thus in the division B10—B19 (Mythical beasts) we have the following sub-divisions: B10. Mythical beasts. — B11. Dragon. — B12. Basilisk. — B13. Unicorn. — B14. Other hybrid animals. — B15. Animals with unusual limbs or members. — B16. Devastating animals. — B19. Other mythical beasts. Usually not all numbers are employed, since room is left for indefinite expansion of the classification. Should more items appear than enough to exhaust the numbers, these can be added indefinitely to the last number (19.1, 19.2, 19.3, etc.).
It is frequently desirable to subdivide a number. This is done by pointing, thus: B11. Dragon. — B11.1. Origin of the dragon. — B11.1.1. Dragon from cock's egg. — B11.1.2. Dragon from transformed horse. — B11.2. Form of dragon. — B11.2.1. Dragon as compound animal. This system of subdivision maybe carried on indefinitely. Such an item as E501 with more than two hundred subdivisions will illustrate the manner in which any item may be subdivided, no matter how elaborate the analysis.
A short handling of the classification will undoubtedly make the system clearer than can any explanation, no matter how lucid. Nothing new or strange will be found, but only the well-tested principle of division and subdivision common to all attempts to systematize knowledge.
Many items in this classification are of interest in connection with other parts of the work. Many also could with good reason be assigned to any one of several places. In these instances the use of cross-references becomes necessary. Thus at the beginnings of many grand divisions are listed items from other places that might also be expected at that point, or that for one reason or another are of special interest there. The finding of motifs in the index becomes easier in proportion to the completeness of such cross-references.
(d). Bibliographical material.
It has not been my purpose to make a special study of any item listed in this classification. Where I have been able to do so, I have furnished references to books or monographs about a motif, or at least to some reasonably extensive listing of its occurrences. But for many items I know of no such studies. In these cases I have given such references as I happen to have accumulated. At least one instance of the appearance of each motif is listed.
The arrangement of the references has been made according to a relatively uniform plan. First come the names of special treatments and of works listing variants. Here also appears the reference to The Types of the Folk-Tale. Special studies are indicated by two asterisks; valuable lists of variants by a single star. Next follow notices of particular versions of the motif, arranged usually by continents or other convenient groupings. Ordinarily these references are additions to those treated in the special studies, though duplication has not been altogether avoided.
It must be said, in defence of the frequently inadequate documentation, that the present work is primarily a classified list of motifs and that the references appear only to give some preliminary guidance in finding examples of the item concerned. To assume responsibility for bibliographical completeness for so many thousands of motifs has been quite impossible.
SOME SUGGESTIONS AS TO USING THE INDEX
(a). Finding motifs in the Index.
A preliminary glance over the general synopsis at the beginning of the first volume will usually serve to indicate the chapter in which a motif is found. The detailed synopsis preceding the appropriate chapter should next be examined for the special division which lists the motif. If the item is not discovered at the point thus indicated, it will probably be listed in the cross-references which are placed there.
Even with careful search a motif may not immediately be found, for often the fundamental nature of an item may not seem to be the same to the searcher as it has seemed to me. To meet such difficulties a detailed alphabetical index appears at the end of the work.
(b). Using the Index for Cataloguing Tales.
The principal use of the present index, I hope, will be for cataloguing motifs in various collections of tales and traditions. If gradually all the tales, myths, ballads, and traditions were catalogued according to the same system, great progress would be made in rendering possible completer comparative studies than can now be undertaken.
Each worker must, of course, evolve the details of any plan of work. But by some convenient scheme it will be possible with relative ease to place all motifs in the appropriate chapter (often with cross-references to another chapter). Then the items forming these chapters may in turn be distributed into the proper divisions. It is my hope that the list of motifs in the present index may be so extensive that most items will be found already entered and numbered. Frequently a new motif will be a subdivision of one already in the index. If so, the system of subdivision here used may be continued. If such is not the case, it will ordinarily be found that the new motif will easily fall into a particular "ten". Usually many vacant places are left in each "ten". Should the motif clearly belong to the "hundred" in question, but to none of the "tens" listed, it should go in the last "ten" (usually numbered 90—99, and devoted to "miscellaneous").
The additional motifs suggested by workers during the twenty years since the appearance of the first edition have all been incorporated in the present edition. This has often necessitated slight modifications of the numbers assigned particular motifs. Since such changes are confusing as well as troublesome, it would seem advisable for those who make such indexes in the future not to attempt exact assignment of new motif-numbers but only to indicate the closest approximation possible (e. g. A2685.2⁺). This will serve for all purposes of reference and will make incorporation into a possible further revision of the index simpler.
In anticipation of the appearance of this index, the numbers have been used in several works. In each of the types given in the Aarne-Thompson Types of the Folk-Tale the mention of motifs is immediately followed by the number in brackets. Likewise they are inserted after all additional motifs appearing in Boggs' Index of Spanish Folktales. In my Tales of the North American Indians the motifs are all listed by the present plan. The numbers are also appearing at appropriate places in the margin of the new Handwörterbuch des deutschen Märchens.
The works indexed by this system since its first publication are mentioned on pages 12—18. — Irish and Icelandic myth, Italian, French and Spanish novelle and jestbooks, British and American folktales, African, West Indian, Jewish and Indic tradition, to mention the most important. Such surveys are indicated in the bibliography (p. 37) by a ☉.
The preparation of this classification has brought with it many pleasant associations, for I have found my fellow-workers in the field extremely kind in their help and encouragement. It is possible here to give but the briefest notice of their help and to express my heartfelt thanks to them all.
From its very inception I profited by the friendship and advice of Prof. Archer Taylor. Not only did he give the advantage of his deep scholarship, but at the expense of great labor he read the entire manuscript with the critical eye of a foster-father. Prof. Jan de Vries of Leiden explored the entire manuscript, gave me hundreds of references, and during a week in which I was guest in his home made many very valuable suggestions. Large parts of the manuscript were read by Dr. Albert Wesselski of Prague, and by Dr. Reidar Th. Christiansen of Oslo. The main burden of seeing the work through the press rested on the shoulders of Prof. Kaarle Krohn of Helsinki, to whom I am indebted for much help and cordial hospitality.
Without the co-operation of many persons, an undertaking like this cannot be accomplished. It is most pleasant to record my particular appreciation for those who, by furnishing me with the result of their reading in special fields, added to the completeness of the work. Prof. Chester N. Gould of Chicago gave me free access to his rich notes on the Old Norse saga material; Miss Hortense Braden of Indianapolis permitted me to use her classification of incidents in African tales; Miss Thelma James of Detroit turned over to me the manuscript of her classification of the Alphabetum Narrationum, as did Dr. Luella Carter of her classification of the tales in the Scala Celi and Prof. C. B. Cooper of his notes on Burton's Arabian Nights and the Kathā Sarit Sāgara. Mr. Bjorn Winger of Indianapolis gave me most valuable help by excerpting motifs from several difficult sources, notably from about half of Feilberg's Bidrag til en Ordbog over Jyske Almuesmål. When I excerpted the second half of the work, I realized the magnitude of this kindness so freely given.
Prof. Ernest J. Simmons was good enough to supplement my inadequate knowledge of Russian, so that the motifs in a certain Russian work could be included. Prof. John W. Spargo, of Northwestern University, has in a number of cases enriched the classification from the fields of his special interest. Lastly, must be mentioned a whole group of students of my seminar in the Folk-Tale, who for some years were most generous of their time in excerpting important works.
For the new edition the help for which I am very thankful has continued on all sides through the years. First must be mentioned those who have devoted great labor to the preparation of indexes of special fields and have thus made possible this revision — Jonas Balys, Ernest W. Baughman, Inger Margrethe Boberg, Laurits Bødker, Åke Campbell, Joseph M. Carrière, J. Wesley Childers, Tom Peete Cross, Aurelio M. Espinosa, Paul Delarue, Helen L. Flowers, Theodor H. Gaster, Verrier Elwin, Herbert Halpert, Hiroko Ikeda, William Hugh Jansen, John Esten Keller, May A. Klipple, Waldemar Liungman, Maria de los Angeles Moreno Enriquez, Dov Neuman, Anton Nyerges, Sister Marie-Ursule, Warren E. Roberts, D. P. Rotunda, Archer Taylor, Toni Unger, Maria Alice Moura Pessoa, and Bjorn Winger.
To these may be added a group from the University of South Carolina who have listed motifs from various writers of the French Renaissance — J. Woodrow Hassell, Jr., A. M. Hardee, Cecilia P. Irwin, Sarah C. Pinkney, F. C. Perry, Kenneth Fay and Andrew H. Yarrow.
Aside from those mentioned as having completed motif-indexes, a number of my students have excerpted motifs to the number of many thousand from various fields — Richard Bartel (Greek drama), Kenneth Clarke (Africa), Bacil F. Kirtley (Oceania), Dorothy Thompson Letsinger (Sir Thomas Malory), W. S. Mayer, Jr. (Troy legend), Barbara Harris Mickey (Melanesia), Remedios Wycoco Moore (American Indian, Buddhist, and much else), Henri Stegemeier (German Schwankbücher), and Richard Weir (Modern Greek).
Finally, I have been extremely fortunate in having gifted and willing research assistants whose work has gone far beyond the line of duty — Jonas Balys (1948—52) and Remedios Wycoco Moore (1952—54).
The expense attached to the preparation and publishing of a work such as the present is not trifling. For clerical help the American Council of Learned Societies has twice given me grants. For the second half of the college year 1930—31, this foundation also awarded me funds to permit my taking leave from my university work in order to finish the present classification. Indiana University generously supplemented this grant.
In the years during which the new edition has been prepared generous support of this work has continued. Indiana University has always provided clerical help and for six years a full time research assistant. Preparation of the alphabetical index has been facilitated by a grant from the American Philosophical Society.
The expense of printing the first edition was borne by the Finnish Academy of Sciences and Indiana University. Rosenkilde and Bagger and the Indiana University Press have jointly borne the responsibility for publication of the revised edition. To these and to all who have so generously aided in making this work possible, I wish here to express my thanks.
GENERAL SYNOPSIS OF THE INDEX
A. MYTHOLOGICAL MOTIFS
|B0 —B99. Mythical animals|
|B100 —B199. Magic animals|
|B200 —B299. Animals with human traits|
|B300—B599. Friendly animals|
|B300—B349.||Helpful animals — general|
|B400—B499.||Kinds of helpful animals|
|B500—B599.||Services of helpful animals|
|B600 —B699. Marriage of person to animal|
|B700 —B799. Fanciful traits of animals|
|B800 —B899. Miscellaneous animal motifs|
|D10—D99.||Transformation: man to different man|
|D100—D199.||Transformation: man to animal|
|D200—D299.||Transformation: man to object|
|D300—D399.||Transformation: animal to person|
|D400—D499.||Other forms of transformation|
|D500—D599.||Means of transformation|
|D600—D699.||Miscellaneous transformation incidents|
|D800—D1699. Magic objects|
|D800—D899.||Ownership of magic objects|
|D900—D1299.||Kinds of magic objects|
|D1300—D1599.||Function of magic objects|
|D1600—D1699.||Characteristics of magic objects|
|D1700—D2199. Magic powers and manifestations|
|D1710—D1799.||Possession and employment of magic powers|
|D1800—D2199.||Manifestations of magic power|
E. THE DEAD
|E200—E599. Ghosts and other revenants|
|E200—E299.||Malevolent return from the dead|
|E300—E399.||Friendly return from the dead|
|E400—E599.||Ghosts and revenants — miscellaneous|
|E700—E799. The Soul|
|F0—F199. Otherworld journeys|
|F200—F699. Marvelous creatures|
|F200—F399.||Fairies and elves|
|F400—F499.||Spirits and demons|
|F600—F699.||Persons with extraordinary powers|
|F700—F899.Extraordinary places and things|
|F900—F1099. Extraordinary occurrences|
|G10—G399. Kinds of ogres|
|G10—G99.||Cannibals and cannibalism|
|G400—G499. Falling into ogre's power|
|G500—G599. Ogre defeated|
|G600—G699. Other ogre motifs|
|H0—H199. Identity tests: recognition|
|H200—H299. Tests of truth|
|H300—H499. Marriage tests|
|H500—H899. Tests of cleverness|
|H500—H529.||Test of cleverness or ability|
|H900—H1199. Tests of prowess: tasks|
|H900—H999.||Assignment and performance of tasks|
|H1000—H1199.||Nature of tasks|
|H1200—H1399. Tests of prowess: quests|
|H1200—H1249.||Attendant circumstances of quests|
|H1250—H1399.||Nature of quests |
|H1400—H1599. Other tests|
|H1400—H1449.||Tests of fear|
|H1450—H1499.||Tests of vigilance|
|H1500—H1549.||Tests of endurance and power of survival|
|H1550—H1569.||Tests of character|
J. THE WISE AND THE FOOLISH
|J0—J199. Acquisition and possession of wisdom (knowledge)|
|J200—J1099. Wise and unwise conduct|
|J500—J599.||Prudence and discretion|
|J850—J899.||Consolation in misfortune|
|J1000—J1099.||Other aspects of wisdom|
|J1130—J1199.||Cleverness in the law court|
|J1200—J1229.||Clever man puts another out of countenance|
|J1250—J1499.||Clever verbal retorts (repartee)|
|J1500—J1649.||Clever practical retorts|
|J1650—J1699.||Miscellaneous clever acts|
|J1700—J2749. Fools (and other unwise persons)|
|J1850—J1999.||Absurd disregard of facts|
|J2200—J2259.||Absurd lack of logic|
|J2260—J2299.||Absurd scientific theories|
|J2700—J2749.||The easy problem made hard|
|J2750—J2799. Other aspects of wisdom or foolishness|
|K0—K99. Contests won by deception|
|K100—K299. Deceptive bargains|
|K300—K499. Thefts and cheats|
|K500—K699. Escape by deception|
|K700—K799. Capture by deception|
|K800—K999. Fatal deception|
|K1000—K1199. Deception into self-injury|
|K1200—K1299. Deception into humiliating position|
|K1300—K1399. Seduction or deceptive marriage|
|K1400—K1499. Dupe's property destroyed|
|K1500—K1599. Deceptions connected with adultery|
|K1600—K1699. Deceiver falls into own trap|
|K1700—K2099. Deception through shams|
|K1700—K1799.||Deception through bluffing|
|K1800—K1899.||Deception by disguise or illusion|
|K2100—K2199. False accusations|
|K2200—K2299. Villains and traitors|
|K2300—K2399. Other deceptions|
L. REVERSAL OF FORTUNE
|L0—L99. Victorious youngest child|
|L100—L199. Unpromising hero (heroine)|
|L200—L299. Modesty brings reward|
|L300—L399. Triumph of the weak|
|L400—L499. Pride brought low|
M. ORDAINING THE FUTURE
|M0—M99. Judgments and decrees|
|M100—M119. Vows and oaths|
|M200—M299. Bargains and promises|
N. CHANCE AND FATE
|N0—N99. Wagers and gambling|
|N100—N299. The ways of luck and fate|
|N300—N399. Unlucky accidents|
|N400—N699. Lucky accidents|
|N410—N439.||Lucky business ventures|
|N440—N499.||Valuable secrets learned|
|N500—N599.||Treasure trove |
|N600—N699.||Other lucky accidents|
|N700—N799. Accidental encounters|
|P0—P99. Royalty and nobility|
|P100—P199. Other social orders|
|P200—P299. The family|
|P300—P399. Other social relationships|
|P400—P499. Trades and professions|
|P700—P799. Society — miscellaneous motifs|
Q. REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS
|Q10—Q99. Deeds rewarded|
|Q100—Q199. Nature of rewards|
|Q200—Q399. Deeds punished|
|Q400—Q599. Kinds of punishment|
R. CAPTIVES AND FUGITIVES
|R200—R299. Escapes and pursuits|
|R300—R399. Refuges and recapture|
S. UNNATURAL CRUELTY
|S0—S99. Cruel relatives|
|S100—S199. Revolting murders or mutilations|
|S200—S299. Cruel sacrifices|
|S300—S399. Abandoned or murdered children|
|S400—S499. Cruel persecutions|
|T200—T299. Married life|
|T300—T399. Chastity and celibacy|
|T400—T499. Illicit sexual relations|
|T500—T599. Conception and birth|
|T600—T699. Care of children|
U. THE NATURE OF LIFE
|U0—U99. Life's inequalities|
|U100—U299. Nature of life — miscellaneous|
|V0—V99. Religious services|
|V100—V199. Religious edifices and objects|
|V200—V299. Sacred persons|
|V300—V399. Religious beliefs|
|V450—V499. Religious orders|
|V500—V599. Religious motifs — miscellaneous|
W. TRAITS OF CHARACTER
|W0—W99. Favorable traits of character|
|W100—W199. Unfavorable traits of character|
|W200—W299. Traits of character — miscellaneous|
|X0—X99. Humor of discomfiture|
|X100—X199.Humor of disability — physical|
|X200—X599.Humor of social classes|
|X200—X299.||Humor dealing with tradesmen|
|X300—X499.||Humor dealing with professions|
|X500—X599.||Humor concerning other social classes|
|X600—X699.Humor concerning races or nations|
|X700—X799.Humor concerning sex|
|X800—X899.Humor based on drunkenness|
|X900—X1899. Humor of lies and exaggeration|
Z. MISCELLANEOUS GROUPS OF MOTIFS
|Z300—Z399. Unique exceptions|
|Z400—Z499. Historical, genealogical or biographical motifs|
|Z500—Z599. Horror stories.|
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS
Works indicated with an asterisk have been examined with some thoroughness for motifs. Those marked with ☉ have been indexed according to the present work and have references only to motif-numbers. Books infrequently cited are not listed here.
AA o.s. = American Anthropologist, old series. 11 vols. Washington, 1888—1898.
*Aarne, Antti. Vergleichende Märchenforschungen (MSFO XXV). Helsingfors, 1907.
Africa. London, 1928 ff.
Alarcon, J. de Canedo, and Ricardo Pittini. El Chaco Paraguayo y sus tribos. Turin, 1924.
*Alexander N. Am. = Alexander, H. B. North American Mythology (The Mythology of all Races X). Boston, 1916.
*Lat. Am. = Latin American Mythology (The Mythology of all Races XI). Boston, 1920.
*Alphabet = Banks, M. M. An Alphabet of Tales, an English 15th century translation of the Alphabetum Narrationum of Etienne de Besançon (EETS Nos. 126, 127). 2 vols. London, 1904—05.
*Ananikian, Mardiros H. Armenian Mythology (The Mythology of all Races VII). Boston, 1925.
*Anderson, W. Nordasiatische Flutsagen (Acta et Commentationes Universitatis Dorpatensis B IV iii ).
Andree, R. Die Flutsagen. Braunschweig, 1891.
Ethnographische Parallelen und Vergleiche. Stuttgart, 1878.
Neue Folge, Leipzig, 1889.
*Andrejev, A. N. Ukazatel' Skazočnik Sjuzhetov po Systeme Aarne (Gosud. russ. geogr. obščestvo, otd. etnogr. skazočnaya komissiya). Leningrad, 1929.
Anesaki, Masaharu. Japanese Mythology (The Mythology of all Races VIII). Boston, 1928.
Anssaga Bogsveigis (FAS II 324 ff.).
*Arfert, P. Das Motiv von der unterschobenen Braut. Rostock, 1897.
Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius (ed. G. W. Mooney). London, 1912.
Arnason, Jón. Íslenzkar þjoðsögur og æfintyri. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1862—64.
Arv. (Tidskrift for Nordisk Folkminnesforskning). Uppsala, 1944 ff.
ASB = Altnordische Saga-Bibliothek (ed. G. Cederschiöld and E. Mogk). 18 vols. Halle a. S., 1892—1929.
Asbjørnson, P. Chr. and Moe, J. Norske Folkeeventyr. 3d edition. Kristiania, 1896.
Asmundarsaga Kappabana (FAS II 460 ff.).
Auning, R. Ueber den lettischen Drachenmythus (Magazin der lettischlitterärischen Gesellschaft XIX 1—128). Mitau, 1891.
Azov, R. F. and D. C. Phillott. "Some Arab Folktales from Hazramut." Journal and Proceedings, Asiatic Society of Bengal (n. s.), II, 399—439; III, 645—680.
Babrius = Babrii Fabulae Aesopeae (ed. O. Crusius). Lipsiae, 1897.
Baldus, Herbert. Ensaios de Etnologia Brasileira. São Paulo, 1937.
Balys, Jonas. *Ghosts and Men, Lithuanian Folk Legends about the Dead (Sub-title: A Treasury of Lithuanian Folklore I). Bloomington, Indiana, 1951.
*Lithuanian Historical Legends. Chicago, 1949.
*Motif-Index of Lithuanian Narrative Folklore. Tautosakos Darbai Vol. II, Publication of the Lithuanian Folklore Archives. Kaunas, 1936.
*Lithuanian Folk Legends. Publication of the Lithuanian Folklore Archives I. Kaunas, 1940.
Balzac, Honoré de. Contes drolatiques. Paris (many editions).
BAM = Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (New York).
Baring-Gould, S. Curious Myths of the Middle Ages. 2 vols. London, 1868.
*Barker, W. H. and Sinclair, C. West African Folk-tales. London, 1917.
Barrett, W. E. H. A'Kikuyu Fairy Tales (Man XII, XIII).
Barroso, Gustavo. Mythes, Contes et Legendes des Indiens: Folklore Bresilien. Paris, 1930.
Barto, Philip Stephan. Tannhäuser and the Mountain of Venus. New York, 1916.
Basden, G. T. Among the Ibos of Nigeria. London, 1921.
☉Basile, G. The Pentamerone (trans. and edited by Benedetto Croce and N. M. Penzer). 2 vols. London, 1932.
Baskerville, Rosetta Gage. King of the Snakes and other Folklore: Stories from Uganda. London, 1922.
Basset, René. Contes populaires d'Afrique. Paris, 1903.
*Mille et un contes, récits et légendes arabes. 3 vols. Paris, 1925—27.
*Bateman, G. W. Zanzibar Tales. Chicago, 1901.
☉Baughman, Ernest Warren. A Comparative Study of the Folktales of England and North America. (Indiana University dissertation.) Ann Arbor, Michigan. Microfilm Service. 1954.
BBAE = Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Beal = Bealoideas: Journal of the Folklore of Ireland Society.
Beauvois, E. L'autre vie dans la mythologie scandinave (Reprint from Muséon). Paris, 1883.
Bebel. See Wesselski.
Beckwith, Martha. Hawaiian Mythology. New Haven, 1940.
*Bédier, Joseph. Les Fabliaux. 2d edition. Paris, 1893.
Bender, C. J. Die Volksdichtung der Wakweli. ZsES Beiheft IV (1922), 38 ff.
Benedict, Ruth. Zuñi Mythology. 2 vols. New York, 1935. (All references are to Volume II.)
Béranger-Feraud, L. J. B. Recueil de Contes Populaires de Sénégambie. Paris, 1879.
Biblioteca Africana (D. A. Drexel ed.) Innsbruck, 1924—31.
*bin Gorion, M. J. Der Born Judas: Legenden, Märchen und Erzählungen. 6 vols. Leipzig, 1918 ff. (Vols. 1—4 cited are second edition, 5 and 6 are first edition).
Bladé, J. F. Contes populaires de Gascogne (Les Littératures Populaires, Nos. 19, 20, 21). 3 vols. Paris, 1886.
*Bleek, W. H. I. Reynard the Fox in South Africa or Hottentot Fables and Tales. London, 1864.
*Bleek, W. H. I., and Lloyd, L. C. Specimens of Bushman Folklore. London, 1911.
Blinkenberg, Chr. The Thunder Weapon in Religion and Folklore. Cambridge, 1911.
Bloomfield, Maurice, Studies in Honor of. New Haven, 1920.
BMB = Bishop Museum Bulletin.
Boas, Franz. Indianische Sagen von der Nord-Pacifischen Küste Amerikas. Berlin, 1895.
☉Boberg, Inger M. Motif-Index of Early Icelandic Literature (Biblioteca Arnamagnæana). København 1956.
Bødker, Laurits. Christen Nielssen, De Gamle Vijses Exempler oc Hoffsprock. København, 1951, 1953.
Boekenoogen, G. J. Een Schone ende Miraculeuse historie van den Ridder Metter Swane. Leiden, 1931.
Boje, Christian. Uber den altfranzosischen roman von Beuve de Hamtone (Beiheft zur Zeitschrift für Romanische Philologie XIX). Halle a. S., 1909.
*Bolte, J. Jakob Freys Gartengesellschaft (Bibliothek des Literarischen Vereins in Stuttgart, No. 209). Tübingen, 1896.
*Martin Montanus Schwankbücher (Bibliothek des Literarischen Vereins in Stuttgart, No. 217). Tübingen, 1899.
*Valentin Schumanns Nachtbüchlein (Bibliothek des Literarischen Vereins in Stuttgart, No. 197). Tübingen, 1893.
*Georg Wickrams Werke (Bibliothek des Literarischen Vereins in Stuttgart, Nos. 222, 223, 229, 230, 232, 236, 237, 241). 8 vols. Tübingen, 1901—08.
Bósasaga (ed. O. L. Jiriczek). Strassburg, 1893.
Bourhill, E. J. and Drake, J. B. Fairy Tales from South Africa. London, 1908.
Bouveignes, Olivier de. Contes d'Afrique. Paris, 1927.
*BP = Bolte, J. and Polívka, G. Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- und Hausmärchen der Brüder Grimm. 5 vols. Leipzig, 1913—31.
Broderius, John R. The Giant in Germanic Tradition (University of Chicago dissertation). Chicago, 1933.
Brown, A. C. L. Iwain: a Study in the Origins of Arthurian Romance (Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature VIII). Boston, 1903.
Brown Collection = The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore. 5 vols. Durham, N. C, 1952—.
Bryan, William F. and Dempster, Germaine. Sources and Analogues of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Chicago, 1941.
Bugge, Sophus. Norróne Skrifter af Sagnhistorisk Indhold. Christiania, 1864.
Burton, R. F. Arabian Nights: The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night. London, 1894. (SI, SII, etc. refers to Supplementary Volumes).
Book of the Sword. London, 1884.
Büttner, C. G. Lieder und Geschichten der Suaheli. Berlin, 1894.
Caldwell, J. R. Egar and Grime. Cambridge (Mass.), 1933.
*Callaway, H. Nursery Tales, Traditions, and Histories of the Zulus. Vol. I. Natal and London, 1868.
Campbell, J. F. Popular Tales of the West Highlands. 4 vols. 2d edition. London, 1890—93.
*Campbell, K. The Seven Sages of Rome. Boston, 1907.
Campbell-McKay = John G. McKay, More West Highland Tales, transcribed and translated from the original Gaelic manuscript of John Francis Campbell. Edinburgh and London, 1940.
Cappelle, H. van. Mythen en Sagen uit West Indië. Zutphen, 1926.
Cardim, Fernão. Tratado da terra e gente do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, 1925.
*Carnoy, Albert J. Iranian Mythology (The Mythology of all Races VI). Boston, 1917.
Carrière = J. M. Carrière, Tales from the French Folk-Lore of Missouri. Evanston and Chicago, 1937.
Carrington, Hereward and Fodor, Nandor. Haunted People: Story of the Poltergeist down the Centuries. New York, 1951.
Casati, Gaetano. Ten Years in Equatoria and the Return with Emin Pasha (London, New York, 1891).
*Catalogus = Catalogus van Folklore in de Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 3 vols. 'sGravenhage, 1919—22.
CColl = Colorado College Publications, Language Series.
Les Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles. 2 vols. (ed. Pierre Champion). Paris, 1928.
Chantepie de la Saussaye. See Saussaye.
Charpentier, Jarl. Kleine Beiträge zur indoiranischen Mythologie (Uppsala Universitets Arsskrift). Uppsala, 1911.
*Chatelain, Heli. Folk-Tales of Angola (MAFLS I). Boston and New York, 1894.
*Chauvin, Victor. Bibliographie des ouvrages arabes. 12 vols. Liège, 1892—1922.
*Chavannes, Edouard. Cinq cent contes et apologues extraits du Tripitaka chinois. 4 vols. Paris, 1910—34.
*Child, Francis James. The English and Scottish Popular Ballads. 5 vols in 10. Boston, 1882—98.
☉Childers, J. W. Motif-Index of the Cuentos of Juan Timoneda. Bloomington, Ind., 1947.
Christensen, Arthur, Dumme Folk (DF No. 50). København 1941.
Molboernes vise Gerninger (DF No. 47). København, 1939.
*Christiansen, R. Th. Norske Eventyr (Norske Folkeminder II). Kristiania, 1921.
CI = Publications of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.
*Clark, Mrs. K. M. Maori Tales and Legends. London, 1896.
*Clodd, Edward. Tom-Tit-Tot. London, 1898.
*Clouston, W. A. The Book of Noodles. London, 1888.
A Group of Eastern Romances and Stories. Glasgow, 1889.
*Popular Tales and Fictions. 2 vols. Edinburgh, London, 1887.
CNAE = Contributions to North American Ethnology. Washington, 1877—93.
*Codrington, R. H. The Melanesians: studies in their Anthropology and Folklore. Oxford, 1891.
Cole, Fay Cooper. Traditions of the Tinguian. FM XIV. Chicago, 1915.
*Conzemius, E. Ethnographical survey of the Miskito and Sumu Indians of Honduras and Nicaragua. BBAE CVI, 1932.
Cook, A. B. Zeus: a study in ancient religion. 3 vols. Cambridge, 1914 ff.
Corpus Poeticum Boreale (edited by G. Vigfússon and F. Y. Powell). 2 vols. Oxford, 1883.
*Cosquin, E. Contes populaires de Lorraine. 2 vols. Paris, 1887.
*Etudes folkloriques. Paris, 1922.
*Les contes indiens et l'occident. Paris, 1922.
Coster-Wijsman, L. N. Uilespiegel-Verhalen in Indonesië. Santpoort, 1929.
*Cowell, E. B. and others. The Jātaka or Stories of the Buddha's Former Births. 6 vols, and index. Cambridge, 1895—1913.
*Cox, Marian R. Cinderella (PFLS XXXI). London, 1893.
*Coyajee, J. C. Some Shahnameh Legends and their Chinese Parallels. JPASB XXIV (1928).
*Crane, T. F. Liber de Miraculis Sanctae Dei Genetricis Mariae. Ithaca (N.Y.) and London, 1926.
*The Exempla of Jacques de Vitry (PFLS XXVI). London, 1890.
Crawley, Ernest. The Mystic Rose. London, 1902.
☉Cross = Tom Peete Cross. Motif-Index of Early Irish Literature. Bloomington, Indiana, 1952.
CU = Columbia University Contributions to Anthropology.
*Curtin, Jeremiah. Seneca Indian Myths. Boston, 1923.
*Cushing, Frank H. Zuñi Folk Tales. New York and London, 1901.
*Dania. 10 vols. København, 1890—1903.
*Danske Studier. København, 1904 ff.
*Davenport, William. Marshallese Folklore Types (JAFL LXVI 219—237).
Dawkins, Richard M. Forty-five Stories from the Dodekanese. Cambridge (England), 1950.
Modern Greek Folktales. Oxford, 1953.
Day, Lal Behary. Folk-Tales of Bengal. London, 1912.
*De Cock, Alfons. Studien en Essays over oude Volksvertelsels. Antwerp, 1919.
*Volkssage, Volksgeloof en Volksgebruik. Antwerp, 1918.
*Volksgeneeskunde in Vlaanderen. Gent, 1891.
De la Saussaye. See Saussaye.
Dennett, R. E. The Folk-lore of the Fjort (French Congo) (PFLS XLI). London, 1898.
Desparmet, J. Contes populaires sur les ogres, recueillis à Blida. 2 vols. Paris, 1909—10.
Deutschbein, M. Studien zur Sagengeschichte Englands. Göthen, 1906.
De Vries, Jan. "De Sage van het ingemetselde Kind". Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Volkskunde XXXII (1927) 1—13.
Studiën over Faerösche Balladen. Haarlem, 1915.
*Volksverhalen uit Oost Indië. 2 vols. Leiden, 1925, 1928.
*De Vries's list = De Vries, Jan. "Typen-Register der Indonesische Fabels en Sprookjes" (Volksverhalen uit Oost-Indië II 398 ff.)
DF = Danmarks Folkeminder. København, 1908—
*Dh — Dähnhardt, Oskar. Natursagen. 4 vols. Leipzig, 1909—12.
*Dickson, Arthur. Valentine and Orson, a study in late Medieval Romance. New York, 1929.
Dieterich, Albrecht. Mutter Erde: ein Versuch über Volksreligion. 2d ed. Berlin, 1913.
*Dixon, Roland B. Oceanic Mythology (The Mythology of all Races IX). Boston, 1916.
Dobie, J. Frank. Coronado's Children. Dallas (Texas), 1930.
Dunlop-Liebrecht = Dunlop, J. Geschichte der Prosadichtungen (tr. and revised by F. Liebrecht). Berlin, 1851.
*Dunlop-Wilson = Dunlop, J. History of Prose Fiction. New edition revised by H. Wilson. 2 vols. London, 1888.
Durkheim, Émile. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Paris, 1912.
EETS = Early English Text Society Publications. London, 1864 ff.
Ebding, F. "Duala Märchen" (ZsES XVIII, 142—47).
Eberhard, Wolfram. Chinese Fairy Tales and Folk Tales. London, 1937.
*Typen chinesischer Volksmarchen (FFC CCXX, 1937).
*and Boratav, Pertev. Typen türkischen Volksmärchen. Weisbaden, 1953.
Egils saga einhenda ok Ásmundar Berserkjabana (in Lagerholm, Drei Lygisögur, Halle, 1927 pp. 1 ff.).
Ehrenreich, Paul. Die Mythen und Legenden der südamerikanischen Urvolker. Berlin, 1905.
*Einstein, C. Afrikanische Legenden. Berlin, 1925.
Eisler, R. Weltenmantel und Himmelszelt. 2 vols. München, 1910.
*Ellis (Yoruba) = Ellis, A. B. The Yoruba-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast of West Africa. London, 1894.
*Ellis (Vai) = Ellis, G. W. Negro Culture in West Africa. New York, 1914.
Ellis, T. P. and Lloyd, J. The Mabinogion. 2 vols. Oxford, 1929.
☉Emeneau, M. B. Kota Texts. 4 vols. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1944—46.
Encyc. Rel. Ethics = Hastings, J. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. 12 vols. New York, 1908—22.
Engert, Rolf. Die Sage vom Fliegenden Holländer (Meereskunde, Bd. XV, 7, Heft 173). Berlin, 1927.
Equilbecq, F. V. Contes indigènes de l'Ouest Africain Français. 3 vols. Paris, 1913—16.
Erminy Arismendi, Santos. Huellas Folkloricas. Caracas, 1954.
*Espinosa, Aurelio M. Cuentos populares españoles. 3 vols. 2d edition. Madrid, 1946—47.
Espinosa, Aurelio M., Jr. Cuentos populares de Castilla y Leon. (In press.)
*Eyrbyggja saga (ed. H. Gering). ASB VI. Halle, 1897.
FAS = Rafn, C. C. Fornaldar Sögur Norðrlanda. 3 vols. København, 1829—30.
*Fb = Feilberg, H. F. Bidrag til en Ordbog over jyske Almuesmål. 4 vols. København, 1886—1914.
*Feilberg, H. F. Nissens Historie (DF No. 18). København, 1919.
*Jul. 2 vols. København, 1904.
Festskrift til (Svenska Landsmål ock svenskt Folkliv). Stockholm, 1911.
*Ferguson, John C. Chinese Mythology (Mythology of all Races VIII). Boston, 1928.
*FFC = FF Communications, published by the Folklore Fellows. Helsinki, 1907 ff.
*Field, John E. The Myth of the Pent Cuckoo. London, 1913.
Fischer, H. and Bolte, J. Die Reise der Söhne Giaffers (Bibliothek des Litterarischen Vereins in Stuttgart No. 208). Tübingen, 1895.
*FL = Folklore. London, 1890 ff.
Flateyarbók (ed. Vigfússon and Unger). 3 vols. Christiania, 1860—68.
*FLJ = Folklore Journal. 8 vols. London, 1883—89.
☉Flowers, Helen L. A Classification of the Folktales of the West Indies by Types and Motifs. (Indiana University Ph. D. thesis, 1952.) Microfilm Service, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1953.
*FLR = Folklore Record. 5 vols. London, 1878—82.
FM = Publications of the Field Columbian Museum, Anthropological Series, Chicago, 1895 ff.
FMS = Fornmannasögur Norðrlanda. 12 vols. København, 1925—37.
FochF = Folkminnen och Folktankar. Lund.
Folklore Studies (The Catholic University of Peking). 6 vols. Peiping, 1942—47.
Fox, William S. Greek and Roman Mythology (Mythology of all Races I). Boston, 1916.
*Frazer, J. G. Apollodorus: the Library (Loeb Classical Library). London and New York, 1921.
*The Belief in Immortality and the Worship of the Dead. 2 vols. London, 1913.
*The Fasti of Ovid. 5 vols. London, 1929.
*Folklore in the Old Testament. 3 vols. London, 1918.
*The Golden Bough. 3d edition. 12 vols. London, 1907—15.
*Myths of the Origin of Fire. London, 1930.
*Pousanias's Description of Greece. 6 vols. London, 1898.
Frey. See Bolte.
Frobenius, Leo. Atlantis: Volksdichtung und Volksmärchen Afrikas. 12 vols. Jena, 1921—28.
Erlebte Erdteile. Frankfurt a. M., 1925 ff.
and Fox, Douglas C. African Genesis. New York, 1937.
FSS = Fornaldarsögur Suðrlanda (ed. G. Cederschiöld). København, 1901.
Gantenbein, B. Sprichwörter und Fabeln der Kamerun-Neger (Mitteilungen der ostschweizerischen Geograph-Commerciellen Gesellschaft II). St. Gallen, 1909.
*Gaster, Moses. Beiträge zur vergleichenden Sagen- und Märchenkunde (Gruz' Monatschrift fur Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums, XXIX, XXX). Bukarest, 1880, 1881. (Separate reprint, 1882; also included in Studies and Texts in Folklore, cited below).
*The Exempla of the Rabbis. London, Leipzig, 1924.
*Studies and Texts in Folklore, Magic, Medieval Romance, Hebrew Apocrypha and Samaritan Archaeology. 3 vols. London, 1925—28.
☉Gaster, Theodor H. The Oldest Stories in the World. New York, 1952.
☉Thespis. New York, 1950.
Gautreks Saga (ed. W. Ranisch, Palaestra XI). 1900.
Gayton, A. H. and Newman, Stanley S. Yokuts and Western Mono Myths. Berkeley (Calif.), 1940.
*Gerould, Gordon H. The Grateful Dead (PFLS LX). London, 1908.
*Gifford, E. W. Tongan Myths and Tales. BMB VIII. Honolulu 1924.
Giles, Herbert A. Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio. New York, 1927.
Gilgamisch = Ungrad, A. and Gressman, H. Das Gilgamesch-Epos. Göttingen, 1911.
*Golther, Wolfgang. Zur deutschen Sage und Dichtung. Leipzig, 1911.
Göngu Hrólfs saga (FAS III 235 ff.).
Gonzenbach, Laura. Sicilianische Märchen. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1870.
Graf, Arturo. Miti, Leggende e Superstizioni del Medio Evo. 2 vols. Torino, 1892—93.
☉Graham (Chinese) = Graham, David Crockett. Songs and Stories of the Ch'uan Miao (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Publications CXXIII No. 1). Washington, D. C, 1954.
*Gray, Louis H. Baltic Mythology (Mythology of All Races III). Boston, 1918.
Grenfell = Johnson, Sir Harry. George Grenfell and the Congo, II. London, 1908.
Grettis saga (ed. R. C. Boer). ASB VIII. Halle, 1900.
Grímssaga Loðinkinna (FAS II 143 ff.).
*Grinnell, G. B. Pawnee Hero Stories and Folk-Tales. New York, 1889.
*Grote, George. History of Greece. 3 vols. London, 1888.
Grundtvig, S. Danmarks gamle Folkeviser. 8 vols. København, 1853—.
Grunwald, M. "Spaniolic-Jewish Folktales and Their Motifs", Edoth II (1947), pp. 225—243 (in Hebrew).
GSCan = Publications of the Geological Survey of Canada, Anthropological Series.
Gull-þóris Saga (ed. Kr. Kaalund). København, 1898.
Gunnlaugs saga Ormstunga (ed. E. Mogk). Altnordische Texte I, 1886.
*Günter, H. Die christliche Legende des Abendlandes. Heidelberg, 1910.
Güntert, H. Der arische Weltkönig und Heiland. Halle, 1923.
*Kalypso. Halle, 1919.
Gutmann, Bruno. Volksbuch der Wadschagga. Leipzig, 1914.
*Hackman, O. Die Polyphemsage in der Volksüberlieferung. Helsingfors, 1904.
Haddon, A. C. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits. 6 vols. Cambridge (Eng.), 1901—35.
*Hagen, Friedrich Heinrich von der. Gesammtabenteuer. 3 vols. Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1850.
Hálfdanar saga Brönufóstra (FAS III 559 ff.).
Hálfdanar saga Eysteinssonar (ed. F. R. Schröder). Halle, 1917.
Hálfs saga ok Hálfsrekka (ed. A. Le Roy Andrews). Halle, 1909.
Halm, K. von. Aisōpeiōn Mythōn Synagōgē. Lipsiae, 1852.
☉Halpert, Herbert N. Folktales and Legends from the New Jersey Pines. (Indiana University Ph. D. thesis). Typewritten ms. Indiana University Library. Bloomington, Ind., 1947.
*Handbook of South American Indians (ed. Julian H. Steward). BBAE CXLIII. 6 vols. Washington, D. C, 1946—50.
*Handy, E. S. C. Marquesan Legends. BMB LXIX. Honolulu 1930.
Harris, J. R. Boanerges. Cambridge (Eng.), 1913.
The Cult of the Heavenly Twins. Cambridge, 1906.
Picus who is also Zeus. Cambridge, 1916.
Harris, Joel C. *Uncle Remus: his Songs and Sayings. New York, 1880.
*Uncle Remus and his Friends. Boston, 1892.
*Nights with Uncle Remus. Boston, 1883.
*Hartland, E. S. The Legend of Perseus. 3 vols. London, 1894 ff.
*Primitive Paternity. 2 vols. London, 1909.
*The Science of Fairy Tales. London, 1891.
Hatt, Gudmund. *Asiatic Influences in American Folklore. København, 1949.
The Corn Mother in America and Indonesia. (Anthropos XLVI  pp. 853—914.)
*Hdwb. d. Abergl. = Bächtold-Stäubli, H. and others. Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens. 10 vols. Berlin, 1927 ff.
*Hdwb. d. Märch. = Mackensen, L. and others. Handwörterbuch des deutschen Märchens. Berlin, 1931 ff.
*Heepe, M. Jaunde-Texte. Hamburg, 1919.
Heiðreks saga. See Hervararsaga ok Heiðreks konungs.
*Held, T. v. Märchen und Sagen der africanischen Neger. Jena, 1904.
Heptameron. See Marguerite de Navarre.
*Herbert, J. A. Catalogue of Romances in the Department of Manuscripts in the British Museum. London, 1910. (Vol. 3 only; for vols. 1 and 2 see Ward, H. L. D.)
Herrmann, Paul. Erläuterungen zu den ersten neun Büchern der dänischen Geschichte des Saxo Grammaticus. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1901, 1922.
Nordische Mythologie. Leipzig, 1903.
Hertel, A. Verzauberte Oertlichkeiten. Hannover, 1908.
*Hertz, Wilhelm. Aus Dichtung und Saga (ed. K. Vollmöller). Stuttgart and Berlin, 1907.
*Gesammelte Abhandlungen (ed. F. v. d. Leyen). Stuttgart and Berlin 1905.
Parzival. 2d ed. Stuttgart and Berlin, 1914.
Spielmannsbuch. Stuttgart, 1886.
Tristan und Isolde. Stuttgart, 1877.
Hervararsaga ok Heiðreks Konungs (ed. J. Helgason). København, 1924.
Hervieux, L. Les fabulistes latins. 2d ed. 2 vols. Paris, 1893—4 . Hibbard, Laura A. Mediaeval Romance in England. New York, 1924.
HF = Hoosier Folklore. Indianapolis, Ind., 1946 ff.
Hjálmterssaga ok Ölvis (FAS III 453 ff.).
Hock, Stefan. Die Vampyrsagen und ihre Verwertung in der deutschen Literatur. Berlin, 1900.
*Holm, G. Sagn og Fortællinger fra Angmagsalik (Meddelelser om Grønland X 237 ff.).
Holmberg, Uno. *Der Baum des Lebens (Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae XVI. B). Helsinki, 1922—3.
*Finno-Ugric Mythology (The Mythology of all Races IV). Boston, 1927.
Gudstrons uppkomst. Uppsala, 1917.
*Siberian Mythology (The Mythology of all Races IV). Boston 1927.
*Holmström, Helge. Studier över svanjungfrumotivet. Malmö, 1919.
*Howey, M. O. The Horse in Magic and Myth. London, 1923.
Hrßolfs Saga Kraka (ed. Finnur Jonsson). København, 1904.
*Hromundarsaga Greipssonar (FAS II 363 ff.).
*Huber, P. Michael. Die Wanderlegende von den Siebenschläfern. Leipzig, 1910.
*Huet, G. Les contes populaires. Paris, 1923.
*Hultkrantz, Åke. Conceptions of the Soul Among North American Indians. Stockholm, 1953.
Irwin, Cecilia Pauze. Summaries of the Stories of Béroalde de Verville's La Moyen de Parvenir. Unpublished M. A. thesis, University of South Carolina, 1953.
Ittman, J. *Einiges aus Bankon-Literatur (ZsES XVII).
*Nyang-Märchen (ZsES XVII).
Jacobs, Joseph. Book of Wonder Voyages. London, 1896.
*The Fables of Aesop. New York, 1894.
Celtic Fairy Tales. London, 1892.
More Celtic Fairy Tales. London, 1894.
English Fairy Tales. London, 1890.
More English Fairy Tales. London, 1895.
*Jacobs' list = Jacobs, Joseph. "List of Folk-Tale Incidents common to European Folk-Tales" in Papers and Transactions of the International Folk-lore Congress, 1891. London, 1892.
*Jacottet, E. The Treasury of Basuto Lore. London, 1908.
*JAFL = Journal of American Folk-Lore. Boston, etc., 1888 ff.
JAI = Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. London, 1871 ff.
JAOS = Journal of the American Oriental Society. Boston, etc., 1849 ff.
☉Jansen, William Hugh. Abraham "Oregon" Smith: pioneer, folk hero, and tale-teller. (Indiana University Ph. D. thesis.) Typewritten MS. Indiana University Library. Bloomington (Ind.), 1949.
JAS = Journal of the African Society. 34 vols. London, 1862—1900.
Jātaka. See Cowell.
JE = Publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition. New York, etc., 1898 ff.
*Jegerlehner, Johannes. Sagen und Märchen aus dem Oberwallis. Basel, 1909.
Jenness, Diamond. Notes and Traditions from Northern Alaska (Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition, Southern Party, 1913—16, XIII). Ottawa, 1924.
Jensen, P. Das Gilgamesch-Epos in der Weltliteratur. Strassburg, 1906.
*Jijena Sanchez, Rafael. El Perro Negro. Buenos Aires, 1952.
Johnson, Sir Harry. George Grenfell and the Congo, Vol. II. London, 1908.
*Jones, Louis C. Spooks of the Valley: ghost stories for boys and girls. Boston, 1948.
JPASB = Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
JSFO = Journal de la Société Finno-ougrienne. Helsingfors, 1886 ff.
*Junod, H. A. The Life of a South African Tribe, Vol. II. Neuchatel, 1913.
*Kalevala, the land of heroes (W. F. Kirby, tr.). London, 1907.
Kålund, K. Kirialax Saga. København, 1917.
Keightley, Thomas. Fairy Mythology. London, 1847.
Keith, A. B. Indian Mythology (The Mythology of all Races VI). Boston, 1917.
☉Keller, John Esten. Motif-Index of Mediaeval Spanish Exempla. Knoxville (Tenn.), 1949.
Kennedy, P. Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts. London, 1866.
*Ker, Anna. Papuan Fairy Tales. London, 1910.
Ketilssaga Haengs (FAS II 109 ff.).
*Kidd, D. Savage Childhood: a Study of Kaffir Children. London, 1906.
*Kittredge, G. L. Arthur and Gorlagon (Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature VIII). Boston, 1903.
*A Study of Gawain and the Green Knight. Cambridge (Mass.), 1916.
*Witchcraft in Old and New England. Cambridge (Mass.), 1929.
Klapper, Joseph. Erzählungen des Mittelalters. Breslau, 1914.
*Knowles, J. H. Folk-Tales of Kashmir. London, 1893.
*Köhler, Reinhold. Aufsätze über Märchen und Volkslieder (ed. J. Bolte and E. Schmidt). Berlin, 1894.
*Köhler-Bolte = Köhler, R. Kleinere Schriften (ed. J. Bolte). 3 vols. Weimar, 1898—1900.
Kölbing, E. Riddarsögur. København, 1872.
Krappe, A. H. Les Sources du Libro de Exemplos, Bulletin Hispanique, XXXIX, pp. 5—54.
*Balor with the Evil Eye: Studies in Celtic and French Literature. New York, 1927.
*Études de mythologie et de folklore germaniques. Paris, 1928.
The Science of Folk-Lore. London, 1930.
*Kristensen, Evald Tang. Danske Sagn. 2d ed. 6 vols. København, 1928—36.
Krohn, Kaarle. *Bär (wolf) und Fuchs (JSFO VI). Helsingfors, 1886.
Der gefangene Unhold (Finnische-Ugrische Forschungen VII 129—84). Helsingfors, 1908.
*Mann und Fuchs. Helsingfors. 1891.
Krug, Adolph N. Bulu Tales from Kamerun, West Africa (JAFL XXV).
Kruyt, A. C. Het Animisme in den Indischen Archipel. 'sGravenhage, 1906.
*Lagerholm, Å. Drei Lygisogur (ASB XVII). København, 1927.
*Laistner, Ludwig. Das Rätsel der Sphinx. 2 vols. Berlin, 1889.
Landau, M. Die Quellen des Dekameron. 2d ed. Stuttgart, 1884.
*Landtman, G. The Folk-Tales of the Kiwai Papuans (Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae XLVII). Helsingfors, 1917.
Lang, Andrew. The Delectable Tale of the Marriage of Cupid and Psyche, done into English by William Adlington. London, 1886.
Myth, Ritual and Religion. 2 vols. London, 1887.
*Langdon, S. H. Semitic Mythology (The Mythology of all Races V). Boston, 1931.
Largeau, V. Elements de Grammaire et Dictionnaire Français-Pahouin. Paris, 1901.
Laserstein, Käte. Der Griseldisstoff in der Weltliteratur (Forschungen zur neueren Literaturgeschichte LVIII). Weimar, 1926.
Latchman, Ricardo E. Las creencias religiosas de los antiguos peruanos. Santiago de Chile, 1929.
Lawrence, R. M. The Magic of the Horseshoe. London and Boston, 1898.
Le Braz, A. La Légende de la Mort chez les Bretons armoricains. 2 vols. Paris, 1902.
Lederbogen, Wilhelm. *Kameruner Märchen. Berlin, 1901.
*Duala Marchen (Mittheilungen des Seminars für Orientalische Sprachen, VI, Dritte Abteilung). Berlin, 1903.
Duala Fables. JAS IV (1904—05).
*Lee, A. C. The Decameron, its Sources and Analogues. London, 1909.
*Leland, Charles Godfrey. The Algonquin Legends of New England. Boston, 1884.
Leskien = Leskien, A. and Brugmann, K. Litauische Volkslieder und Märchen. Strassburg, 1882.
*Leyden, F. von der. Das Märchen, 3d ed. Leipzig, 1925.
*Das Märchen in den Göttersagen der Edda. Berlin, 1899.
Der gefesselte Unhold (Prager deutsche Studien, Heft 8, Sonderabzug, 1—29). Prag, 1908.
*Liebrecht, Felix. Zur Volkskunde. Heilbronn, 1879.
*Liljeblad, Sven. Die Tobiasgeschichte und andere Märchen mit toten Helfern. Lund, 1927.
*Liungman, W. En traditionsstudie över sagan om Prinsessan i Jordkulan. Göteborg, 1925.
*Två Folkminnesundersökningar. Göteborg, 1925.
Sveriges Samtliga Folksagor. 3 vols. Djursholm (Sweden), 1950—52.
Lloyd, John W. Aw-aw-tam Indian Nights. Westerfield, N. J., 1911.
Loomis, C. Grant. White Magic: an Introduction to the Folklore of Christian Legend. Cambridge (Mass.), 1948.
Loomis, R. S. Celtic Myth and Arthurian Romance. New York, 1927.
Loorits, Oskar. Grundzüge des estnischen Volksglaubens, Vol. I. Lund, 1949.
Lorentzen, Th. Die Sage vom Rodensteiner. Heidelberg, 1903.
*Löwis, A. von, of Menar. Die Brünhildsage in Russland (Palaestra No. 142). Leipzig, 1923.
*Luomala, Katherine. Maui-of-a-Thousand-Tricks. BMB CXCVIII. Honolulu, 1949.
Luzel, F. M. Contes populaires de Basse-Bretagne. 3 vols. Paris, 1887.
MacCulloch, J. A. *Celtic Mythology (The Mythology of all Races III). Boston, 1918.
*The Childhood of Fiction. London, 1905.
*Eddic Mythology (The Mythology of all Races II). Boston, 1930.
MacDougall, James, and Calder, George. Folk Tales and Fairy Lore in Gaelic and English. Edinburgh, 1910.
*Máchal, J. Slavic Mythology (The Mythology of all Races III). Boston, 1918.
MacKay, D. E. The Double Invitation in the Legend of Don Juan. Stanford University, 1943.
☉McKay, J. G. More West Highland Tales. Edinburgh and London, 1940.
MAFLS = Memoirs of the American Folk-Lore Society.
*Malalasekera, George Peiris. Dictionary of Pali Proper Names. 2 vols. London, 1937.
*Malory, Sir Thomas. Morte D'Arthur (many editions).
Mannhart, W. Wald und Feldkulte. 2 vols. 2d ed. Berlin, 1904—05.
*Mansfeld, Alfred. Urwald-Dokumente: Vier Jahre unter den Crossflussnegern Kameruns. Berlin, 1908.
Marie-Ursule, Sœur. Civilisation traditionelle des Lavalois. (Les Archives de Folklore V—VI). Quebec, 1951.
*Marguerite de Navarre. Heptameron. 3 vols. (ed. Díllage, Paris, 1879). (Analysis by Sarah C. Pinkney, University of South Carolina).
Meinhof, Carl. Afrikanische Märchen. Jena, 1921.
*Meinhof, Elli. Märchen aus Kamerun. Strassburg, 1889.
*Mélusine. 10 vols. Paris, 1878—1901.
Mensa Philosophica = T. F. Dunn. The Facetiae of the Mensa Philosophica (Washington University Studies, new series, Lang. and Lit. No. 5). St. Louis, 1934.
Métraux, Alfred. Ethnology of Easter Island. BMB CLX. Honolulu, 1940.
*Mitos y Cuentos de los Indios Chiriguano. RMLP XXXIII (1932), pp. 119—84.
*Myths of the Toba and Pilaga Indians of the Gran Chaco (MAFLS XL, 1946).
Myths and Tales of the Matako Indians. Göteborg, 1939.
Meyer, Elard H. Germanische Mythologie. Berlin, 1891.
Mythologie der Germanen. Strassburg, 1903.
*Meyer, Johann J. Hindu Tales. London, 1909.
*Meyer, Kuno. The Voyage of Bran, son of Febal to the Land of the Living (with an essay upon the Irish Vision of the Happy Otherworld and the Celtic doctrine of Rebirth by Alfred Nutt). 2 vols. London, 1895, 1897.
Meyer, Richard M. Altgermanische Religiongeschichte. Leipzig, 1910.
Milligan, Robert H. *The Fetish Folk of West Africa. Chicago, 1912.
*The Jungle Folk of Africa. New York, 1908.
*Mischlich, A. Neue Märchen aus Afrika. Leipzig, 1929.
*Mitford, A. B. F. Tales of Old Japan. 3d edition. London, 1876.
*MLN = Modern Language Notes. Baltimore, 1886 ff.
Moe, Moltke. Samlede Skrifter. 4 vols. Oslo, 1925 ff.
Mogk Festschrift = Festschrift Eugen Mogk zum 70. Geburtstag. Halle, 1924.
Monteil, C. Contes Soudanais. Paris, 1905.
Moreno Enriquez, Maria de los Angeles. Motivos de narracion tradicionales en los libros de Esdras. (Anuario de la Sociedad Folklorica de Mexico VI 7—45.) Mexico, 1947.
MSFO = Mémoires de la Société Finno-ougrienne, Helsingfors.
*MPh = Modern Philology. Chicago, 1903 ff.
Much, R. Der germanische Himmelsgott (Abhandlungen zur germanischen Philologie: Festgabe fur Richard Heinzel, pp. 189 ff.) Halle, 1898.
MWF = Midwest Folklore. Bloomington 1951 ff.
Müller, P. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Tem-Sprache (Nord-Togo). (Mitteilungen des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin, VIII.)
*Müller, W. Max. Egyptian Mythology (The Mythology of all Races XII). Boston, 1918.
*Nassau, R. H. Where Animals Talk: West African Folklore Tales. London, 1914.
Naumann, Hans. Primitive Gemeinschaftskultur. Jena, 1921.
Neilson, William A. The Origins and Sources of the Court of Love. Cambridge (Mass.), 1899.
*Nekes, Hermann. Lehrbuch der Jaunde-Sprache. Berlin, 1911.
☉Neuman, Dov. Motif-index to the Talmudic-Midrashic Literature. (Indiana University Ph. D. thesis). Microfilm Service, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1954.
*Norlind, Tobias. Skattsägner, en studie i jämförande folkminnesforskning. Lund, 1918.
Nornagests þáttr: in Bugge, S. Norroene Skrifter af sagnhistorisk Indhold, pp. 47 ff. Christiania, 1864.
Nouvelles récréations et joyeaux devis (in Oeuvres françoises de Bonaventure des Périers). Vol. II. Paris, 1856.
Nouvelles de Sens (ed. E. Langlois). Paris, 1908.
(Analysis by F. C. Perry, University of South Carolina).
*Nordenskiöld, Erland. Indianerleben, El Gran Chaco (Südamerika). Leipzig, 1912.
Nutt, Alfred. See Meyer, Kuno.
NYFQ = New York Folklore Quarterly.
Nyrop, Kristoffer. Navnets Magt. København, 1887.
*Oberg, Kalervo. Indian Tribes of Northern Mato Grosso, Brazil (Smithsonian Institution, Institute of Social Anthropology, XV). Washington, 1953.
*Oesterley, H. Gesta Romanorum. Berlin, 1872.
Ohrt, F. Danmarks Trylleformler (FF Publications, Northern Series III). København, 1917.
Trylleord fremmede og danske (DF XXV). København, 1922.
*Olrik, Axel. Ragnarök: die Sagen vom Weltuntergang (trans. W. Ranisch). Berlin, 1922.
Örvar-Odds Saga (ed. R. C. Boer). Leiden, 1888.
*O'Suilleabhain, S. Scealta Craibhtheacha. Dublin, 1952.
PaAm = Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History.
PAES = Publications of the American Ethnological Society.
Panchatantra (tr. A. Ryder). Chicago, 1925.
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See also Tawney.
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Rattray (Ashanti) = Rattray, R. Sutherland. Akan-Ashanti Folk Tales. Oxford, 1930.
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RCHG = Revista Chilena de Historia y Geografia. Santiago de Chile.
Reinhard, John R. The Survival of Geis in Mediaeval Romance. Halle a. S., 1933.
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- ↑ Verzeichnis der Märchentypen, FFCommunications No. 3, Helsinki, 1910. A revision by the present author appeared as The Types of the Folk-Tale, FFCommunications No. 74, Helsinki, 1928.
- ↑ For a summary of the results of these classifications see R. S. Boggs, A Comparative Survey of the Folk-tales of Ten Peoples, FFCommunications No. 93, Helsinki, 1930. In addition to the surveys discussed by Boggs may be mentioned: Andrejev, Ukazatel' Skazochnik sjuzhetov po Sisteme Aarne, and Plenzat, Die ost- und westpreussischen Märchen und Schwänke. For more recent surveys see Thompson, The Folktale, pp 420f.
- ↑ Every scholar who has constructed a new catalogue of tales has, of course, been obliged to add types of tales not already to be found in the classification, but it has thus far proved practicable as far as European peoples are concerned, to use the Aarne list for the folktale and jest. How far an expansion of the type-index may permit a cataloguing of such partly literary forms as the exemplum and the fabliau, only experiment can tell. As long as the entire tale-complex remains intact in transmission, such an index as The Types of the Folk-Tale is useful; when such a condition does not exist, a more analytical list seems necessary.
- ↑ Division of motifs on philosophical grounds has been made by several scholars. In his Märchen des Mittelalters (p. xvii) Albert Wesselski divides the motifs of folktales, novelle, and myths into Mythenmotive, Gemeinschaftsmotive, and Kulturmotive. By means of this distinction he discusses the difference between the narrative forms. A very elaborate analysis of the concept of motif is found in Arthur Christensen's study, Motif et Theme (FFCommunications No. 59). Divisions are made into "éléments de relation," "motifs," "accessoires épiques," "thème," "motifs sans thème," "motifs a thèmes faibles," and the like. The study throws light on the psychological nature of various motifs.
- ↑ In case a division is extensive, it may occupy several "tens". When this is true, the numbers ending in "0" and "9" except at beginning and end, are skipped: "0" always refers to the general idea, "9" to miscellaneous or additional examples.
- ↑ The system is not really decimal, for the subdivisions may go beyond ten. E. g., A2494.5.34, E501.17.5.3. The latter number refers to the third tertiary division of the fifth secondary division of the seventeenth primary division of E501. — A difficult problem in classification has been solved by the use of a "zero" subdivision. In E613, for example, the main idea is "reincarnation as bird." E613.1, E613.2, etc., detail the kind of bird (E613.1. Reincarnation as duck, etc.) Now there are other subdivisions of E613 that refer only to the general idea of bird (not of particular birds). Thus: E613. Reincarnation as bird. — E613.0.1. Reincarnation of murdered child as bird. — E613.0.2. Reincarnation of unbaptized child as bird. — E613.1. Reincarnation as duck. — etc.
- ↑ The appearance of only one or a few references to a motif must not be interpreted to mean that there are not other occurrences.
- ↑ If more items must be put in a "ten" than enough to fill the vacant spaces, the additions can be made to the last number in the "ten", e. g. 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, etc.
- ↑ It is suggested that where references are hereafter made to the present work and to The Types of the Folk-Tale, the term motif should be used for this Motif-index and type for The Types of the Folk-Tale. Thus: Motif S31 appears in Type 510.
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