Motif-Index of Folk-Literature/Volume 1/B/300

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Motif-Index of Folk-Literature, Volume 1  (1955)  by Stith Thompson
B. Animals: B300—B349. Helpful animals — general


B300—B349. Helpful animals — general.

B300. Helpful animal. See also entire section B300—599, especially B350. — *Krappe "Guiding animals" JAFL LV (1942) 228—246; "Warning animals" FL LIX (1948) 8—15. — *Toldo Studien zur vgl. Littgsch. VIII 38. — Irish myth: Cross. — Hindu: Penzer I 101f., V 157f., 163f., VI 291, VIII 219. — India: Thompson-Balys. — N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 316 n. 146. — Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 313.
B155. Location determined by halting of an animal. B252.1. Animal monks. B256. Animal as servant of saint. B292. Animal in service of man. F601. Extraordinary companions. N800. Helpers.
B301. Faithful animal. Köhler-Bolte I 534; Irish myth: Cross.
B301.1. Faithful animal at master's grave dies of hunger. *Type 75*; *Pauli (ed Bolte) No. 428; cf. Alphabet No. 270; Icel.: *Boberg.
B301.1.1. Faithful dog follows master's dead body when cast into river. Supports body. — Spanish Exempla: Keller.
B301.1.2. Faithful dog helps open mistress' grave — dies on it. India: Thompson-Balys.
B301.1.3. Faithful animal doesn't allow anybody to come near to master's corpse. Þidriks saga II 154, 386.
B301.2. Faithful animal at master's grave avenges his murder. English: Wells Manual of Writings 121 (Sir Triamour). — *Hibbard 286.
B591. Animal avenges murder.
B301.3. Faithful animal plans suicide when it thinks master dead. English: Wells Manual of Writings 66 (Ywain and Gawain); Icel.: Boberg.
B301.4. Faithful horse follows dead master to grave. *Fb "hest" IV 212a.
B301.4.1. Faithful horse lays his head on slain master's breast. Irish myth: Cross.
B181.7. Magic horse avenges hero's death.
B301.4.1.1. Faithful horse weeps for coming death of saint. Irish myth: Cross.
B149.1.2. Horse weeps for master's (saint's) approaching death.
B301.4.2. Faithful horse weeps tears of blood for master. Irish myth: Cross.
B736.2. Horse sheds tears of blood. F1041.29. Tears of blood in excessive grief.
B301.4.3. Faithful horse joins in keen at hero's death. Irish myth: Cross.
B301.4.3.1. Faithful horse lays his head in lap of dead master's wife. Irish myth: Cross.
B301.4.4. Faithful horse allows only its master to catch and ride it. Icel.: *Boberg.
B301.4.5. Faithful horse lies down in order that its mutilated master can mount it. Icel.: *Boberg.
B301.4.6. Faithful horse refuses to go before its master mounts it, even when already loaded with two chests with gold. — Icel.: *Boberg.
B301.4.7. Faithful horse dies together with its master. Icel.: *Boberg.
F1041.1. Death from broken heart.
B301.4.8. Faithful horse fights together with its master. Icel.: *Boberg.
B571.3. Animals fight together with their master. K2. Animals help man in contest.
B301.5. Faithful animals resuscitate master. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
E0. Resuscitation.
B301.6. Faithful cattle fight at master's grave until they cast their horns. Irish myth: Cross.
A969.2. Mounds from horns cast by cattle.
B301.6.1. Faithful cattle shed horns in grief for death of man. Irish myth: Cross.
B301.6.2. Faithful cow refuses to move for grief at master's death. Irish myth: Cross.
B301.6.3. Faithful cows lose milk at king's death. Irish myth: Cross.
B301.7. Faithful lapdog dies when mistress dies. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.
F1041.1. Death from broken heart.
B301.7.1. Faithful dog helps open mistress' grave and dies on it. India: Thompson-Balys.
F1041.1. Death from broken heart.
B301.8. Faithful lion follows man who saved him. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Icel.: Boberg.
B310. Acquisition of helpful animal. *Hartland Perseus III 191ff.
D810—D859. Acquisition of magic objects. N2.4. Helpful animals lost in wager.
B311. Congenital helpful animal. Born at same time as master and (usually) by same magic means. — *Hartland Perseus III 191ff.; *Types 300, 303; *BP I 534ff.; Köhler-Bolte I 179. — Irish myth: Cross, MacCulloch Celtic 83, Welsh ibid. 95; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 221.
B142.1. King of fishes prophesies hero's birth. B375.1. Fish returned to water: grateful. B631.1. Animal mother of man helps him. D857. Magic object born with hero. E765.2. Life bound up with that of animal. M369.8. Prophecies about fate of five boys born at the same time. P311.4. Friends born at same moment. T589.3. Birth trees. Spring forth as hero is born, act as life tokens, etc. T589.7.1. Simultaneous birth of animals and child. Z71.5.7. King with seven wives and seven mares: the seven wives pregnant for seven years, the seven mares for seven years in foal.
B311.1. Helpful animal foster brother. Hero reared by animal's parents. — Africa (Akan-Ashanti): Rattray Akan-Ashanti Folk Tales 206 No. 53, (Kassonke): Monteil Contes Soudanais 126ff.
B312. Helpful animals obtained by purchase or gift.
B312.1. Helpful animals a gift. Germa: Grimm No. 60, 126; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 40 No. 300; Icel.: Boberg, Þiðriks saga I 314—18; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.
B312.2. Helpful animals obtained by exchange. *Type 300; *Hartland Perseus III 195; De Gubernatis Zool. Myth. III 36 n. — N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl II 329ff.
D851. Magic object acquired by exchange.
B312.3. Helpful animal(s) bequeathed to hero. Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Hausa): Best Black Folk Tales 71ff., Tremearne Hausa Superstitions and Customs 374ff. No. 79; Madagascar: (Marofotsy) Renel Contes de Madagascar I 65ff. No. 9.
N411.1.1. Cat as sole inheritance.
B312.4. Helpful animal purchased. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Swahili): Steere Swahili Tales 13ff., Meinhof Afrikanische Märchen 9ff. No. 1, Bateman Zanzibar Tales 99ff. No. 7.
B312.4.1. Helpful dogs obtained by purchase. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
B312.5. Helpful, strong horse caught. Icel.: Boberg.
B313. Helpful animal an enchanted person. *Types 314, 328 (FFC LXXXIII), 402, 510, 530, 531, 532, 533, 545, 550, 551.
B187.0.2. Magic dog transformed person. D659.4.3. Transformation to eagle to carry hero to safety.
B313.1. Helpful animal reincarnation of parent. The dead mother appears to the heroine in the form of an animal. — *Cox Cinderella 475 n. 4; BP I 187, III 60ff. — India: *Thompson-Balys, *Cosquin Contes indiens 505ff.; Japanese: Ikeda.
N810. Supernatural helpers.
B313.2. Helpful animal reincarnation of murdered child. German: Grimm No. 47.
B314. Helpful animal brothers-in-law. *Type 552; *BP III 424ff. — Missouri French: Carrière.
B506.1. Magic object received from animal brother-in-law. B640. Marriage to person in animal form.
B315. Animal helpful after being conquered. *Type 590; BP III 1. — Icel.: *Boberg.
B316. Abused and pampered horses. Hero is ordered by ogre to feed and care for certain horse and to neglect other horse. Hero disobeys and feeds neglected horse. Latter is enchanted prince and helps hero. (Cf. B181.) — *Type 314, 502; BP III 18 n. 3. — French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 15; Missouri-French: Carrière.
D1783.4. Power over monster (wizard, king) obtained by reversing orders.
B317. Helpful bird hatched by hero. Hero holds eagle's egg in hand and hatches it. Young eagle becomes his helper. — German New Guinea: Dixon 141.
D1783.4. Power over monster (wizard, king) obtained by reversing order.
B318. Helpful animals transformed from other animals. India: Thompson-Balys.
B11.1.2. Dragon from transformed horse. D410. Transformation: one animal to another.
B319. Helpful animal otherwise acquired.
B319.1. Helpful animal sent by God (or a god). Irish myth: Cross.
B319.2. Helpful animal acquired as reward for vigil. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
B320. Reward of helpful animal.
B322. Helpful animal demands food. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "viande", "oiseau"; Japanese: Ikeda.
B322.1. Hero feeds own flesh to helpful animal. The hero is carried on the back of an eagle who demands food. The hero finally feeds parts of his own flesh. — *Type 301; *BP II 300 (Gr. No. 91); Chauvin VI 3 No. 181 n. 3; Panzer Beowulf 191; Clouston Tales I 241ff.; Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 164 (to Gonzenbach No. 61). — Hindu: Penzer I 84 n. 1. 85, VI 122 n. 2, VII 126 n. 2; India: Thompson-Balys; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 304 No. 32; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 15. — Missouri French: Carrière. — Apache: Goddard PaAM XXIV 94.
B542.1.1. Eagle carries man to safety. F101.3. Return from lower world on eagle. F420.5.3.6. Water-spirit demands food from those it takes across stream. K521.1.1. Man sewed in animal's hide carried off by birds. K1861.1. Hero sewed up in animal hide so as to be carried to height by bird.
B322.2. Helpful birds demand food. Chinese: Graham.
B325. Animal bribed for help. English: Child I 57ff., II 144—154, 359, IV 389f., 416; Sicilian: Gonzenbach: I 99 No. 15.
B325.1. Animal bribed with food. (Sop to Cerberus.) — Types 531, 551; BP III 18ff.; *Chauvin VI 6 No. 182; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 76 No. 632; Icel.: *Boberg. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 61 No. 445B, Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 308 n. 113c. — Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 273 No. 86.
A673. Hound of hell. B391. Animal grateful for food. G582. Giants appeased by feeding them. K671. Captive throws his hat to lions who fight over it while he escapes. K2062. Thief tries to feed watchdog and stop his mouth: dog detects plan.
B330. Death of helpful animal.
B100.1. Treasure found in slain helpful animal. B192. Magic animal killed. C221.2.1. Tabu: eating animal helper. C918. Mare from water world disappears when she is scolded and her halter used for common purposes. C935. Helpful animal disappears when tabu is broken. D843. Magic object found on grave of slain helpful animal. D876. Magic treasure animal killed: goose that laid the golden egg.
B331. Helpful animal killed through misunderstanding.
B331.1. Faithful falcon killed through misunderstanding. Tries to warn the king against drinking water poisoned by snake. — *Chauvin II 122 No. 115, V 289 No. 173. — India: *Thompson-Balys.
N340. Hasty killing or condemnation. N345. The falcon of Federigo.
B331.1.1. Faithful horse killed through misunderstanding. Tries to warn king against drinking water poisoned by snake. India: Thompson-Balys.
B331.2. Llewellyn and his dog. Dog has saved child from serpent. Father sees bloody mouth, thinks the dog has eaten the child, and kills the dog. — *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 257; Köhler-Bolte I 534; *BP I 425 n. 1; Ward Catalogue of Romances II 170; *Penzer V 138 n. 1; *Campbell Sages lxxviii ff.; Benfey Panchatantra I 479ff.; Bødker Exempler 299 No. 64; *Chauvin II 100 No. 59, VIII 67 No. 31; Clouston Tales II 167; *Kittredge Arthur and Gorlagon 223 n. 1; *Frazer Pausanias V 421 . — Spanish Exempla: Keller; Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys; U.S.: Baughman.
B524.1.4.1. Dog defends master's child against animal assailant. J571.1. When in anger say the alphabet. N343. Lover kills self believing his mistress dead. (Pyramus and Thisbe).
B331.2.1. Woman slays faithful mongoose which has saved her child. "A Classical Indian Folk-Tale as a Reported Modern Event: The Brahman and the Mongoose" Proceedings, American Philosophical Society, LXXXIII 503—13; India: *Thompson-Balys.
B449.7.1. Helpful mongoose.
B331.2.2. Faithful dog killed by overhasty master: thinks mistakenly he has returned home against orders. (Cf. Llewellyn and his dog.) — *Emeneau "The Faithful Dog as Security for a Debt; A Companion to the Brahman and Mongoose Story-Type" Journal of American Oriental Society LXI 1—17; India: *Thompson-Balys.
B331.3. Faithful parrot killed by mistake. India: Thompson-Balys.
B332. Too watchful dog killed. Icel.: *Boberg.
B335. Helpful animal killed by hero's enemy. *Types 510, 533; *BP III 60ff.; *Cox Cinderella 477 n. 7. — India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda. — N. A. Indian (Menomini): Hoffman RBAE XIV 236.
B133.4. Speaking horse-head. The helpful magic horse is killed.
B335.1. Man attempts to kill faithful serpent at wife's instigation. Loses everything. — *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 20 No. 73. — *Ward III 208; *Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 141; *Warnke Die Quellen des Esope der Marie de France 221.
K2213. Treacherous wife.
B335.1.1. Treacherous wife forces husband to kill helpful dog. India: Thompson-Balys.
B335.2. Life of helpful animal demanded as cure for feigned sickness. Penzer V 127 n. 1; India: *Thompson-Balys.
D866.2. Magic object destroyed because of feigned sickness. H1212. Quest assigned because of feigned illness. K961. Flesh of certain animal alleged to be only cure for disease: animal to be killed. K2091. Illness feigned in order to learn secret. S268.1. Sacrifice of child demanded as cure for feigned sickness. S322.4.1. Banishment of stepchildren demanded as cure for feigned illness. S322.7. Life of children demanded as cure for feigned illness.
B335.3. Unsuccessful attempt by enemy to kill helpful animal. India: Thompson-Balys.
B335.4. Wife demands magic parrot who has accused her. India: Thompson-Balys.
B131.3. Bird betrays women's infidelity. J551.1. Cocks who crow about mistress's adultery killed. J1154.1. Parrot unable to tell husband details as to wife's infidelity. K1510. Adulteress outwits husband.
B335.5. Faithful animal killed in battle. Icel.: *Boberg.
B335.6. A small animal (hare, bitch) gives timely warnings to the hero about the trap prepared by his enemy. Animal warning about trap killed. — Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. *452f.
B335.7. Helpful cow to be killed because of refusal to help stepdaughter. Chinese: Graham.
B336. Helpful animal killed (threatened) by ungrateful hero. — Spanish Exempla: Keller. — Africa (Hausa): Mischlich Neue Märchen aus Afrika 164ff. No. 22, Frobenius Atlantis IX 277ff., 287ff., Nos. 74 and 75, (Swahili): Steere Swahili Tales 13ff., Meinhof Afrikanische Märchen 9ff. No. 1, Bateman Zanzibar Tales 99ff. No. 7.
W154. Ingratitude.
B338. Weapons made from bones of helpful horse. India: Thompson-Balys.
B339. Death of helpful animal — miscellaneous.
B339.1. Truth-telling dog killed so as to hide murder. India: Thompson-Balys.
B340. Treatment of helpful animals — miscellaneous.
B341. Helpful animal's injunctions disobeyed. Disaster follows. — Type 531; MacCulloch Childhood 229; Missouri French: Carrière; N. A. Indian (Menomini): Hoffman RBAE XIV 183, (Zuñi): Cushing 54.
B342. Cat leaves house when report is made of death of one of his companions. His master has been told to say "Robert is dead". As soon as this is said, the cat leaves. — *Boberg Sagnet om den store Pans Død, København 1934. — Irish: Beal III 66. — U.S.: Baughman; Taylor Washington University Studies X (Hum. Ser.) 60ff.
F405.7. Spirit leaves when report is made of the death of one of its kind.
B343. Large reward given for return of helpful animal. India: Thompson-Balys.