Motif-Index of Folk-Literature/Volume 1

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MOTIF-INDEX

OF

FOLK-LITERATURE


A Classification of Narrative Elements in
Folktales, Ballads, Myths, Fables, Mediaeval Romances
Exempla, Fabliaux, Jest-Books and
Local Legends


REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION BY

STITH THOMPSON
Indiana University


VOLUME ONE

A–C


INDIANA UNIVERSITY PRESS

BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA


All Rights Reserved

This work has also been published for sale outside the United States and its possessions, Canada, and the Philippine Islands by

ROSENKILDE and BAGGER, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Printed in Denmark by Centraltrykkeriet, Copenhagen
1955


TO MY WIFE


PREFACE TO REVISED EDITION


In the two decades which have now elapsed since the first edition of this work began to appear, the need for a revision and enlargement has become more and more insistent. As the Index has been used for analyzing tales and myths from every quarter of the globe and from almost every narrative literary genre, a large amount of bibliographical material and many new items for the classification have accumulated, so that the revision about doubles the size and scope of the original.

Several very large and important areas have been comprehensively surveyed for motifs during recent years and find place in the present index.

As a result of nearly twenty years of work Professor Tom Peete Cross succeeded in covering the rich field of early Irish literature. Dr. Inger M. Boberg has indexed a large section of the Icelandic sagas and Eddas. There have also been very extensive motif-indexes of the oral tales of India, of the West Indies, of the British and American tale tradition, and of the Talmudic-Midrashic literature — to mention only a few of these important areas. Collections from other parts of the world and from many literary traditions have been examined so as to make the present revision as truly representative as possible of traditional narrative over the entire world.

The introduction to the first edition has been revised to indicate an occasional modification of fact or point of view, to clarify matters about which questions have been raised, and especially to indicate the ways in which the scope of the original index has been widened.

The actual index system has been reconsidered at every point and occasionally changed, but such changes are always minor and are sufficiently indicated. They should facilitate the making of new motif-indexes as well as satisfy the demand of logical arrangement.

The doubling of the scope of material covered, the frequent improvements in the technique of classification, and the amplifying of bibliographic references in the new edition should make the work more useful as a tool for literary and folkloristic research and as a reference work covering a field never before made easily available to the general reader.

Bloomington, Indiana
September, 1955.
STITH THOMPSON


INTRODUCTION

PURPOSE OF THE PRESENT WORK

With each passing year the need of a comprehensive classification of the materials in all kinds of traditional narrative becomes more apparent. Our great libraries of folklore, enriched by the ceaseless activity of field workers and scholars, grow daily more difficult to explore. Tales, ballads, myths, and traditions have poured in from all parts of the earth, both civilized and uncivilized, so that no man, however great his industry and skill in languages, can read the thousands of volumes in a lifetime. By a careful division of labor, scholars have, however, examined many parts of this field, with the result that the body of writings about traditional narrative also grows beyond the compass of one man's mastery.

That some kind of systematic indexing of this vast accumulation should be undertaken has been long realized. Though several beginnings of such a work have been made during the past century, no plan has been completed with sufficient thoroughness to warrant general acceptance.

For the special field of the folktale, to be sure, the classification of Antti Aarne[1] has been found useful. In this index some eight hundred complete stories current in Europe have been logically arranged, and by its system the tales of more than a dozen European peoples have now been catalogued.[2] For the European area such an arrangement of tales as Aarne's proves reasonably satisfactory, since popular traditions assume much the same pattern throughout, and the same narrative-complexes are found over much of the continent.[3]

Outside of Europe, however, Aarne's index is of little use. In the remoter parts of the world, whither any adequate study must lead us, the European tale-types are applicable to very few stories. Yet there is much common matter in the folk-literature of the world. The similarities consist not so often in complete tales as in single motifs. Accordingly, if an attempt is made to reduce the traditional narrative material of the whole earth to order (as, for example, the scientists have done with the worldwide phenomena of biology) it must be by means of a classification of single motifs — those details out of which full-fledged narratives are composed. It is these simple elements which can form a common basis for a systematic arrangement of the whole body of traditional literature. Only after such cataloguing will it be possible to make adequate use of the collections now existing in print and in manuscript.

The work here presented is an attempt at such a classification. In preparing it I have had in mind above all the practical need of using simple principles that will be easily apparent to everyone. According to this plan, motifs dealing with one subject are handled together, irrespective of the literary form in which they may appear. No attempt has been made to determine the psychological basis of various motifs or their structural value in narrative art, for though such considerations have value, they are not, I think, of much practical help toward the orderly arrangement of the stories and myths of a people.[4]

The present problem of classification is analogous to that of the books in a great library. All works on history, of whatever nature and whether good or bad, appear together there, and these in turn are divided into Roman History, French History, and the like. Side by side with Gibbon and Mommsen rests an amateurish dissertation on some minute fact in the life of the Empire. The library cataloguer is not concerned with the merit of the work he includes, nor can he arrange the books according to any principle of literary criticism about which there may be debate. The "literature of knowledge and the literature of power" are illuminating as principles of criticism; they will not serve as a plan for the arrangement of books. The orderly listing of narrative motifs is likewise best accomplished by the simple and usually easy method of placing together all which deal with the same subject.

Acting upon this principle of practical usefulness, I have also made the index very inclusive of various kinds of motifs. Sometimes the interest of a student of traditional narrative may be centered on a certain type of character in a tale, sometimes on an action, sometimes on attendant circumstances of the action. Hence I have endeavored to use all the elements of tales that have in the past been objects of special study and similar elements that are likely to serve as such objects in the future. A glance at the synopsis will indicate the varied nature of the contents of the classification. At some point or other will be found all kinds of motifs or themes which make up the systems of such writers as Wesselski or Christensen, and perhaps many others which a more philosophical approach than mine would rule out. But in spite of the danger of including material that on strictly critical grounds may be unjustified, I have felt that it is in general better to list all elements of a tale that are likely to have interest to the folklorist or the student of literary history. Such an inclusive list may well form the basis for philosophical discussion, but it is in itself quite uncritical of the material involved. The end of this study will have been attained if the multiform materials it treats become thereby easier of investigation and more convenient for reference.


SCOPE OF THE CLASSIFICATION

The purpose of the present study, then, has been to arrange in a single logical classification the elements which make up traditional narrative literature. Stories that have formed part of a tradition, whether oral or literary, find a place here. The folktale, the myth, the ballad, the fable, the mediaeval romance, the fabliau, the jest, the exemplum, and the local tradition have all been included, though some of these divisions have been inadequately recorded. In general, I have used any narrative, whether popular or literary, so long as it has formed a strong enough tradition to cause its frequent repetition.

Certain aspects of folklore have been definitely omitted. I have not treated superstitions, customs, religious beliefs, riddles, or proverbs, except as they happen to form an organic part of a narrative. To have included these would have doubled the size of the index.

Within the chosen field I have made every effort to have the list of motifs as full as possible. Accordingly, in my reading I have been especially desirous of broadening the field of investigation. Certain works introduce the reader to a new world of narrative interest and to a large number of new motifs. Such have been very valuable for my purpose. And the investigations of other folklorists who from their wide reading have brought together lists of versions of tales have also served to increase the scope of the classification.

Some indication of the works from which the largest number of motifs have been gathered may be of interest:

Folktale and Myth.

(a) General

First Edition

Bolte and Polívka's 5 volume notes to Grimm's Household tales — comprehensive for folktales of European, Near Eastern, and Indic tradition.

The Mythology of all Races, 14 volumes.

Feilberg, Bidrag til en Ordbog over Jyske Almuesmål — a remarkable general collection of notes on folklore motifs.

MacCulloch, Childhood of Fiction.

Cox, Cinderella, a pioneer study of the motifs of a single folktale.

Köhler, Kleinere Schriften — the erudite folktale annotations of the leading folklorist of the 1870's.

Penzer, The Pentamerone of Basile — covering the earliest of all European folktale collections.

FFCommunications. This distinguished series, to which the present work belongs, has surveys of the tales of many different countries and monographs on particular tales.

Dähnhardt's Natursagen, especially for its origin legends connected with biblical tradition.

New Edition

Waldemar Liungman's third volume of his collection of Swedish tales, devoted to a study of the provenience of the various European tales. World-wide comparisons.

FFCommunications since 1930.

Numerous monographs on special widely distributed tales and motifs.

(b) European tales and European tradition in other continents

First Edition

Frazer's Apollodorus, with learned notes on many Greek mythological themes.

Volumes on Celtic, Eddic, Baltic, Slavic, Finno-Ugric, and Greek mythology in The Mythology of All Races.

Surveys of tales of Finland, Estonia, Finnish-Sweden, Norway, Flanders, Czechoslovakia, Livonia, Russia, Spain, Roumania, Hungary, Iceland, Wallonia — mostly in FFCommunications.

The principal reliance for European tales, traditions and myths: Bolte and Polívka.

Notes on Icelandic sagas from Prof. Chester N. Gould.

New Edition

Balys's surveys of Lithuanian tales, legends and songs — covering the very extensive archives in Lithuania.

Dr. Boberg's motif-index of Icelandic Fornaldarsögur and the Eddas.

Solheim's index of Norsk Folkminnelag, covering scores of volumes published by the Norwegian folklore archives.

Motif-index of McKay's More West Highland Tales.

Folktale surveys and monographs in FFCommunications since 1930 — some of prime importance.

Espinosa's new edition of Cuentos Populares Españoles, with extensive notes and motif-indexes.

Dawkins's two important new works on modern Greek tales.

T. P. Cross's monumental Motif-Index of Early Irish Literature, with extensive folktale material.

A group of important monographs on folktales, particularly Dr. Rooth's study of Cinderella and Dr. Roberts's of the Frau Holle tale.

Baughman's study of the British and American folktale — with bibliography of nearly 1,000 titles.

Flowers's motif-index of the tales of the West Indies (200 titles).

The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore — tales and legends indexed by motif.

Halpert's analysis of the folktales of the New Jersey Pines country.

Carrière's collection from the French of Missouri and Sister Marie-Ursule from the Quebec French.

Rael's studies of the Spanish tales of New Mexico.

Klipple's exhaustive treatment of the African tales of European and Asiatic tradition (about 500 titles covered).

Frank Goodwyn's unpublished study of the Pedro de Urdemales cycle in Latin America.

Child's English and Scottish Popular Ballads (for narrative motifs).

Many additions to Greek mythology from special studies of the Troy story and from Grote's extensive notes in his History of Greece.

Anton Nyerges's motif-index of Cheremis folktales in Sebeok's Studies in Cheremis Folklore.

(c) The Near East and India

First Edition

Chauvin's Bibliographie des ouvrages arabes — a twelve-volume work analyzing the Arabic collections and those from India and Persia which came into Arabic.

Arabian Nights — some notes from Burton's well-known edition, as well as the summaries from Chauvin, mentioned above.

Penzer's ten-volume Ocean of Story, with its excellent notes and indexes covering the classical Indic collections.

A sampling of the Jewish field in Moses Gaster's Exempla of the Rabbis, in Bin Gorion's Der Born Judas, and in Frazer's Folklore in the Old Testament.

For Buddhistic legend, Cowell's Jātaka (6 volumes), and Chavannes' Cinq cent contes et apologues (4 volumes) — the latter emanating from China.

Siberian peoples represented in Holmberg's Siberian Mythology and in several important monographs.

Persian literary tales like the Thousand and One Days, analyzed in Chauvin.

Volumes on Semitic, Armenian, and Indic Mythology from The Mythology of All Races.

New Edition

Eberhard and Boratav's types of the Turkish folktales, an exhaustive study of an important field.

Neuman's large motif-index of Talmudic-Midrashic Literature, opening up much biblical and other Jewish material.

Theodor Gaster's Thespis and Oldest Stories in the World, which explore some Near East material difficult of access.

Thompson-Balys, Motif and Type-Index of the Oral Tales of India. Comprehensive — over 200 works indexed.

Bødker's notes on the Panchatantra, from his edition of an old Danish translation.

The Buddhist world explored anew in Malalasekera's Dictionary of Pali Proper Names.

(d) The Far East

First Edition

For China, Chavannes' Cinq cent contes, mentioned above (Buddhistic), Werner's Myths and Legends of China and Ferguson's Chinese Mythology.

For Japan, Mitford's rather inadequate collection.

Scott's Indo-Chinese Mythology.

New Edition

Eberhard's Typen chinesischer Märchen, with its extensive coverage of ancient and modern texts in Chinese.

Graham's new Ch'uan Miao collection, for which I have furnished the type-index.

Hiroko Ikeda's extensive analysis of both published and unpublished Japanese tales.

Zong In-Sob's new Folk Tales from Korea.

Hatt's study of Asiatic influences in American Folklore.

(e) Oceania

First Edition

For Indonesia, DeVries's Volksverhalen uit Oost Indië, with its extensive comparative notes, as well as special studies such as those by Voorhoeve and Coster-Wijsman.

Fansler's Filipino Folktales, with his comparative notes.

The general Pacific area, as covered in Dixon's Oceanic Mythology.

New Edition

Cole's Tinguin Folktales — a different Philippine area than covered in Fansler.

Beckwith's Hawaiian Mythology.

A comprehensive study, now in progress, of the principal tale and myth collections of Australia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia. References are made directly to these works.

Special studies, such as Luomola's Maui of the Thousand Tricks.

(f) North and South American Indian

First Edition

Thompson's Tales of the North American Indians, with comparative notes.

Alexander's North American Mythology and Latin American Mythology.

New Edition

Eskimo collections, annotated by Bjorn Winger.

Gay ton and Newman's comparative study of the California area.

Mrs. Pessoa's monograph on the flood myths of North and South America.

The Handbook of South American Indians, which in its six volumes gives a good summary of the myths of tribes over the continent.

Various other collections, especially those of Alfred Métraux.

Additional North American Indian references furnished by Dr. Remedios Wycoco Moore in her unpublished Ph. D. thesis Types of North American Indian Tales.

(g) Africa

First Edition

Miscellaneous notes from various collections.

New Edition

Native motifs from Klipple's African Tales with Foreign Analogues.

Further notes from various collections, chosen so as to be representative of different areas.


Local Legends.

First Edition

Of all fields of traditional literature included in this index, that concerning local legends is least complete. The list is based upon several general books, such as Werhahn's Die Sage and the various surveys of Sagen in the FFCommunications. In addition, a large number of monographs on special legends have been used.

New Edition

The complete Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens has been examined for Sagen.

Solheim's index to Norsk Folkminnelag has added much in this field.

Many newer monographs appearing as special publications and in learned journals have been used.

Kristensen's Danske Sagn.


Mediaeval Romances.

First Edition

Wells's Manual of Writings in Middle English furnished motifs from romances in English.

Ward's and Herbert's Catalogue of Romances in the British Museum.

Special works such as Miss Schoepperle's Tristan and Isolt, Dickson's Valentine and Orson and Hertz's studies of various romances.

New Edition

Malory's Morte Darthur has been indexed by motifs, so as better to represent the Arthurian legend.

Reinhard's study of Geis in the Romance has opened up a special cross section of material.


Exempla and Saints' Legends.

First Edition

Pauli's Schimp und Ernst, with Bolte's extensive notes.

Crane's Exempla of Jacques de Vitry.

The Catalogue of Romances in the British Museum.

Gaster's Exempla of the Rabbis.

Scala Celi.

Alphabetum Narrationum.

New Edition

Keller's Motif-index of Spanish Exempla.

Many motifs belonging to this genre are also included in the studies of novelle and jestbooks, mentioned shortly.

Saintyves, Les Saints Successeurs des Dieux.

Loomis, White Magic.


Jestbooks and Novelle.

First Edition

The jests, of which so many collections were made in the Renaissance, also find a place here. Many have been omitted, particularly those whose only point is obscenity or those depending on some play upon words that cannot be carried over to another language. The foundation of this part of the index has been the very learned works of Wesselski on Hodscha Nasreddin, Bebel, Arlotto, and others, and of Bolte in his editions of Frey's Gartengesellschaft, Montanus' Schwankbücher, and similar collections. In addition, of course, monographs on particular jests have been used.

New Edition

The Italian novella in prose has been well indexed for motifs by D. P. Rotunda.

A whole series of motifs from the French conteurs of the Renaissance, such as Les cent nouvelles nouvelles and the Heptameron of Marguerite of Navarre have been furnished by a group of students at the University of South Carolina, whose help is acknowledged in the proper place.

Childers's Motif Index of the Cuentos of Juan Timoneda helps fill out this part of the index.

The English jestbooks from The Hundred Merry Tales onward have been explored.

Arthur Christensen's two books on noodles, Molboernes Vise Gerninger and Dumme Folk trace these jests over the world.


Fabliaux.

First Edition

Except for special studies of the various fabliaux, the principal sources for the motifs in that field were Bédier's Les Fabliaux and von der Hagen's Gesammtabenteuer.

For North Africa and Egypt, Basset's Mille et un contes arabes and Miiller's Egyptian Mythology.

New Edition

A motif-index of the whole corpus of fabliaux has been examined for additional entries. Fabliaux with obscenity as the only point have been excluded, though good jests with risque elements are retained.

The new Sources and Analogues of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales has good studies of certain fabliaux.


Fables.

First Edition

Since the principal purpose in mind was to list the fables, the basis of that part of the work was Wienert's classification of the Greek and Roman fables (FFCommunications No. 56), supplemented by the oriental fables listed in Chauvin's Arabian Bibliographie. The literary history of these tales is well known, so that no attempt was made to supply all of them with bibliographical apparatus, but only to place them definitely in the body of fable literature. In all, some five hundred fables appear in the classification.

New Edition

Certain additions have been suggested by Professor Ben Perry's monumental Aesopica, though the expected volume of comparative notes has not been available.


Periodicals Excerpted.

First Edition

Revue des Traditions Populaires.

Mélusine.

Zeitschrift des Vereins für Volkskunde.

Folk Lore

Journal of American Folklore

Danske Studier

Am Urquell

New Edition

Where continuing, the journals mentioned above have been brought down to date.

Anuario de la Sociedad Folklorica de Mexico

Les Archives de Folklore

Volkskundliche Bibliographie

Annual bibliographies in Publications of the Modern Language Association of America and in Southern Folklore Quarterly.

Hessische Blätter für Volkskunde

Arv

Folklore (Naples)

A number of local folklore journals from South America, the United States, and France.


Books and periodicals which have been explored with some thoroughness in the search for motif-studies are indicated in the general bibliography by an asterisk. Works which are arranged according to the present index are marked specially (☉). They need no page reference.

Not all material found in books read has been used, for, of course, much does not belong in this classification. But when I have been in serious doubt, I have always included an item, and only after real consideration has any special treatment of narrative material been rejected.

For the purpose of deciding on inclusion or exclusion, I have had no hard and fast principle. Anything that goes to make up a traditional narrative has been used. When the term motif is employed, it is always in a very loose sense, and is made to include any of the elements of narrative structure. In general, any item in tales that other investigators have made notes on has been accepted. Sometimes, as in those treated in Chapter A, the events of creation, or the nature of the creator of of the gods, may be the subject of interest. Again, as in Chapter C, the index may involve incidents based on certain principles of conduct (e. g. tabu); sometimes extraordinary objects or creatures (magic or merely marvelous) may be the focus of attention. Most of the items are found worthy of note because of something out of the ordinary, something of sufficiently striking character to become a part of tradition, oral or literary. Commonplace experiences, such as eating and sleeping, are not traditional in this sense. But they may become so by having attached to them something remarkable or worthy of rememberihg. Mere eating is usually of no particular interest in a story. Eating on a magic table, food furnished by helpful animals, food that gives magic strength — these become significant and are likely to be handed down by the teller of tales.

Aside from the general principle just given, no rule has been followed in choosing what should go into the classification. I have tried to include all that becomes a part of tradition — all that is found worth retaining when tale, ballad, jest, or myth is transmitted by word of mouth or on the written page from generation to generation or from land to land.


PLAN OF THE WORK

This classification of materials is the result of a gradual evolution, not of any preconceived plan. It has grown out of an attempt to arrange conveniently a large number of notes made from widely divergent fields of narrative. Many groupings have been made and later combined, with others which are clearly related; many also have been split up into two or more headings. In the course of time there have emerged from this experimental process twenty-three divisions which have been finally retained.

(a) The chapters in the classification.

In a very general fashion the groups may be said to progress from the mythological and the supernatural toward the realistic and sometimes the humorous. But no such progress is to be observed in all parts of the index: the last half is nearly all realistic.

In Chapter A are handled motifs having to do with creation and with the nature of the world: creators, gods, and demigods; the creation and nature of the universe, and especially of the earth; the beginnings of life; the creation and establishment of the animal and vegetable world.

Chapter B is concerned with animals. Not all tales in which animals figure are placed here, for most frequently it is the action and not the particular actor that is significant in such stories. In Chapter B, on the contrary, appear animals that are in some way remarkable as such: mythical animals like the dragon, magic animals like the truth-telling bird, animals with human traits, animal kingdoms, weddings, and the like. Then there are the many helpful or grateful beasts, marriages of animals to human beings, and other fanciful ideas about animals.

Just as the motifs in Chapter B suggest some possible relation to the institution of totemism, those in Chapter C are based upon the primitive idea of tabu. Forbidden things of all kinds are here listed, as well as the opposite of that concept, the unique compulsion.

The most extensive group is that devoted to magic (Chapter D). The divisions are quite simple: transformation and disenchantment, magic objects and their employment, magic powers and other manifestations.

The motifs listed in Chapter E concern ideas about the dead — resuscitation, ghosts, and reincarnation — as well as ideas concerning the nature of the soul.

Aside from magic and the return of the dead, traditional literature records many marvels: journeys to other worlds; extraordinary creatures such as fairies, spirits, and demons; wondrous places, such as castles in the sea; and marvelous persons and events. These form Chapter F.

Because of the prominence of dreadful beings, such as ogres, witches, and the like, these have been given a special division, G. It will be seen that there is naturally much relation between Chapters E, F, and G; for example, between ogres and evil spirits, or between fairies and witches or ghosts. These relationships are noted by means of cross-references.

Beginning with Chapter H, the purely supernatural assumes a minor importance, though it is still occasionally present. Chapter H has been formed gradually from three separate divisions in the original plan. These, however, are all comprehended under the term "Tests". Tales of recognition are really tests of identity; riddles and the like, tests of cleverness; and tasks and quests, tests of prowess. In addition are to be found sundry tests of character and other qualities.

Chapter J was likewise originally three chapters — Wisdom, Cleverness, Foolishness. Their fundamental unity is apparent: the motivation is always mental. The first part (Wisdom) consists in large part of fable material. The tales of cleverness and of stupidity come in large measure from jest books.

In the motifs in Chapter J the attention is directed primarily to the mental quality of the character. In K, on the contrary, primary importance is given to action. A very large part of narrative literature deals with deceptions. The work of thieves and rascals, deceptive captures and escapes, seductions, adultery, disguises, and illusions constitute one of the most extensive chapters in the classification.

The rest of the work is made up of smaller chapters. In "L" appear such reversals of fortune as the success of the unpromising child or the downfall of the proud. "M" deals with such definite ordaining of the future as irrevocable judgments, bargains, promises, and oaths. In "N" the large part that luck plays in narrative is shown. Tales of gambling, and of the favors and evil gifts of the Goddess Fortuna appear here.

Chapter P concerns the social system. Not all tales about kings and princes belong here, but only such motifs as rest upon some feature of the social order: customs concerning kings, or the relation of the social ranks and the professions, or anything noteworthy in the administration of such activities as law or army. A very great number of cross-references appear in this chapter.

In "Q" are recorded rewards and punishments, in "R" motifs concerning captives and fugitives, and in "S" instances of great cruelty. In "T" are treated together the motifs dealing with sex, though there are, of course, many other parts of the index where such motifs are also of interest. Here particularly come wooing, marriage, married life, and the birth of children, as well as sundry types of sexual relations.

In Chapter U are gathered a small number of motifs, mostly from fable literature, that are of a homiletic tendency. A tale is told with the sole purpose of showing the nature of life. "Thus goes the world" is the text of such tales.

Many incidents depend upon religious differences or upon certain objects of religious worship. These motifs make up Chapter V. In "W" stories designed to illustrate traits of character are classified. The last of the systematic divisions, "X", contains incidents whose purpose is entirely humorous. Many cross-references to merry tales listed elsewhere are, of course, given.

At the end, in Chapter Z, appear several small classifications which hardly deserve a chapter each. In the future should other small classifications seem desirable, they can easily be added as new parts of Chapter Z.

The fact that the classification does with relative completeness really cover the ground chosen was shown during the last six months of work on the first edition of the index. Motifs were excerpted on slips to the number of several thousand, quite without regard to the system. When the time came to throw the slips into the proper place, they nearly always ranged themselves easily and rapidly. This test gave me some confidence in the practical usefulness of the index as a means of cataloguing the materials of traditional narrative. Subsequent experience of those making indexes has confirmed this conviction.

(b). Organization within the Chapters.

Within the chapter the items are arranged in grand divisions, to each of which is assigned a hundred numbers, or some multiple of a hundred numbers. Thus B0—B99 concerns mythical animals; B100—B199, magic animals; B200—B299, animals with human qualities; etc.

In a similar manner, within the grand division the arrangement is by tens or groups of tens. The first of these "tens" in a grand division treats the general idea of the grand division. Specific ideas are then taken up in the succeeding divisions. The last division in a grand division deals with miscellaneous material concerning the grand division. Thus in the grand division B0—B99 (Mythical animals) we have the following divisions: B0—B9. Mythical animals — general. — B10—B19. Mythical beasts. — B20—B29. Beast-men. — B30—B39. Mythical birds. — B40—B49. Bird-beasts. — B50—B59. Bird-men. — B60—B69. Mythical fish. — B70—B79. Fish-beasts. — B80—B89. Fish-men. — B90—B99. Other mythical animals.

Within the division (e. g. B10—B19) the arrangement is according to a similar principle. The first number (ending in "0") refers to the general concept for the division. Succeeding numbers are used for specific aspects, and the last number for miscellaneous or additional material concerning the division. Thus in the division B10—B19 (Mythical beasts) we have the following sub-divisions: B10. Mythical beasts. — B11. Dragon. — B12. Basilisk. — B13. Unicorn. — B14. Other hybrid animals. — B15. Animals with unusual limbs or members. — B16. Devastating animals. — B19. Other mythical beasts. Usually not all numbers are employed, since room is left for indefinite expansion of the classification. Should more items appear than enough to exhaust the numbers, these can be added indefinitely to the last number (19.1, 19.2, 19.3, etc.).[5]

It is frequently desirable to subdivide a number. This is done by pointing, thus: B11. Dragon. — B11.1. Origin of the dragon. — B11.1.1. Dragon from cock's egg. — B11.1.2. Dragon from transformed horse. — B11.2. Form of dragon. — B11.2.1. Dragon as compound animal. This system of subdivision maybe carried on indefinitely. Such an item as E501 with more than two hundred subdivisions will illustrate the manner in which any item may be subdivided, no matter how elaborate the analysis.[6]

A short handling of the classification will undoubtedly make the system clearer than can any explanation, no matter how lucid. Nothing new or strange will be found, but only the well-tested principle of division and subdivision common to all attempts to systematize knowledge.

(c). Cross-references.

Many items in this classification are of interest in connection with other parts of the work. Many also could with good reason be assigned to any one of several places. In these instances the use of cross-references becomes necessary. Thus at the beginnings of many grand divisions are listed items from other places that might also be expected at that point, or that for one reason or another are of special interest there. The finding of motifs in the index becomes easier in proportion to the completeness of such cross-references.

(d). Bibliographical material.

It has not been my purpose to make a special study of any item listed in this classification. Where I have been able to do so, I have furnished references to books or monographs about a motif, or at least to some reasonably extensive listing of its occurrences. But for many items I know of no such studies. In these cases I have given such references as I happen to have accumulated. At least one instance of the appearance of each motif is listed.[7]

The arrangement of the references has been made according to a relatively uniform plan. First come the names of special treatments and of works listing variants. Here also appears the reference to The Types of the Folk-Tale. Special studies are indicated by two asterisks; valuable lists of variants by a single star. Next follow notices of particular versions of the motif, arranged usually by continents or other convenient groupings. Ordinarily these references are additions to those treated in the special studies, though duplication has not been altogether avoided.

It must be said, in defence of the frequently inadequate documentation, that the present work is primarily a classified list of motifs and that the references appear only to give some preliminary guidance in finding examples of the item concerned. To assume responsibility for bibliographical completeness for so many thousands of motifs has been quite impossible.


SOME SUGGESTIONS AS TO USING THE INDEX

(a). Finding motifs in the Index.

A preliminary glance over the general synopsis at the beginning of the first volume will usually serve to indicate the chapter in which a motif is found. The detailed synopsis preceding the appropriate chapter should next be examined for the special division which lists the motif. If the item is not discovered at the point thus indicated, it will probably be listed in the cross-references which are placed there.

Even with careful search a motif may not immediately be found, for often the fundamental nature of an item may not seem to be the same to the searcher as it has seemed to me. To meet such difficulties a detailed alphabetical index appears at the end of the work.

(b). Using the Index for Cataloguing Tales.

The principal use of the present index, I hope, will be for cataloguing motifs in various collections of tales and traditions. If gradually all the tales, myths, ballads, and traditions were catalogued according to the same system, great progress would be made in rendering possible completer comparative studies than can now be undertaken.

Each worker must, of course, evolve the details of any plan of work. But by some convenient scheme it will be possible with relative ease to place all motifs in the appropriate chapter (often with cross-references to another chapter). Then the items forming these chapters may in turn be distributed into the proper divisions. It is my hope that the list of motifs in the present index may be so extensive that most items will be found already entered and numbered. Frequently a new motif will be a subdivision of one already in the index. If so, the system of subdivision here used may be continued. If such is not the case, it will ordinarily be found that the new motif will easily fall into a particular "ten". Usually many vacant places are left in each "ten".[8] Should the motif clearly belong to the "hundred" in question, but to none of the "tens" listed, it should go in the last "ten" (usually numbered 90—99, and devoted to "miscellaneous").

The additional motifs suggested by workers during the twenty years since the appearance of the first edition have all been incorporated in the present edition. This has often necessitated slight modifications of the numbers assigned particular motifs. Since such changes are confusing as well as troublesome, it would seem advisable for those who make such indexes in the future not to attempt exact assignment of new motif-numbers but only to indicate the closest approximation possible (e. g. A2685.2⁺). This will serve for all purposes of reference and will make incorporation into a possible further revision of the index simpler.

In anticipation of the appearance of this index, the numbers have been used in several works. In each of the types given in the Aarne-Thompson Types of the Folk-Tale[9] the mention of motifs is immediately followed by the number in brackets. Likewise they are inserted after all additional motifs appearing in Boggs' Index of Spanish Folktales. In my Tales of the North American Indians the motifs are all listed by the present plan. The numbers are also appearing at appropriate places in the margin of the new Handwörterbuch des deutschen Märchens.

The works indexed by this system since its first publication are mentioned on pages 12—18. — Irish and Icelandic myth, Italian, French and Spanish novelle and jestbooks, British and American folktales, African, West Indian, Jewish and Indic tradition, to mention the most important. Such surveys are indicated in the bibliography (p. 37) by a ☉.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The preparation of this classification has brought with it many pleasant associations, for I have found my fellow-workers in the field extremely kind in their help and encouragement. It is possible here to give but the briefest notice of their help and to express my heartfelt thanks to them all.

From its very inception I profited by the friendship and advice of Prof. Archer Taylor. Not only did he give the advantage of his deep scholarship, but at the expense of great labor he read the entire manuscript with the critical eye of a foster-father. Prof. Jan de Vries of Leiden explored the entire manuscript, gave me hundreds of references, and during a week in which I was guest in his home made many very valuable suggestions. Large parts of the manuscript were read by Dr. Albert Wesselski of Prague, and by Dr. Reidar Th. Christiansen of Oslo. The main burden of seeing the work through the press rested on the shoulders of Prof. Kaarle Krohn of Helsinki, to whom I am indebted for much help and cordial hospitality.

Without the co-operation of many persons, an undertaking like this cannot be accomplished. It is most pleasant to record my particular appreciation for those who, by furnishing me with the result of their reading in special fields, added to the completeness of the work. Prof. Chester N. Gould of Chicago gave me free access to his rich notes on the Old Norse saga material; Miss Hortense Braden of Indianapolis permitted me to use her classification of incidents in African tales; Miss Thelma James of Detroit turned over to me the manuscript of her classification of the Alphabetum Narrationum, as did Dr. Luella Carter of her classification of the tales in the Scala Celi and Prof. C. B. Cooper of his notes on Burton's Arabian Nights and the Kathā Sarit Sāgara. Mr. Bjorn Winger of Indianapolis gave me most valuable help by excerpting motifs from several difficult sources, notably from about half of Feilberg's Bidrag til en Ordbog over Jyske Almuesmål. When I excerpted the second half of the work, I realized the magnitude of this kindness so freely given.

Prof. Ernest J. Simmons was good enough to supplement my inadequate knowledge of Russian, so that the motifs in a certain Russian work could be included. Prof. John W. Spargo, of Northwestern University, has in a number of cases enriched the classification from the fields of his special interest. Lastly, must be mentioned a whole group of students of my seminar in the Folk-Tale, who for some years were most generous of their time in excerpting important works.

For the new edition the help for which I am very thankful has continued on all sides through the years. First must be mentioned those who have devoted great labor to the preparation of indexes of special fields and have thus made possible this revision — Jonas Balys, Ernest W. Baughman, Inger Margrethe Boberg, Laurits Bødker, Åke Campbell, Joseph M. Carrière, J. Wesley Childers, Tom Peete Cross, Aurelio M. Espinosa, Paul Delarue, Helen L. Flowers, Theodor H. Gaster, Verrier Elwin, Herbert Halpert, Hiroko Ikeda, William Hugh Jansen, John Esten Keller, May A. Klipple, Waldemar Liungman, Maria de los Angeles Moreno Enriquez, Dov Neuman, Anton Nyerges, Sister Marie-Ursule, Warren E. Roberts, D. P. Rotunda, Archer Taylor, Toni Unger, Maria Alice Moura Pessoa, and Bjorn Winger.

To these may be added a group from the University of South Carolina who have listed motifs from various writers of the French Renaissance — J. Woodrow Hassell, Jr., A. M. Hardee, Cecilia P. Irwin, Sarah C. Pinkney, F. C. Perry, Kenneth Fay and Andrew H. Yarrow.

Aside from those mentioned as having completed motif-indexes, a number of my students have excerpted motifs to the number of many thousand from various fields — Richard Bartel (Greek drama), Kenneth Clarke (Africa), Bacil F. Kirtley (Oceania), Dorothy Thompson Letsinger (Sir Thomas Malory), W. S. Mayer, Jr. (Troy legend), Barbara Harris Mickey (Melanesia), Remedios Wycoco Moore (American Indian, Buddhist, and much else), Henri Stegemeier (German Schwankbücher), and Richard Weir (Modern Greek).

Finally, I have been extremely fortunate in having gifted and willing research assistants whose work has gone far beyond the line of duty — Jonas Balys (1948—52) and Remedios Wycoco Moore (1952—54).

The expense attached to the preparation and publishing of a work such as the present is not trifling. For clerical help the American Council of Learned Societies has twice given me grants. For the second half of the college year 1930—31, this foundation also awarded me funds to permit my taking leave from my university work in order to finish the present classification. Indiana University generously supplemented this grant.

In the years during which the new edition has been prepared generous support of this work has continued. Indiana University has always provided clerical help and for six years a full time research assistant. Preparation of the alphabetical index has been facilitated by a grant from the American Philosophical Society.

The expense of printing the first edition was borne by the Finnish Academy of Sciences and Indiana University. Rosenkilde and Bagger and the Indiana University Press have jointly borne the responsibility for publication of the revised edition. To these and to all who have so generously aided in making this work possible, I wish here to express my thanks.

Bloomington, Indiana
September, 1955
STITH THOMPSON


GENERAL SYNOPSIS OF THE INDEX

A. MYTHOLOGICAL MOTIFS

A0000—A99.00 Creator
A1000—A499.0 Gods
A1000—A199.0 The gods in general
A2000—A299. Gods of the upper world
A3000—A399. Gods of the underworld
A4000—A499. Gods of the earth
A5000—A599.0 Demigods and culture heroes.
A6000—A899.0 Cosmogony and cosmology
A6000—A699. The universe
A7000—A799. The heavens
A8000—A899. The earth
A9000—A999.0 Topographical features of the earth
A1000—A1099. World calamities
A1100—A1199. Establishment of natural order
A1200—A1699. Creation and ordering of human life
A1200—A1299. Creation of man
A1300—A1399. Ordering of human life
A1400—A1499. Acquisition of culture
A1500—A1599. Origin of customs
A1600—A1699. Distribution and differentiation of peoples
A1700—A2199. Creation of animal life
A1700—A1799. Creation of animal life — general
A1800—A1899. Creation of mammals
A1900—A1999. Creation of birds
A2000—A2099. Creation of insects
A2100—A2199. Creation of fish and other animals.
A2200—A2599. Animal characteristics
A2200—A2299. Various causes of animal characteristics
A2300—A2399. Causes af animal characteristics: body
A2400—A2499. Causes of animal characteristics: appearance and habits
A2500—A2599. Animal characteristics — miscellaneous
A2600—A2699. Origin of trees and plants
A2700—A2799. Origin of plant characteristics
A2800—A2899. Miscellaneous explanations

B. ANIMALS

B0000—B99.00 Mythical animals
B1000—B199.0 Magic animals
B2000—B299.0 Animals with human traits
B3000—B599.0 Friendly animals
B3000—B349.0 Helpful animals — general
B3500—B399. Grateful animals
B4000—B499. Kinds of helpful animals
B5000—B599. Services of helpful animals
B6000—B699.0 Marriage of person to animal
B7000—B799.0 Fanciful traits of animals
B8000—B899.0 Miscellaneous animal motifs

C. TABU

C000—C99.0 Tabu connected with supernatural beings
C100—C199. Sex tabu
C200—C299. Eating and drinking tabu
C300—C399. Looking tabu
C400—C499. Speaking tabu
C500—C549. Tabu: touching
C550—C599. Class tabu
C600—C699. Unique prohibitions and compulsions.
C700—C899. Miscellaneous tabus
C900—C999. Punishment for breaking tabu

D. MAGIC

D0000—D699.0 Transformation
D1000—D99. Transformation: man to different man
D1000—D199. Transformation: man to animal
D2000—D299. Transformation: man to object
D3000—D399. Transformation: animal to person
D4000—D499. Other forms of transformation
D5000—D599. Means of transformation
D6000—D699. Miscellaneous transformation incidents
D7000—D799.0 Disenchantment
D8000—D1699. Magic objects
D8000—D899. Ownership of magic objects
D9000—D1299. Kinds of magic objects
D1300—D1599. Function of magic objects
D1600—D1699. Characteristics of magic objects
D1700—D2199. Magic powers and manifestations
D1710—D1799. Possession and employment of magic powers
D1800—D2199. Manifestations of magic power

E. THE DEAD

E000—E199. Resuscitation
E200—E599. Ghosts and other revenants
E200—E299. Malevolent return from the dead
E300—E399. Friendly return from the dead
E400—E599. Ghosts and revenants — miscellaneous
E500—E699. Reincarnation
E700—E799. The Soul

F. MARVELS

F000—F199.0 Otherworld journeys
F200—F699. Marvelous creatures
F200—F399. Fairies and elves
F400—F499. Spirits and demons
F500—F599. Remarkable persons
F600—F699. Persons with extraordinary powers
F700—F899.0 Extraordinary places and things
F900—F1099. Extraordinary occurrences

G. OGRES

G100—G399. Kinds of ogres
G100—G99. Cannibals and cannibalism
G100—G199. Giant ogres
G200—G299. Witches
G300—G399. Other ogres
G400—G499. Falling into ogre's power
G500—G599. Ogre defeated
G600—G699. Other ogre motifs

H. TESTS

H0000—H199.0 Identity tests: recognition
H2000—H299.0 Tests of truth
H3000—H499.0 Marriage tests
H5000—H899.0 Tests of cleverness
H5000—H529. Test of cleverness or ability
H5300—H899. Riddles
H9000—H1199. Tests of prowess: tasks
H9000—H999. Assignment and performance of tasks
H1000—H1199. Nature of tasks
H1200—H1399. Tests of prowess: quests
H1200—H1249. Attendant circumstances of quests
H1250—H1399. Nature of quests
H1400—H1599. Other tests
H1400—H1449. Tests of fear
H1450—H1499. Tests of vigilance
H1500—H1549. Tests of endurance and power of survival
H1550—H1569. Tests of character
H1570—H1599. Miscellaneous tests

J. THE WISE AND THE FOOLISH

J0000—J199.0 Acquisition and possession of wisdom (knowledge)
J2000—J1099. Wise and unwise conduct
J2000—J499. Choices
J5000—J599. Prudence and discretion
J6000—J799. Forethought
J8000—J849. Adaptability
J8500—J899. Consolation in misfortune
J9000—J999. Humility
J1000—J1099. Other aspects of wisdom
J1100—J1699. Cleverness
J1110—J1129. Clever persons
J1130—J1199. Cleverness in the law court
J1200—J1229. Clever man puts another out of countenance
J1230—J1249. Clever dividing
J1250—J1499. Clever verbal retorts (repartee)
J1500—J1649. Clever practical retorts
J1650—J1699. Miscellaneous clever acts
J1700—J2749. Fools (and other unwise persons)
J1700—J1749. Fools (general)
J1750—J1849. Absurd misunderstandings
J1850—J1999. Absurd disregard of facts
J2000—J2049. Absurd absent-mindedness
J2050—J2199. Absurd short-sightedness
J2200—J2259. Absurd lack of logic
J2260—J2299. Absurd scientific theories
J2300—J2349. Gullible fools
J2350—J2369. Talkative fools
J2370—J2399. Inquisitive fools
J2400—J2449. Foolish imitation
J2450—J2499. Literal fools
J2500—J2549. Foolish extremes
J2550—J2599. Thankful fools
J2600—J2649. Cowardly fools
J2650—J2699. Bungling fools
J2700—J2749. The easy problem made hard
J2750—J2799. Other aspects of wisdom or foolishness

K. DECEPTIONS

K0000—K99.00 Contests won by deception
K1000—K299.0 Deceptive bargains
K3000—K499.0 Thefts and cheats
K5000—K699.0 Escape by deception
K7000—K799.0 Capture by deception
K8000—K999.0 Fatal deception
K1000—K1199. Deception into self-injury
K1200—K1299. Deception into humiliating position
K1300—K1399. Seduction or deceptive marriage
K1400—K1499. Dupe's property destroyed
K1500—K1599. Deceptions connected with adultery
K1600—K1699. Deceiver falls into own trap
K1700—K2099. Deception through shams
K1700—K1799. Deception through bluffing
K1800—K1899. Deception by disguise or illusion
K1900—K1999. Impostures
K2000—K2099. Hypocrites
K2100—K2199. False accusations
K2200—K2299. Villains and traitors
K2300—K2399. Other deceptions

L. REVERSAL OF FORTUNE

L000—L99.0 Victorious youngest child
L100—L199. Unpromising hero (heroine)
L200—L299. Modesty brings reward
L300—L399. Triumph of the weak
L400—L499. Pride brought low

M. ORDAINING THE FUTURE

M000—M99.0 Judgments and decrees
M100—M119. Vows and oaths
M200—M299. Bargains and promises
M300—M399. Prophecies
M400—M499. Curses

N. CHANCE AND FATE

N000—N99.0 Wagers and gambling
N100—N299. The ways of luck and fate
N300—N399. Unlucky accidents
N400—N699. Lucky accidents
N410—N439. Lucky business ventures
N440—N499. Valuable secrets learned
N500—N599. Treasure trove
N600—N699. Other lucky accidents
N700—N799. Accidental encounters
N800—N899. Helpers

P. SOCIETY

P000—P99.0 Royalty and nobility
P100—P199. Other social orders
P200—P299. The family
P300—P399. Other social relationships
P400—P499. Trades and professions
P500—P599. Government
P600—P699. Customs
P700—P799. Society — miscellaneous motifs

Q. REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS

Q100—Q99.0 Deeds rewarded
Q100—Q199. Nature of rewards
Q200—Q399. Deeds punished
Q400—Q599. Kinds of punishment

R. CAPTIVES AND FUGITIVES

R000—R99.0 Captivity
R100—R199. Rescues
R200—R299. Escapes and pursuits
R300—R399. Refuges and recapture

S. UNNATURAL CRUELTY

S000—S99.0 Cruel relatives
S100—S199. Revolting murders or mutilations
S200—S299. Cruel sacrifices
S300—S399. Abandoned or murdered children
S400—S499. Cruel persecutions

T. SEX

T000—T99.0 Love
T100—T199. Marriage
T200—T299. Married life
T300—T399. Chastity and celibacy
T400—T499. Illicit sexual relations
T500—T599. Conception and birth
T600—T699. Care of children

U. THE NATURE OF LIFE

U000—U99.0 Life's inequalities
U100—U299. Nature of life — miscellaneous

V. RELIGION

V000—V99.0 Religious services
V100—V199. Religious edifices and objects
V200—V299. Sacred persons
V300—V399. Religious beliefs
V400—V449. Charity
V450—V499. Religious orders
V500—V599. Religious motifs — miscellaneous

W. TRAITS OF CHARACTER

W000—W99.0 Favorable traits of character
W100—W199. Unfavorable traits of character
W200—W299. Traits of character — miscellaneous

X. HUMOR

X000—X99.00 Humor of discomfiture
X100—X199.0 Humor of disability — physical
X200—X599.0 Humor of social classes
X200—X299. Humor dealing with tradesmen
X300—X499. Humor dealing with professions
X500—X599. Humor concerning other social classes
X600—X699.0 Humor concerning races or nations
X700—X799.0 Humor concerning sex
X800—X899.0 Humor based on drunkenness
X900—X1899. Humor of lies and exaggeration

Z. MISCELLANEOUS GROUPS OF MOTIFS

Z000—Z99.0 Formulas
Z100—Z199. Symbolism
Z200—Z299. Heroes
Z300—Z399. Unique exceptions
Z400—Z499. Historical, genealogical or biographical motifs
Z500—Z599. Horror stories.


BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS

Works indicated with an asterisk have been examined with some thoroughness for motifs. Those marked with ☉ have been indexed according to the present work and have references only to motif-numbers. Books infrequently cited are not listed here.

AA n.s. = American Anthropologist, new series. Washington, 1899 ff.

AA o.s. = American Anthropologist, old series. 11 vols. Washington, 1888—1898.

*Aarne, Antti. Vergleichende Märchenforschungen (MSFO XXV). Helsingfors, 1907.

Africa. London, 1928 ff.

Alarcon, J. de Canedo, and Ricardo Pittini. El Chaco Paraguayo y sus tribos. Turin, 1924.

*Alexander N. Am. = Alexander, H. B. North American Mythology (The Mythology of all Races X). Boston, 1916.
*Lat. Am. = Latin American Mythology (The Mythology of all Races XI). Boston, 1920.

*Alphabet = Banks, M. M. An Alphabet of Tales, an English 15th century translation of the Alphabetum Narrationum of Etienne de Besançon (EETS Nos. 126, 127). 2 vols. London, 1904—05.

*Ananikian, Mardiros H. Armenian Mythology (The Mythology of all Races VII). Boston, 1925.

*Anderson, W. Nordasiatische Flutsagen (Acta et Commentationes Universitatis Dorpatensis B IV iii [1923]).

Andree, R. Die Flutsagen. Braunschweig, 1891.
Ethnographische Parallelen und Vergleiche. Stuttgart, 1878.
Neue Folge, Leipzig, 1889.

*Andrejev, A. N. Ukazatel' Skazočnik Sjuzhetov po Systeme Aarne (Gosud. russ. geogr. obščestvo, otd. etnogr. skazočnaya komissiya). Leningrad, 1929.

Anesaki, Masaharu. Japanese Mythology (The Mythology of all Races VIII). Boston, 1928.

Anssaga Bogsveigis (FAS II 324 ff.).

*Arfert, P. Das Motiv von der unterschobenen Braut. Rostock, 1897.

Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius (ed. G. W. Mooney). London, 1912.

Arnason, Jón. Íslenzkar þjoðsögur og æfintyri. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1862—64.

Arv. (Tidskrift for Nordisk Folkminnesforskning). Uppsala, 1944 ff.

ASB = Altnordische Saga-Bibliothek (ed. G. Cederschiöld and E. Mogk). 18 vols. Halle a. S., 1892—1929.

Asbjørnson, P. Chr. and Moe, J. Norske Folkeeventyr. 3d edition. Kristiania, 1896.

Asmundarsaga Kappabana (FAS II 460 ff.).

Auning, R. Ueber den lettischen Drachenmythus (Magazin der lettischlitterärischen Gesellschaft XIX 1—128). Mitau, 1891.

Azov, R. F. and D. C. Phillott. "Some Arab Folktales from Hazramut." Journal and Proceedings, Asiatic Society of Bengal (n. s.), II, 399—439; III, 645—680.

Babrius = Babrii Fabulae Aesopeae (ed. O. Crusius). Lipsiae, 1897.

Baldus, Herbert. Ensaios de Etnologia Brasileira. São Paulo, 1937.

Balys, Jonas. *Ghosts and Men, Lithuanian Folk Legends about the Dead (Sub-title: A Treasury of Lithuanian Folklore I). Bloomington, Indiana, 1951.
*Lithuanian Historical Legends. Chicago, 1949.
*Motif-Index of Lithuanian Narrative Folklore. Tautosakos Darbai Vol. II, Publication of the Lithuanian Folklore Archives. Kaunas, 1936.
*Lithuanian Folk Legends. Publication of the Lithuanian Folklore Archives I. Kaunas, 1940.

Balzac, Honoré de. Contes drolatiques. Paris (many editions).

BAM = Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (New York).

Baring-Gould, S. Curious Myths of the Middle Ages. 2 vols. London, 1868.

*Barker, W. H. and Sinclair, C. West African Folk-tales. London, 1917.

Barrett, W. E. H. A'Kikuyu Fairy Tales (Man XII, XIII).

Barroso, Gustavo. Mythes, Contes et Legendes des Indiens: Folklore Bresilien. Paris, 1930.

Barto, Philip Stephan. Tannhäuser and the Mountain of Venus. New York, 1916.

Basden, G. T. Among the Ibos of Nigeria. London, 1921.

☉Basile, G. The Pentamerone (trans. and edited by Benedetto Croce and N. M. Penzer). 2 vols. London, 1932.

Baskerville, Rosetta Gage. King of the Snakes and other Folklore: Stories from Uganda. London, 1922.

Basset, René. Contes populaires d'Afrique. Paris, 1903.
*Mille et un contes, récits et légendes arabes. 3 vols. Paris, 1925—27.

*Bateman, G. W. Zanzibar Tales. Chicago, 1901.

☉Baughman, Ernest Warren. A Comparative Study of the Folktales of England and North America. (Indiana University dissertation.) Ann Arbor, Michigan. Microfilm Service. 1954.

BBAE = Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology.

Beal = Bealoideas: Journal of the Folklore of Ireland Society.

Beauvois, E. L'autre vie dans la mythologie scandinave (Reprint from Muséon). Paris, 1883.

Bebel. See Wesselski.

Beckwith, Martha. Hawaiian Mythology. New Haven, 1940.

*Bédier, Joseph. Les Fabliaux. 2d edition. Paris, 1893.

Bender, C. J. Die Volksdichtung der Wakweli. ZsES Beiheft IV (1922), 38 ff.

Benedict, Ruth. Zuñi Mythology. 2 vols. New York, 1935. (All references are to Volume II.)

Béranger-Feraud, L. J. B. Recueil de Contes Populaires de Sénégambie. Paris, 1879.

Biblioteca Africana (D. A. Drexel ed.) Innsbruck, 1924—31.

*bin Gorion, M. J. Der Born Judas: Legenden, Märchen und Erzählungen. 6 vols. Leipzig, 1918 ff. (Vols. 1—4 cited are second edition, 5 and 6 are first edition).

Bladé, J. F. Contes populaires de Gascogne (Les Littératures Populaires, Nos. 19, 20, 21). 3 vols. Paris, 1886.

*Bleek, W. H. I. Reynard the Fox in South Africa or Hottentot Fables and Tales. London, 1864.

*Bleek, W. H. I., and Lloyd, L. C. Specimens of Bushman Folklore. London, 1911.

Blinkenberg, Chr. The Thunder Weapon in Religion and Folklore. Cambridge, 1911.

Bloomfield, Maurice, Studies in Honor of. New Haven, 1920.

BMB = Bishop Museum Bulletin.

Boas, Franz. Indianische Sagen von der Nord-Pacifischen Küste Amerikas. Berlin, 1895.

☉Boberg, Inger M. Motif-Index of Early Icelandic Literature (Biblioteca Arnamagnæana). København 1956.

Bødker, Laurits. Christen Nielssen, De Gamle Vijses Exempler oc Hoffsprock. København, 1951, 1953.

Boekenoogen, G. J. Een Schone ende Miraculeuse historie van den Ridder Metter Swane. Leiden, 1931.

Boje, Christian. Uber den altfranzosischen roman von Beuve de Hamtone (Beiheft zur Zeitschrift für Romanische Philologie XIX). Halle a. S., 1909.

*Bolte, J. Jakob Freys Gartengesellschaft (Bibliothek des Literarischen Vereins in Stuttgart, No. 209). Tübingen, 1896.
*Martin Montanus Schwankbücher (Bibliothek des Literarischen Vereins in Stuttgart, No. 217). Tübingen, 1899.
*Valentin Schumanns Nachtbüchlein (Bibliothek des Literarischen Vereins in Stuttgart, No. 197). Tübingen, 1893.
*Georg Wickrams Werke (Bibliothek des Literarischen Vereins in Stuttgart, Nos. 222, 223, 229, 230, 232, 236, 237, 241). 8 vols. Tübingen, 1901—08.
See BP.
See Fischer.
See Pauli.

Bósasaga (ed. O. L. Jiriczek). Strassburg, 1893.

Bourhill, E. J. and Drake, J. B. Fairy Tales from South Africa. London, 1908.

Bouveignes, Olivier de. Contes d'Afrique. Paris, 1927.

*BP = Bolte, J. and Polívka, G. Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- und Hausmärchen der Brüder Grimm. 5 vols. Leipzig, 1913—31.

Broderius, John R. The Giant in Germanic Tradition (University of Chicago dissertation). Chicago, 1933.

Brown, A. C. L. Iwain: a Study in the Origins of Arthurian Romance (Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature VIII). Boston, 1903.

Brown Collection = The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore. 5 vols. Durham, N. C, 1952—.

Bryan, William F. and Dempster, Germaine. Sources and Analogues of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Chicago, 1941.

Bugge, Sophus. Norróne Skrifter af Sagnhistorisk Indhold. Christiania, 1864.

Burton, R. F. Arabian Nights: The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night. London, 1894. (SI, SII, etc. refers to Supplementary Volumes).

Book of the Sword. London, 1884.

Büttner, C. G. Lieder und Geschichten der Suaheli. Berlin, 1894.

Caldwell, J. R. Egar and Grime. Cambridge (Mass.), 1933.

*Callaway, H. Nursery Tales, Traditions, and Histories of the Zulus. Vol. I. Natal and London, 1868.

Campbell, J. F. Popular Tales of the West Highlands. 4 vols. 2d edition. London, 1890—93.

*Campbell, K. The Seven Sages of Rome. Boston, 1907.

Campbell-McKay = John G. McKay, More West Highland Tales, transcribed and translated from the original Gaelic manuscript of John Francis Campbell. Edinburgh and London, 1940.

Cappelle, H. van. Mythen en Sagen uit West Indië. Zutphen, 1926.

Cardim, Fernão. Tratado da terra e gente do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, 1925.

*Carnoy, Albert J. Iranian Mythology (The Mythology of all Races VI). Boston, 1917.

Carrière = J. M. Carrière, Tales from the French Folk-Lore of Missouri. Evanston and Chicago, 1937.

Carrington, Hereward and Fodor, Nandor. Haunted People: Story of the Poltergeist down the Centuries. New York, 1951.

Casati, Gaetano. Ten Years in Equatoria and the Return with Emin Pasha (London, New York, 1891).

*Catalogus = Catalogus van Folklore in de Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 3 vols. 'sGravenhage, 1919—22.

CColl = Colorado College Publications, Language Series.

Les Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles. 2 vols. (ed. Pierre Champion). Paris, 1928.

Chantepie de la Saussaye. See Saussaye.

Charpentier, Jarl. Kleine Beiträge zur indoiranischen Mythologie (Uppsala Universitets Arsskrift). Uppsala, 1911.

*Chatelain, Heli. Folk-Tales of Angola (MAFLS I). Boston and New York, 1894.

*Chauvin, Victor. Bibliographie des ouvrages arabes. 12 vols. Liège, 1892—1922.

*Chavannes, Edouard. Cinq cent contes et apologues extraits du Tripitaka chinois. 4 vols. Paris, 1910—34.

*Child, Francis James. The English and Scottish Popular Ballads. 5 vols in 10. Boston, 1882—98.

☉Childers, J. W. Motif-Index of the Cuentos of Juan Timoneda. Bloomington, Ind., 1947.

Christensen, Arthur, Dumme Folk (DF No. 50). København 1941.
Molboernes vise Gerninger (DF No. 47). København, 1939.

*Christiansen, R. Th. Norske Eventyr (Norske Folkeminder II). Kristiania, 1921.

CI = Publications of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

*Clark, Mrs. K. M. Maori Tales and Legends. London, 1896.

*Clodd, Edward. Tom-Tit-Tot. London, 1898.

*Clouston, W. A. The Book of Noodles. London, 1888.
A Group of Eastern Romances and Stories. Glasgow, 1889.
*Popular Tales and Fictions. 2 vols. Edinburgh, London, 1887.

CNAE = Contributions to North American Ethnology. Washington, 1877—93.

*Codrington, R. H. The Melanesians: studies in their Anthropology and Folklore. Oxford, 1891.

Cole, Fay Cooper. Traditions of the Tinguian. FM XIV. Chicago, 1915.

*Conzemius, E. Ethnographical survey of the Miskito and Sumu Indians of Honduras and Nicaragua. BBAE CVI, 1932.

Cook, A. B. Zeus: a study in ancient religion. 3 vols. Cambridge, 1914 ff.

Corpus Poeticum Boreale (edited by G. Vigfússon and F. Y. Powell). 2 vols. Oxford, 1883.

*Cosquin, E. Contes populaires de Lorraine. 2 vols. Paris, 1887.
*Etudes folkloriques. Paris, 1922.
*Les contes indiens et l'occident. Paris, 1922.

Coster-Wijsman, L. N. Uilespiegel-Verhalen in Indonesië. Santpoort, 1929.

*Cowell, E. B. and others. The Jātaka or Stories of the Buddha's Former Births. 6 vols, and index. Cambridge, 1895—1913.

*Cox, Marian R. Cinderella (PFLS XXXI). London, 1893.

*Coyajee, J. C. Some Shahnameh Legends and their Chinese Parallels. JPASB XXIV (1928).

*Crane, T. F. Liber de Miraculis Sanctae Dei Genetricis Mariae. Ithaca (N.Y.) and London, 1926.
*The Exempla of Jacques de Vitry (PFLS XXVI). London, 1890.

Crawley, Ernest. The Mystic Rose. London, 1902.

☉Cross = Tom Peete Cross. Motif-Index of Early Irish Literature. Bloomington, Indiana, 1952.

CU = Columbia University Contributions to Anthropology.

*Curtin, Jeremiah. Seneca Indian Myths. Boston, 1923.

*Cushing, Frank H. Zuñi Folk Tales. New York and London, 1901.

*Dania. 10 vols. København, 1890—1903.

*Danske Studier. København, 1904 ff.

*Davenport, William. Marshallese Folklore Types (JAFL LXVI 219—237).

Dawkins, Richard M. Forty-five Stories from the Dodekanese. Cambridge (England), 1950.
Modern Greek Folktales. Oxford, 1953.

Day, Lal Behary. Folk-Tales of Bengal. London, 1912.

*De Cock, Alfons. Studien en Essays over oude Volksvertelsels. Antwerp, 1919.
*Volkssage, Volksgeloof en Volksgebruik. Antwerp, 1918.
*Volksgeneeskunde in Vlaanderen. Gent, 1891.

De la Saussaye. See Saussaye.

Dennett, R. E. The Folk-lore of the Fjort (French Congo) (PFLS XLI). London, 1898.

Desparmet, J. Contes populaires sur les ogres, recueillis à Blida. 2 vols. Paris, 1909—10.

Deutschbein, M. Studien zur Sagengeschichte Englands. Göthen, 1906.

De Vries, Jan. "De Sage van het ingemetselde Kind". Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Volkskunde XXXII (1927) 1—13.
Studiën over Faerösche Balladen. Haarlem, 1915.
*Volksverhalen uit Oost Indië. 2 vols. Leiden, 1925, 1928.

*De Vries's list = De Vries, Jan. "Typen-Register der Indonesische Fabels en Sprookjes" (Volksverhalen uit Oost-Indië II 398 ff.)

DF = Danmarks Folkeminder. København, 1908—

*Dh — Dähnhardt, Oskar. Natursagen. 4 vols. Leipzig, 1909—12.

*Dickson, Arthur. Valentine and Orson, a study in late Medieval Romance. New York, 1929.

Dieterich, Albrecht. Mutter Erde: ein Versuch über Volksreligion. 2d ed. Berlin, 1913.

*Dixon, Roland B. Oceanic Mythology (The Mythology of all Races IX). Boston, 1916.

Dobie, J. Frank. Coronado's Children. Dallas (Texas), 1930.

Dunlop-Liebrecht = Dunlop, J. Geschichte der Prosadichtungen (tr. and revised by F. Liebrecht). Berlin, 1851.

*Dunlop-Wilson = Dunlop, J. History of Prose Fiction. New edition revised by H. Wilson. 2 vols. London, 1888.

Durkheim, Émile. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Paris, 1912.

EETS = Early English Text Society Publications. London, 1864 ff.

Ebding, F. "Duala Märchen" (ZsES XVIII, 142—47).

Eberhard, Wolfram. Chinese Fairy Tales and Folk Tales. London, 1937.
*Typen chinesischer Volksmarchen (FFC CCXX, 1937).
*and Boratav, Pertev. Typen türkischen Volksmärchen. Weisbaden, 1953.

Egils saga einhenda ok Ásmundar Berserkjabana (in Lagerholm, Drei Lygisögur, Halle, 1927 pp. 1 ff.).

Ehrenreich, Paul. Die Mythen und Legenden der südamerikanischen Urvolker. Berlin, 1905.

*Einstein, C. Afrikanische Legenden. Berlin, 1925.

Eisler, R. Weltenmantel und Himmelszelt. 2 vols. München, 1910.

*Ellis (Yoruba) = Ellis, A. B. The Yoruba-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast of West Africa. London, 1894.

*Ellis (Vai) = Ellis, G. W. Negro Culture in West Africa. New York, 1914.

Ellis, T. P. and Lloyd, J. The Mabinogion. 2 vols. Oxford, 1929.

☉Emeneau, M. B. Kota Texts. 4 vols. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1944—46.

Encyc. Rel. Ethics = Hastings, J. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. 12 vols. New York, 1908—22.

Engert, Rolf. Die Sage vom Fliegenden Holländer (Meereskunde, Bd. XV, 7, Heft 173). Berlin, 1927.

Equilbecq, F. V. Contes indigènes de l'Ouest Africain Français. 3 vols. Paris, 1913—16.

Erminy Arismendi, Santos. Huellas Folkloricas. Caracas, 1954.

*Espinosa, Aurelio M. Cuentos populares españoles. 3 vols. 2d edition. Madrid, 1946—47.

Espinosa, Aurelio M., Jr. Cuentos populares de Castilla y Leon. (In press.)

*Eyrbyggja saga (ed. H. Gering). ASB VI. Halle, 1897.

FAS = Rafn, C. C. Fornaldar Sögur Norðrlanda. 3 vols. København, 1829—30.

*Fb = Feilberg, H. F. Bidrag til en Ordbog over jyske Almuesmål. 4 vols. København, 1886—1914.

*Feilberg, H. F. Nissens Historie (DF No. 18). København, 1919.
*Jul. 2 vols. København, 1904.
Festskrift til (Svenska Landsmål ock svenskt Folkliv). Stockholm, 1911.

*Ferguson, John C. Chinese Mythology (Mythology of all Races VIII). Boston, 1928.

*FFC = FF Communications, published by the Folklore Fellows. Helsinki, 1907 ff.

*Field, John E. The Myth of the Pent Cuckoo. London, 1913.

Fischer, H. and Bolte, J. Die Reise der Söhne Giaffers (Bibliothek des Litterarischen Vereins in Stuttgart No. 208). Tübingen, 1895.

*FL = Folklore. London, 1890 ff.

Flateyarbók (ed. Vigfússon and Unger). 3 vols. Christiania, 1860—68.

*FLJ = Folklore Journal. 8 vols. London, 1883—89.

☉Flowers, Helen L. A Classification of the Folktales of the West Indies by Types and Motifs. (Indiana University Ph. D. thesis, 1952.) Microfilm Service, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1953.

*FLR = Folklore Record. 5 vols. London, 1878—82.

FM = Publications of the Field Columbian Museum, Anthropological Series, Chicago, 1895 ff.

FMS = Fornmannasögur Norðrlanda. 12 vols. København, 1925—37.

FochF = Folkminnen och Folktankar. Lund.

Folklore Studies (The Catholic University of Peking). 6 vols. Peiping, 1942—47.

Fox, William S. Greek and Roman Mythology (Mythology of all Races I). Boston, 1916.

*Frazer, J. G. Apollodorus: the Library (Loeb Classical Library). London and New York, 1921.
*The Belief in Immortality and the Worship of the Dead. 2 vols. London, 1913.
*The Fasti of Ovid. 5 vols. London, 1929.
*Folklore in the Old Testament. 3 vols. London, 1918.
*The Golden Bough. 3d edition. 12 vols. London, 1907—15.
*Myths of the Origin of Fire. London, 1930.
*Pousanias's Description of Greece. 6 vols. London, 1898.

Frey. See Bolte.

Frobenius, Leo. Atlantis: Volksdichtung und Volksmärchen Afrikas. 12 vols. Jena, 1921—28.
Erlebte Erdteile. Frankfurt a. M., 1925 ff.
and Fox, Douglas C. African Genesis. New York, 1937.

FSS = Fornaldarsögur Suðrlanda (ed. G. Cederschiöld). København, 1901.

Gantenbein, B. Sprichwörter und Fabeln der Kamerun-Neger (Mitteilungen der ostschweizerischen Geograph-Commerciellen Gesellschaft II). St. Gallen, 1909.

*Gaster, Moses. Beiträge zur vergleichenden Sagen- und Märchenkunde (Gruz' Monatschrift fur Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums, XXIX, XXX). Bukarest, 1880, 1881. (Separate reprint, 1882; also included in Studies and Texts in Folklore, cited below).
*The Exempla of the Rabbis. London, Leipzig, 1924.
*Studies and Texts in Folklore, Magic, Medieval Romance, Hebrew Apocrypha and Samaritan Archaeology. 3 vols. London, 1925—28.

☉Gaster, Theodor H. The Oldest Stories in the World. New York, 1952.
Thespis. New York, 1950.

Gautreks Saga (ed. W. Ranisch, Palaestra XI). 1900.

Gayton, A. H. and Newman, Stanley S. Yokuts and Western Mono Myths. Berkeley (Calif.), 1940.

*Gerould, Gordon H. The Grateful Dead (PFLS LX). London, 1908.

*Gifford, E. W. Tongan Myths and Tales. BMB VIII. Honolulu 1924.

Giles, Herbert A. Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio. New York, 1927.

Gilgamisch = Ungrad, A. and Gressman, H. Das Gilgamesch-Epos. Göttingen, 1911.

*Golther, Wolfgang. Zur deutschen Sage und Dichtung. Leipzig, 1911.

Göngu Hrólfs saga (FAS III 235 ff.).

Gonzenbach, Laura. Sicilianische Märchen. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1870.

Graf, Arturo. Miti, Leggende e Superstizioni del Medio Evo. 2 vols. Torino, 1892—93.

☉Graham (Chinese) = Graham, David Crockett. Songs and Stories of the Ch'uan Miao (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Publications CXXIII No. 1). Washington, D. C, 1954.

*Gray, Louis H. Baltic Mythology (Mythology of All Races III). Boston, 1918.

Grenfell = Johnson, Sir Harry. George Grenfell and the Congo, II. London, 1908.

Grettis saga (ed. R. C. Boer). ASB VIII. Halle, 1900.

Grímssaga Loðinkinna (FAS II 143 ff.).

*Grinnell, G. B. Pawnee Hero Stories and Folk-Tales. New York, 1889.

*Grote, George. History of Greece. 3 vols. London, 1888.

Grundtvig, S. Danmarks gamle Folkeviser. 8 vols. København, 1853—.

Grunwald, M. "Spaniolic-Jewish Folktales and Their Motifs", Edoth II (1947), pp. 225—243 (in Hebrew).

GSCan = Publications of the Geological Survey of Canada, Anthropological Series.

Gull-þóris Saga (ed. Kr. Kaalund). København, 1898.

Gunnlaugs saga Ormstunga (ed. E. Mogk). Altnordische Texte I, 1886.

*Günter, H. Die christliche Legende des Abendlandes. Heidelberg, 1910.

Güntert, H. Der arische Weltkönig und Heiland. Halle, 1923.
*Kalypso. Halle, 1919.

Gutmann, Bruno. Volksbuch der Wadschagga. Leipzig, 1914.

*Hackman, O. Die Polyphemsage in der Volksüberlieferung. Helsingfors, 1904.

Haddon, A. C. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits. 6 vols. Cambridge (Eng.), 1901—35.

*Hagen, Friedrich Heinrich von der. Gesammtabenteuer. 3 vols. Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1850.

Hálfdanar saga Brönufóstra (FAS III 559 ff.).

Hálfdanar saga Eysteinssonar (ed. F. R. Schröder). Halle, 1917.

Hálfs saga ok Hálfsrekka (ed. A. Le Roy Andrews). Halle, 1909.

Halm, K. von. Aisōpeiōn Mythōn Synagōgē. Lipsiae, 1852.

☉Halpert, Herbert N. Folktales and Legends from the New Jersey Pines. (Indiana University Ph. D. thesis). Typewritten ms. Indiana University Library. Bloomington, Ind., 1947.

*Handbook of South American Indians (ed. Julian H. Steward). BBAE CXLIII. 6 vols. Washington, D. C, 1946—50.

*Handy, E. S. C. Marquesan Legends. BMB LXIX. Honolulu 1930.

Harris, J. R. Boanerges. Cambridge (Eng.), 1913.
The Cult of the Heavenly Twins. Cambridge, 1906.
Picus who is also Zeus. Cambridge, 1916.

Harris, Joel C. *Uncle Remus: his Songs and Sayings. New York, 1880.
*Uncle Remus and his Friends. Boston, 1892.
*Nights with Uncle Remus. Boston, 1883.

*Hartland, E. S. The Legend of Perseus. 3 vols. London, 1894 ff.
*Primitive Paternity. 2 vols. London, 1909.
*The Science of Fairy Tales. London, 1891.

Hatt, Gudmund. *Asiatic Influences in American Folklore. København, 1949.
The Corn Mother in America and Indonesia. (Anthropos XLVI [1951] pp. 853—914.)

*Hdwb. d. Abergl. = Bächtold-Stäubli, H. and others. Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens. 10 vols. Berlin, 1927 ff.

*Hdwb. d. Märch. = Mackensen, L. and others. Handwörterbuch des deutschen Märchens. Berlin, 1931 ff.

*Heepe, M. Jaunde-Texte. Hamburg, 1919.

Heiðreks saga. See Hervararsaga ok Heiðreks konungs.

*Held, T. v. Märchen und Sagen der africanischen Neger. Jena, 1904.

Heptameron. See Marguerite de Navarre.

*Herbert, J. A. Catalogue of Romances in the Department of Manuscripts in the British Museum. London, 1910. (Vol. 3 only; for vols. 1 and 2 see Ward, H. L. D.)

Herrmann, Paul. Erläuterungen zu den ersten neun Büchern der dänischen Geschichte des Saxo Grammaticus. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1901, 1922.
Nordische Mythologie. Leipzig, 1903.

Hertel, A. Verzauberte Oertlichkeiten. Hannover, 1908.

*Hertz, Wilhelm. Aus Dichtung und Saga (ed. K. Vollmöller). Stuttgart and Berlin, 1907.
*Gesammelte Abhandlungen (ed. F. v. d. Leyen). Stuttgart and Berlin 1905.
Parzival. 2d ed. Stuttgart and Berlin, 1914.
Spielmannsbuch. Stuttgart, 1886.
Tristan und Isolde. Stuttgart, 1877.

Hervararsaga ok Heiðreks Konungs (ed. J. Helgason). København, 1924.

Hervieux, L. Les fabulistes latins. 2d ed. 2 vols. Paris, 1893—4 . Hibbard, Laura A. Mediaeval Romance in England. New York, 1924.

HF = Hoosier Folklore. Indianapolis, Ind., 1946 ff.

Hjálmterssaga ok Ölvis (FAS III 453 ff.).

Hock, Stefan. Die Vampyrsagen und ihre Verwertung in der deutschen Literatur. Berlin, 1900.

*Holm, G. Sagn og Fortællinger fra Angmagsalik (Meddelelser om Grønland X 237 ff.).

Holmberg, Uno. *Der Baum des Lebens (Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae XVI. B). Helsinki, 1922—3.
*Finno-Ugric Mythology (The Mythology of all Races IV). Boston, 1927.
Gudstrons uppkomst. Uppsala, 1917.
*Siberian Mythology (The Mythology of all Races IV). Boston 1927.

*Holmström, Helge. Studier över svanjungfrumotivet. Malmö, 1919.

*Howey, M. O. The Horse in Magic and Myth. London, 1923.

Hrßolfs Saga Kraka (ed. Finnur Jonsson). København, 1904.

*Hromundarsaga Greipssonar (FAS II 363 ff.).

*Huber, P. Michael. Die Wanderlegende von den Siebenschläfern. Leipzig, 1910.

*Huet, G. Les contes populaires. Paris, 1923.

*Hultkrantz, Åke. Conceptions of the Soul Among North American Indians. Stockholm, 1953.

Irwin, Cecilia Pauze. Summaries of the Stories of Béroalde de Verville's La Moyen de Parvenir. Unpublished M. A. thesis, University of South Carolina, 1953.

Ittman, J. *Einiges aus Bankon-Literatur (ZsES XVII).
*Nyang-Märchen (ZsES XVII).

Jacobs, Joseph. Book of Wonder Voyages. London, 1896.
*The Fables of Aesop. New York, 1894.
Celtic Fairy Tales. London, 1892.
More Celtic Fairy Tales. London, 1894.
English Fairy Tales. London, 1890.
More English Fairy Tales. London, 1895.

*Jacobs' list = Jacobs, Joseph. "List of Folk-Tale Incidents common to European Folk-Tales" in Papers and Transactions of the International Folk-lore Congress, 1891. London, 1892.

*Jacottet, E. The Treasury of Basuto Lore. London, 1908.

*JAFL = Journal of American Folk-Lore. Boston, etc., 1888 ff.

JAI = Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. London, 1871 ff.

JAOS = Journal of the American Oriental Society. Boston, etc., 1849 ff.

☉Jansen, William Hugh. Abraham "Oregon" Smith: pioneer, folk hero, and tale-teller. (Indiana University Ph. D. thesis.) Typewritten MS. Indiana University Library. Bloomington (Ind.), 1949.

JAS = Journal of the African Society. 34 vols. London, 1862—1900.

Jātaka. See Cowell.

JE = Publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition. New York, etc., 1898 ff.

*Jegerlehner, Johannes. Sagen und Märchen aus dem Oberwallis. Basel, 1909.

Jenness, Diamond. Notes and Traditions from Northern Alaska (Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition, Southern Party, 1913—16, XIII). Ottawa, 1924.

Jensen, P. Das Gilgamesch-Epos in der Weltliteratur. Strassburg, 1906.

*Jijena Sanchez, Rafael. El Perro Negro. Buenos Aires, 1952.

Johnson, Sir Harry. George Grenfell and the Congo, Vol. II. London, 1908.

*Jones, Louis C. Spooks of the Valley: ghost stories for boys and girls. Boston, 1948.

JPASB = Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.

JSFO = Journal de la Société Finno-ougrienne. Helsingfors, 1886 ff.

*Junod, H. A. The Life of a South African Tribe, Vol. II. Neuchatel, 1913.

*Kalevala, the land of heroes (W. F. Kirby, tr.). London, 1907.

Kålund, K. Kirialax Saga. København, 1917.

Keightley, Thomas. Fairy Mythology. London, 1847.

Keith, A. B. Indian Mythology (The Mythology of all Races VI). Boston, 1917.

☉Keller, John Esten. Motif-Index of Mediaeval Spanish Exempla. Knoxville (Tenn.), 1949.

Kennedy, P. Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts. London, 1866.

*Ker, Anna. Papuan Fairy Tales. London, 1910.

Ketilssaga Haengs (FAS II 109 ff.).

*Kidd, D. Savage Childhood: a Study of Kaffir Children. London, 1906.

*Kittredge, G. L. Arthur and Gorlagon (Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature VIII). Boston, 1903.
*A Study of Gawain and the Green Knight. Cambridge (Mass.), 1916.
*Witchcraft in Old and New England. Cambridge (Mass.), 1929.

Klapper, Joseph. Erzählungen des Mittelalters. Breslau, 1914.

*Knowles, J. H. Folk-Tales of Kashmir. London, 1893.

*Köhler, Reinhold. Aufsätze über Märchen und Volkslieder (ed. J. Bolte and E. Schmidt). Berlin, 1894.

*Köhler-Bolte = Köhler, R. Kleinere Schriften (ed. J. Bolte). 3 vols. Weimar, 1898—1900.

Kölbing, E. Riddarsögur. København, 1872.

Krappe, A. H. Les Sources du Libro de Exemplos, Bulletin Hispanique, XXXIX, pp. 5—54.
*Balor with the Evil Eye: Studies in Celtic and French Literature. New York, 1927.
*Études de mythologie et de folklore germaniques. Paris, 1928.
The Science of Folk-Lore. London, 1930.

*Kristensen, Evald Tang. Danske Sagn. 2d ed. 6 vols. København, 1928—36.

Krohn, Kaarle. *Bär (wolf) und Fuchs (JSFO VI). Helsingfors, 1886.
Der gefangene Unhold (Finnische-Ugrische Forschungen VII 129—84). Helsingfors, 1908.
*Mann und Fuchs. Helsingfors. 1891.

Krug, Adolph N. Bulu Tales from Kamerun, West Africa (JAFL XXV).

Kruyt, A. C. Het Animisme in den Indischen Archipel. 'sGravenhage, 1906.

*Lagerholm, Å. Drei Lygisogur (ASB XVII). København, 1927.

*Laistner, Ludwig. Das Rätsel der Sphinx. 2 vols. Berlin, 1889.

Landau, M. Die Quellen des Dekameron. 2d ed. Stuttgart, 1884.

*Landtman, G. The Folk-Tales of the Kiwai Papuans (Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae XLVII). Helsingfors, 1917.

Lang, Andrew. The Delectable Tale of the Marriage of Cupid and Psyche, done into English by William Adlington. London, 1886.
Myth, Ritual and Religion. 2 vols. London, 1887.

*Langdon, S. H. Semitic Mythology (The Mythology of all Races V). Boston, 1931.

Largeau, V. Elements de Grammaire et Dictionnaire Français-Pahouin. Paris, 1901.

Laserstein, Käte. Der Griseldisstoff in der Weltliteratur (Forschungen zur neueren Literaturgeschichte LVIII). Weimar, 1926.

Latchman, Ricardo E. Las creencias religiosas de los antiguos peruanos. Santiago de Chile, 1929.

Lawrence, R. M. The Magic of the Horseshoe. London and Boston, 1898.

Le Braz, A. La Légende de la Mort chez les Bretons armoricains. 2 vols. Paris, 1902.

Lederbogen, Wilhelm. *Kameruner Märchen. Berlin, 1901.
*Duala Marchen (Mittheilungen des Seminars für Orientalische Sprachen, VI, Dritte Abteilung). Berlin, 1903.
Duala Fables. JAS IV (1904—05).

*Lee, A. C. The Decameron, its Sources and Analogues. London, 1909.

*Leland, Charles Godfrey. The Algonquin Legends of New England. Boston, 1884.

Leskien = Leskien, A. and Brugmann, K. Litauische Volkslieder und Märchen. Strassburg, 1882.

*Leyden, F. von der. Das Märchen, 3d ed. Leipzig, 1925.
*Das Märchen in den Göttersagen der Edda. Berlin, 1899.
Der gefesselte Unhold (Prager deutsche Studien, Heft 8, Sonderabzug, 1—29). Prag, 1908.

*Liebrecht, Felix. Zur Volkskunde. Heilbronn, 1879.

*Liljeblad, Sven. Die Tobiasgeschichte und andere Märchen mit toten Helfern. Lund, 1927.

*Liungman, W. En traditionsstudie över sagan om Prinsessan i Jordkulan. Göteborg, 1925.
*Två Folkminnesundersökningar. Göteborg, 1925.
Sveriges Samtliga Folksagor. 3 vols. Djursholm (Sweden), 1950—52.

Lloyd, John W. Aw-aw-tam Indian Nights. Westerfield, N. J., 1911.

Loomis, C. Grant. White Magic: an Introduction to the Folklore of Christian Legend. Cambridge (Mass.), 1948.

Loomis, R. S. Celtic Myth and Arthurian Romance. New York, 1927.

Loorits, Oskar. Grundzüge des estnischen Volksglaubens, Vol. I. Lund, 1949.

Lorentzen, Th. Die Sage vom Rodensteiner. Heidelberg, 1903.

*Löwis, A. von, of Menar. Die Brünhildsage in Russland (Palaestra No. 142). Leipzig, 1923.

*Luomala, Katherine. Maui-of-a-Thousand-Tricks. BMB CXCVIII. Honolulu, 1949.

Luzel, F. M. Contes populaires de Basse-Bretagne. 3 vols. Paris, 1887.

MacCulloch, J. A. *Celtic Mythology (The Mythology of all Races III). Boston, 1918.
*The Childhood of Fiction. London, 1905.
*Eddic Mythology (The Mythology of all Races II). Boston, 1930.

MacDougall, James, and Calder, George. Folk Tales and Fairy Lore in Gaelic and English. Edinburgh, 1910.

*Máchal, J. Slavic Mythology (The Mythology of all Races III). Boston, 1918.

MacKay, D. E. The Double Invitation in the Legend of Don Juan. Stanford University, 1943.

☉McKay, J. G. More West Highland Tales. Edinburgh and London, 1940.

MAFLS = Memoirs of the American Folk-Lore Society.

*Malalasekera, George Peiris. Dictionary of Pali Proper Names. 2 vols. London, 1937.

*Malory, Sir Thomas. Morte D'Arthur (many editions).

Mannhart, W. Wald und Feldkulte. 2 vols. 2d ed. Berlin, 1904—05.

*Mansfeld, Alfred. Urwald-Dokumente: Vier Jahre unter den Crossflussnegern Kameruns. Berlin, 1908.

Marie-Ursule, Sœur. Civilisation traditionelle des Lavalois. (Les Archives de Folklore V—VI). Quebec, 1951.

*Marguerite de Navarre. Heptameron. 3 vols. (ed. Díllage, Paris, 1879). (Analysis by Sarah C. Pinkney, University of South Carolina).

Meinhof, Carl. Afrikanische Märchen. Jena, 1921.

*Meinhof, Elli. Märchen aus Kamerun. Strassburg, 1889.

*Mélusine. 10 vols. Paris, 1878—1901.

Mensa Philosophica = T. F. Dunn. The Facetiae of the Mensa Philosophica (Washington University Studies, new series, Lang. and Lit. No. 5). St. Louis, 1934.

Métraux, Alfred. Ethnology of Easter Island. BMB CLX. Honolulu, 1940.
*Mitos y Cuentos de los Indios Chiriguano. RMLP XXXIII (1932), pp. 119—84.
*Myths of the Toba and Pilaga Indians of the Gran Chaco (MAFLS XL, 1946).
Myths and Tales of the Matako Indians. Göteborg, 1939.

Meyer, Elard H. Germanische Mythologie. Berlin, 1891.
Mythologie der Germanen. Strassburg, 1903.

*Meyer, Johann J. Hindu Tales. London, 1909.

*Meyer, Kuno. The Voyage of Bran, son of Febal to the Land of the Living (with an essay upon the Irish Vision of the Happy Otherworld and the Celtic doctrine of Rebirth by Alfred Nutt). 2 vols. London, 1895, 1897.

Meyer, Richard M. Altgermanische Religiongeschichte. Leipzig, 1910.

Milligan, Robert H. *The Fetish Folk of West Africa. Chicago, 1912.
*The Jungle Folk of Africa. New York, 1908.

*Mischlich, A. Neue Märchen aus Afrika. Leipzig, 1929.

*Mitford, A. B. F. Tales of Old Japan. 3d edition. London, 1876.

*MLN = Modern Language Notes. Baltimore, 1886 ff.

Moe, Moltke. Samlede Skrifter. 4 vols. Oslo, 1925 ff.

Mogk Festschrift = Festschrift Eugen Mogk zum 70. Geburtstag. Halle, 1924.

Monteil, C. Contes Soudanais. Paris, 1905.

Moreno Enriquez, Maria de los Angeles. Motivos de narracion tradicionales en los libros de Esdras. (Anuario de la Sociedad Folklorica de Mexico VI 7—45.) Mexico, 1947.

MSFO = Mémoires de la Société Finno-ougrienne, Helsingfors.

*MPh = Modern Philology. Chicago, 1903 ff.

Much, R. Der germanische Himmelsgott (Abhandlungen zur germanischen Philologie: Festgabe fur Richard Heinzel, pp. 189 ff.) Halle, 1898.

MWF = Midwest Folklore. Bloomington 1951 ff.

Müller, P. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Tem-Sprache (Nord-Togo). (Mitteilungen des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin, VIII.)

*Müller, W. Max. Egyptian Mythology (The Mythology of all Races XII). Boston, 1918.

*Nassau, R. H. Where Animals Talk: West African Folklore Tales. London, 1914.

Naumann, Hans. Primitive Gemeinschaftskultur. Jena, 1921.

Neilson, William A. The Origins and Sources of the Court of Love. Cambridge (Mass.), 1899.

*Nekes, Hermann. Lehrbuch der Jaunde-Sprache. Berlin, 1911.

☉Neuman, Dov. Motif-index to the Talmudic-Midrashic Literature. (Indiana University Ph. D. thesis). Microfilm Service, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1954.

*Norlind, Tobias. Skattsägner, en studie i jämförande folkminnesforskning. Lund, 1918.

Nornagests þáttr: in Bugge, S. Norroene Skrifter af sagnhistorisk Indhold, pp. 47 ff. Christiania, 1864.

Nouvelles récréations et joyeaux devis (in Oeuvres françoises de Bonaventure des Périers). Vol. II. Paris, 1856.

Nouvelles de Sens (ed. E. Langlois). Paris, 1908.
(Analysis by F. C. Perry, University of South Carolina).

*Nordenskiöld, Erland. Indianerleben, El Gran Chaco (Südamerika). Leipzig, 1912.

Nutt, Alfred. See Meyer, Kuno.

NYFQ = New York Folklore Quarterly.

Nyrop, Kristoffer. Navnets Magt. København, 1887.

*Oberg, Kalervo. Indian Tribes of Northern Mato Grosso, Brazil (Smithsonian Institution, Institute of Social Anthropology, XV). Washington, 1953.

*Oesterley, H. Gesta Romanorum. Berlin, 1872.

Ohrt, F. Danmarks Trylleformler (FF Publications, Northern Series III). København, 1917.
Trylleord fremmede og danske (DF XXV). København, 1922.

*Olrik, Axel. Ragnarök: die Sagen vom Weltuntergang (trans. W. Ranisch). Berlin, 1922.

Örvar-Odds Saga (ed. R. C. Boer). Leiden, 1888.

*O'Suilleabhain, S. Scealta Craibhtheacha. Dublin, 1952.

PaAm = Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History.

PAES = Publications of the American Ethnological Society.

Panchatantra (tr. A. Ryder). Chicago, 1925.

*Panzer, F. Beowulf (Studien zur germanischen Sagengeschichte I). Miinchen, 1910.
*Hilde-Gudrun. Halle a. S., 1901.
*Sigfrid. (Studien zur germanischen Sagengeschichte II). München, 1910.

*Paris, G. Légendes du moyen âge. Paris, 1904.

Parker, Mrs. K. L. Australian Legendary Tales. London, 1896.

*Parkinson, John. Yoruba Folklore. (JAS VIII [1908] p. 165 ff.).

Patch, H. R. *The Goddess Fortuna in Mediaeval Literature. Cambridge (Mass.), 1927.

Patch, H. R. *The Other World According to Descriptions in Medieval Literature. Cambridge (Mass.), 1950.

Paton, Lucy A. Studies in the Fairy Mythology of Arthurian Romance (Radcliffe College Monographs No. 13). Cambridge (Mass.), 1903.

Pattetta, F. Le Ordalie. Torino, 1890.

*Pauli = Johannes Pauli. Schimpf und Ernst (ed. Johannes Bolte). 2 vols. Berlin, 1924.

Pauly-Wissowa = Pauly's Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft herausgegeben von G. Wissowa. Stuttgart, 1893 ff.

Pease, Arthur Stanley. M. Tulli Ciceronis De Divinatione. (University of Illinois Studies in Language and Literature, VI Nos. 2, 3; VIII Nos. 3, 4). Urbana (Ill.), 1920—23.

*Pechuël-Loesche, E. Volkskunde von Loango. Stuttgart, 1907.

*Penzer, N. M. The Ocean of Story: being C. H. Tawney's translation of Somadeva's Kathā Sarit Sāgara. 10 vols. London, 1923 ff.
See also Tawney.
Poison-Damsels and other essays in Folklore and Anthropology. London, 1952.

Pétitot, Émile. Traditions indiennes du Canada nord-ouest. Paris, 1886.

PFLS = Publications of the Folklore Society (English).

Phaedrus = Phaedri Fabulae Aesopiae (ed. J. P. Postgate). Oxford, 1920.

Pierre Faifeu = Charles de Bourdigné, Le Légende de Maistre Pierre Faifeu. Paris, 1880.

*Pino Saavedra, Y. Tres Versiones Chilenas de la Princesa Mona o Rana. (Homenaje a Fritz Kruger, Tomo I, pp. 399—407). Mendoza (Argentina), 1952.

*Plenzat, Karl. Die ost- und westpreussischen Märchen und Schwänke nach Typen geordnet (Veröffentlichungen des volkskundlichen Archivs der pädagogischen Akademie Elbing I). Konigsberg, 1927.

*Plischke, Hans. Die Sage vom Wilden Heere im deutschen Volke (Leipzig dissertation). Eilenburg, 1914.

*Plummer, Charles. Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae. 2 vols. Oxford, 1910.

PMLA = Publications of the Modern Language Association of America.

*Potter, Murray Anthony. Sohrab and Rustem. London, 1902.

Radloff, Wilhelm. Die Sprachen der türkischen Stämme Süd-Siberiens. St. Petersburg, 1866—85.

Ragnarssaga Loðbrókar. See Volsungasaga.

*Rank, Otto. Das Inzest-Motiv in Dichtung und Sage. 2d ed. Wien, 1912.
*Der Mythus von der Geburt des Helden. Leipzig and Wien, 1912.
Psychoanalytische Beiträge zur Mythenforschung. Leipzig and Wien, 1919.

*Ranke, F. Der Erlöser in der Wiege. München, 1912.

Rasmussen, Knud. Myter og Sagn fra Grønland. 3 vols. København, 1921—25.

Rattray (Hausa) = Rattray, R. Sutherland. Hausa Folk-Lore Customs, Proverbs, etc. 2 vols. Oxford, 1913.

Rattray (Ashanti) = Rattray, R. Sutherland. Akan-Ashanti Folk Tales. Oxford, 1930.

RBAE = Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology.

RCHG = Revista Chilena de Historia y Geografia. Santiago de Chile.

Reinhard, John R. The Survival of Geis in Mediaeval Romance. Halle a. S., 1933.

Renel, Charles. Contes de Madagascar. Paris, 1910, 1930.

*Rink, Henry. Tales and Traditions of the Eskimo. Edinburgh, 1875.

Rittershaus, Adeline. Die neuisländischen Volksmärchen. Halle, 1902.

RMLP = Revista del Museo de la Plata (Argentina).

*Roberts, Warren E. Aarne-Thompson Type 480 in World Tradition. (Indiana University Ph. D. thesis) Microfilm Service, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1954.

*Róheim, Géza. Animism, Magic, and the Divine King. London, 1930.
Drachen und Drachenkämpfer. Berlin, 1912.
Spiegelzauber. Leipzig and Wien, 1919.

Romanic Review. New York, 1910 ff.

Roscher, W. H. Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie. Leipzig, 1884 ff.

Rosen, G. Tuti-Nameh, das Papageienbuch. Leipzig, 1858.

Rosén, Helge. Om Själavandringstro i Nordisk Folkföreställning (Folkminnen och Folktankar V p. 89 ff.).

Rosenhuber, P. Simon. Märchen, Fabeln, Rätsel, und Sprichwörter der Kamerun-Neger. Limburg, 1926.

☉Rotunda, D. P. Motif-Index of the Italian Novella. Bloomington, Indiana, 1942.

RTP = Revue des Traditions Populaires. 32 vols. Paris, 1886—1917.

Ruhlemann, Martin. Etymologie des Wortes Harlequin und verwandter Wörter (Halle dissertation). Halle a. S., 1912.

Saga och Sed (Kgl. Gustav Adolfs Akademiens Årsbok). Uppsala, 1932 ff.

Sagan af Illuga Griðarfóstra (FAS III 648 ff.).

*Saintyves, P. Les Contes de Perrault et les recits parallèles. Paris, 1923.
*Essais de folklore biblique. Paris, 1922.
Les Saints Successeurs des dieux. Paris, 1907.

*Saussaye, P. D. Chantepie de la. The Religion of the Teutons (trans. B. J. Vos). Boston, 1902.

*Scala Celi = Johannes Gobii junior. Scala Celi. Lübeck, 1476.

Schlenker, C. F. A Collection of Temne Traditions, Fables and Proverbs. London, 1861.

Schoolcraft, H. R. *The Myth of Hiawatha. Philadelphia and London, 1856.
Algic Researches. New York, 1839.

*Schweda, Valentin. Die Sagen vom Wilden Jäger und vom Schlafenden Heer in der Provinz Posen (Greifswald dissertation). Gnesen, 1915.

*Scott, J. G. Indo-Chinese Mythology (The Mythology of all Races XII). Boston, 1918.

*Scott, Robert D. The Thumb of Knowledge. New York, 1930.

Sébillot, P. Le Folk-lore de France. 4 vols. Paris, 1904—07.
*Les incidents des contes populaires de la Haute-Bretagne. Vannes, 1892 (= RTP VII 411 ff, 515 ff.).

*Seligmann, S. Die magischen Heil- und Schutzmittel aus der unbelebten Natur. Stuttgart, 1927.

*Sharp-Karpeles = Sharp, Cecil and Karpeles, Maud. English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians. 2 vols. London, 1932.

Showerman, Grant. The Great Mother of the Gods. Madison (Wisconsin), 1901.

Sieber, J. Märchen und Fabeln der Wute (ZsES XII 53 ff., 162 ff.).
Märchen der Kweli in Kamerun (Mitteilungen des Seminars für Orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin, Dritte Abteilung: Afrikanische Studien, XXXV). Berlin, 1932.

Siecke, E. Drachenkampfe. Leipzig, 1907.
Der Vegetationsgott. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1914.

*Siuts, Hans. Jenseitsmotive im deutschen Volksmärchen (Teutonia XIX). Leipzig, 1911.

Skjöldunga saga. See A. Olrik in Aarbøger for nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie, II Række, IX (1894), 109.

*Smith, E. W. and Dale, A. The Ila-speaking People of Northern Rhodesia, vol. 2. London, 1920.

*Smith, G. Elliott. The Evolution of the Dragon. London, 1919.

Smith, W. Robertson. Lectures on the Religion of the Semites. 3d ed. London, 1927.

Snorra Edda (in A. G. Brodeur, The Prose Edda, New York, 1916).

Solheim Register = Solheim, Svale. Register til Norsk Folkeminnelags skrifter Nr. 1—49 (Norsk Folkeminnelag No. 50). Oslo, 1943.

Sörla saga Sterka (FAS III 408 ff.).

Spargo, John Webster. Virgil the Necromancer. Cambridge (Mass.), 1934.

*Sparnaay, H. Verschmelzung legendarischer und weltlicher Motive in der Poesie des Mittelalters. Groningen, 1922.

*Spence, Lewis. Myths and Legends of Babylonia and Assyria. London, 1916.

*Stanley, H. M. My Dark Companions and their Strange Stories. London, 1893.

Stapleton, W. H. Comparative Handbook of Congo Languages. Yakusa, Stanley Falls, 1903.

*Starck, Taylor. Der Alraun, ein Beitrag zur Pflanzensagenkunde. Baltimore, 1917.

*Steere, E. Swahili Tales as told by the Natives of Zanzibar. London, 1922.

*Stigand, C. H. and Mrs. Black Tales for White Children. London and New York, 1914.

*Stimson, J. F. MS. of Tuamotuan Myths. Unpublished. Peabody Museum, Salem, Mass.

*Sturlaugs saga Starfsama (FAS III 592 ff.).

*Swanton, J. R. Myths and Tales of the Southeastern Indians (BBAE LXXXVIII [1929]).

*Sydow, C. W. von. Två Spinnsagor. Lund, 1909.
*Sigurds strid med Fåvne (Lund Universitets Årsskrift. n. f. Avd. I, Bd. 14, no. 16). Lund, 1918.

*Talbot, P. A. In the Shadow of the Bush. New York and London, 1912.

*Tawney, C. H. Kathā Sarit Sāgara, Ocean of the Streams of Story. 2 vols. Calcutta, 1880—84. See also Penzer.

*Tegethoff, Ernst. Studien zum Märchentypus von Amor und Psyche. Bonn und Leipzig, 1922.

Tessman, Gunter. *Ajongs Erzählungen: Marchen der Fangneger. Berlin, 1921.
*Die Pangwe. Berlin, 1912.

Thalbitzer, William. A Phonetic Study of the Eskimo Language. Copenhagen, 1904.

*Theal, G. M. Kaffir Folk-lore. London, 1886.
*The Yellow and Dark-skinned People of Africa South of the Zambesi. London, 1910.

*Thien, J. Uebereinstimmende und verwandte Motive in den deutschen Spielmannsepen im Anschluss an König Rother. Hamburg, 1882.

Thomas, Northcote W. Anthropological Report on the Ibo-Speaking Peoples of Nigeria. 2 vols. London, 1913—14.

☉Thompson-Balys = Thompson, Stith and Balys, Jonas. Motif and Type Index of the Oral Tales of India. Bloomington (Ind.). (In press).

*Thompson, Stith. European Tales among the North American Indians (CColl II). Colorado Springs, 1919.
*Tales of the North American Indians. Cambridge (Mass.), 1929.
The Folktale. New York, 1946.
*The Star-Husband Tale (Studia Septentrionalia IV). Oslo, 1952.

*þiðriks saga (ed. H. Bertelsen). 2 vols. København, 1905—11.

*þorsteinssaga Víkingssonar (FAS II 381 ff.).

*þorsteins þáttr uxafóts (Islendinga þættir).

Thurneysen, Rudolf. Die irische Helden- und Konigsage bis zum siebzehnten Jahrhundert. Halle, 1921.

*Tobler, Otto. Die Epiphanie der Seele in deutscher Volkssage. Kiel, 1911.

*Toldo, Peter. Leben und Wunder der Heiligen im Mittelalter (Studien zur vergleichenden Literaturgeschichte I 320, 345; II 87, 304, 329; IV 49; V 337; VI 289; VIII 18; IX 451).

*Torday, E. On the Trail of the Bushongo. London, 1925.
Notes ethnographiques sur les .... Bakuba. Bruxelles, 1911.

Travélé, Moussa. Proverbs et contes Bambara. Paris, 1923.

Trilles, R. G. Proverbes, légendes et contes fang (Bulletin de la Société Neuchâteloise de Géographie XVI [1905]).

*Tupper, F. and Ogle, M. B. Master Walter Map's Book De Nugis Curialium (Courtiers' Trifles). New York, 1924.

Tuti-Nameh. See Rosen.

*Type = Aarne, A. and Thompson, Stith. The Types of the Folk-Tale (FFC 74). Helsinki, 1928.

UCal = University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology.

U Cal Anth Rec. = University of California Anthropological Records.

U Pa = University of Pennsylvania, The University Museum Anthropological Publications.

*Urquell, Am. 6 vols. Lunden, 1890—96.

*Urquell, Der. 2 vols. Leiden and Hamburg, 1898—99.

*Usener, Hermann. Kleine Schriften. 4 vols. Leipzig and Berlin, 1912—14.

U Wash = University of Washington Publications in Anthropology.

Valcarcel, Luis E. El Diluvio (El Aillu, Rev. Peruana de Antr. Etn. Fl. y Linguistica Hist., I. Cusco, Peru).

*Van Wing, J. Folklore Kiyansi: Congo Belge (Bibliotheca Africana, IV [1930—31]).

*Völsunga saga ok Ragnarssaga Loðbrókar (ed. M. Olsen). København, 1906—08.

Von der Hagen. See Hagen.

Von der Leyen. See Leyen.

Von Löwis of Menar. See Löwis.

*Voorhoeve, Petrus. Overzicht van de Volksverhalen der Bataks. Vlissingen, 1927.

Voretzsch, Carl. Einführung in das Studium der altfranzösischen Literatur. 2d ed. Halle a. S., 1913.

Vries, de. See De Vries.

*Wagener, A. J. Afrikanische Parallele zur biblischen Urgeschichte. Bonn, 1927.

*Ward, H. L. D. Catalogue of Romances in the Department of Manuscripts in the British Museum. London, 1883, 1893. (Vols. 1 and 2 only; for vol. 3 see Herbert, J. A.)

Warnke, Karl. Die Quellen des Esope der Marie de France. Halle, 1900.

Weeks, John H. *Among Congo Cannibals. London, 1913.
*Jungle Life and Jungle Stories. London, 1923.
Anthropological Notes on the Bangola of the Upper Congo River (JAI XXXIX, 1909).
Congo Life and Folklore. 2 parts. London, 1911.

*Wehrhan, Karl. Die Sage. Leipzig, 1908.

Weicker, G. Der Seelenvogel in der alten Literatur und Kunst. Leipzig, 1902.

*Wells, John Edwin. A Manual of Writings in Middle English. New Haven, 1916.

*Werner, Alice. African Mythology (The Mythology of all Races VII). Boston, 1925.

*Werner, E. T. C. Myths and Legends of China. London, 1922.

Wesselski, Albert. *Die Schwänke und Schnurren des Pfarrers Arlotto. 2 vols. Berlin. 1910.
*Heinrich Bebels Schwänke. 2 vols. München, 1907.
*Erlesenes (Gesellschaft deutscher Bücherfreunde in Bohmen VIII). Prag, 1928.
*Die Begebenheiten der beiden Gonnella. Weimar, 1920.
*Der Hodscha Nasreddin. 2 vols. Weimar, 1911.
*Märchen des Mittelalters. Berlin, 1925.
*Mönchslatein. Leipzig, 1909.
*Die Novellen Girolamo Morlinis. München, n. d.
Versuch einer Theorie des Märchens. Reichenberg i. B., 1931.

Wessman, V. E. V. Förteckning över Sägentyperna (Finlands Svenska Folkdiktning II). Helsingfors, 1931.

WF = Western Folklore (continuation of California Folklore Quarterly). Berkeley (Cal.), 1942 ff.

*Wheeler, Gerald Camden. Mono-Alu Folklore. London, 1926. Tales referred to by number.

*Wilken, G. A. Verspreide Geschriften. 4 vols. 'sGravenhage, 1912.

*Willans, R. H. K. The Konnoh People (African Society Journal VIII [1908—09]).

*Williams, C. A. Oriental Affinities of the Legend of the Hairy Anchorite. Urbana (Ill.), 1925.

*Wimberly, L. C. Folklore in the English and Scottish Ballads. Chicago, 1928.

*Winger, Bjorn. A Classification of Motifs in Eskimo Folk-Literature. (Unpublished M. A. thesis. Indiana University Library).

*Winter, Leo. Die deutsche Schatzsage. Wattenscheid, 1925.

Wolf, W. Der Mond im deutschen Volksglauben. Buhl (Baden). 1929.

*Woodson, Carter Godwin. African Myths. Washington, D. C, 1928.

Wünsche, A. Die Sagen vom Lebensbaum und Lebenswasser, altorientalische Mythen. Leipzig, 1905.
*Der Sagenkreis vom geprellten Teufel. Leipzig and Wien, 1905.

*Ynglinga saga (ed. C. Säve). Uppsala, 1854.

*Yngvarssaga vidförla (ed. E. Olson). København, 1912.

*Zachariae, Theodor. Kleine Schriften. Bonn and Leipzig, 1920.

Zingerle, I. V. Sagen aus Tirol. 2d ed. Innsbruck, 1891.

Zong in-Sob. Folk Tales from Korea. London, 1952.

ZsES = Zeitschrift fur Eingeborenen-Sprachen.

ZsKS = Zeitschrift fur Kolonialsprachen. Berlin, 1913 ff.

*Zs.f.Vksk. = Zeitschrift des Vereins für Volkskunde. 38 vols. Berlin, 1891—1928. Continued as Zeitschrift für Volkskunde. Berlin, 1929 ff.



  1. Verzeichnis der Märchentypen, FFCommunications No. 3, Helsinki, 1910. A revision by the present author appeared as The Types of the Folk-Tale, FFCommunications No. 74, Helsinki, 1928.
  2. For a summary of the results of these classifications see R. S. Boggs, A Comparative Survey of the Folk-tales of Ten Peoples, FFCommunications No. 93, Helsinki, 1930. In addition to the surveys discussed by Boggs may be mentioned: Andrejev, Ukazatel' Skazochnik sjuzhetov po Sisteme Aarne, and Plenzat, Die ost- und westpreussischen Märchen und Schwänke. For more recent surveys see Thompson, The Folktale, pp 420f.
  3. Every scholar who has constructed a new catalogue of tales has, of course, been obliged to add types of tales not already to be found in the classification, but it has thus far proved practicable as far as European peoples are concerned, to use the Aarne list for the folktale and jest. How far an expansion of the type-index may permit a cataloguing of such partly literary forms as the exemplum and the fabliau, only experiment can tell. As long as the entire tale-complex remains intact in transmission, such an index as The Types of the Folk-Tale is useful; when such a condition does not exist, a more analytical list seems necessary.
  4. Division of motifs on philosophical grounds has been made by several scholars. In his Märchen des Mittelalters (p. xvii) Albert Wesselski divides the motifs of folktales, novelle, and myths into Mythenmotive, Gemeinschaftsmotive, and Kulturmotive. By means of this distinction he discusses the difference between the narrative forms. A very elaborate analysis of the concept of motif is found in Arthur Christensen's study, Motif et Theme (FFCommunications No. 59). Divisions are made into "éléments de relation," "motifs," "accessoires épiques," "thème," "motifs sans thème," "motifs a thèmes faibles," and the like. The study throws light on the psychological nature of various motifs.
  5. In case a division is extensive, it may occupy several "tens". When this is true, the numbers ending in "0" and "9" except at beginning and end, are skipped: "0" always refers to the general idea, "9" to miscellaneous or additional examples.
  6. The system is not really decimal, for the subdivisions may go beyond ten. E. g., A2494.5.34, E501.17.5.3. The latter number refers to the third tertiary division of the fifth secondary division of the seventeenth primary division of E501. — A difficult problem in classification has been solved by the use of a "zero" subdivision. In E613, for example, the main idea is "reincarnation as bird." E613.1, E613.2, etc., detail the kind of bird (E613.1. Reincarnation as duck, etc.) Now there are other subdivisions of E613 that refer only to the general idea of bird (not of particular birds). Thus: E613. Reincarnation as bird. — E613.0.1. Reincarnation of murdered child as bird. — E613.0.2. Reincarnation of unbaptized child as bird. — E613.1. Reincarnation as duck. — etc.
  7. The appearance of only one or a few references to a motif must not be interpreted to mean that there are not other occurrences.
  8. If more items must be put in a "ten" than enough to fill the vacant spaces, the additions can be made to the last number in the "ten", e. g. 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, etc.
  9. It is suggested that where references are hereafter made to the present work and to The Types of the Folk-Tale, the term motif should be used for this Motif-index and type for The Types of the Folk-Tale. Thus: Motif S31 appears in Type 510.

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For Class A renewals records (books only) published between 1923 and 1963, check the Stanford University Copyright Renewal Database.
For other renewal records of publications between 1922–1950 see the University of Pennsylvania copyright records scans.
For all records since 1978, search the U.S. Copyright Office records.

The author died in 1976, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 30 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.


Works published in 1955 would have had to renew their copyright in either 1982 or 1983, i.e. at least 27 years after it was first published / registered but not later than in the 28th year. As it was not renewed, it entered the public domain on .