Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management/Chapter XIX

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RECIPES FOR COOKING MUTTON

 
CHAPTER XIX
 

991.—BAKED SHOULDER OF MUTTON, STUFFED. (Fr.Epaule de Mouton Farcie.)

Ingredients.—A small shoulder of mutton, veal forcemeat, No. 396, ¾ of a pint of stock, 1 oz. of butter, ¾ of an oz. of flour, 2 or 3 ozs. of dripping, salt and pepper.

Method.—Have all the bones removed from the shoulder, and boil them down for stock. Flatten the meat, using either a wetted cutlet-bat or rolling-pin for the purpose. Season well with salt and pepper, spread on the forcemeat, roll up tightly and bind securely with string. Have ready the baking-tin with the dripping melted, baste the meat well, put it into a moderate oven, and cook gently for 1½ hours, basting frequently. Meanwhile fry together the butter and flour until a brown roux, or thickening, is formed, strain on to it ¾ of a pint of stock made from the bones (which should be boiled for at least 2 hours), stir the sauce until it boils, and season to taste. When the meat has cooked for 1½ hours, drain off every particle of fat, but leave the sediment in the tin, pour in the brown sauce, return to the oven, and cook ½ an hour longer, basting frequently. When ready, serve on a hot dish, pour a little of the sauce over the meat, and send the remainder to table in a sauce-boat.

Time.—To prepare and cook, about 2½ hours. Average Cost, 9d. to 10d. per lb.

Note.—Either leg, loin or neck of mutton may be cooked according to the above recipe; and when preferred, onion farce, or stuffing, No. 404, may be substituted for the veal forcemeat.

The Poets on Sheep.—The keeping of flocks was one of the earliest employments of mankind, and the most ancient kind of poetry was probably pastoral. The oldest representations we have of the poetic character of pastoral life are those found in books of the Old Testament, which describe the shepherd life of the patriarchs. Pastoral poetry in the classic sense of the term had its origin in Greece, and Theocritus (third century b.c.) is the earliest and most illustrious of the pastoral poets. Virgil at a later period represents pastoral poetry in Roman literature, his Bucolics with charming grace setting forth the simplicity and sweetness of country life. Tasso and Ronsard wrote on pastoral subjects; and among our English poetical works are Spencer's Shepherd's Calendar, Browne's Britannia's Pastorals, Gay's Shepherd's Week, Gray's Elegy, Thomson's Seasons, and Allan Ramsay's Gentle Shepherd. In all such pastorals the allusions to the sheep are only of inferior importance to the shepherds who attend them, and these have furnished innumerable figures and similes. Shakespeare frequently compares men to sheep, as in King Henry VI., when Gloster rudely drives the lieutenant from the side of the monarch, the hapless King thus touchingly speaks of his helplessness:—

" So flies the reckless shepherd from the wolf:
So first the harmless sheep doth yield his fleece,
And nest his throat unto the butcher's knife."

In the Two Gentlemen of Verona we meet with the following humorous comparison:—

" Proteus. The sheep for fodder follow the shepherd, the shepherd for food follows not the sheep;
Thou for wages followest thy master, thy master for wages followest not thee; therefore thou art a sheep.

Speed. Such another proof will make me cry baa."

Burn's Elegy on Poor Mailie, his only "pet yowe," is familiar to every one:—

" Thro' a' the town she stroll'd by him;
A lang half mile she could descry him;
Wi' kindly bleat, when she did spy him
She ran wi' speed;
A friend mair faithfu' ne'er cam' nigh him,
Than Mailie dead.
I wat she was a sheep o' sense.
An' could behave hersel' wi' mense;
I'll say't she never brake a fence,
Thro' thievish greed.
Our bardie, lonely, keeps the spence,
Sin' Mailie's dead."

992.—BOILED MUTTON. (Fr.Mouton bouilli.)

The leg, neck and breast are the parts usually selected for boiling. When intended for this purpose, the meat should not be allowed to hang many days, for the least taint spoils the flavour of boiled mutton. Too often the natural flavour of a boiled joint is overpowered by the flavour of the vegetables with which it is cooked. To avoid this, only the quantity sufficient to impart a slight flavour should be cooked in the liquor, and the remainder boiled separately. The flavour of the meat is thus preserved, and the vegetables are a better colour when cooked more quickly than is possible if their rate of cooking is adapted to the meat. The side of the joint intended to be dished upwards should be put downwards in the boiling-pot, for however gentle the ebullition of the water may be, its action somewhat spoils the upper surface of the meat. Moreover, any scum that is not removed during the process of cooking is apt to fall on the upper surface of the meat, and impair its appearance. For particulars as to time required etc., see "Notes on Boiling," p. 429.

The Good Shepherd.—The office of the Eastern shepherd was one of hardship and even of danger. He was exposed to the extremes of heat and cold. His food was precarious, consisting often of wild fruits. He had to defend his flock from the attacks of wild beasts, including the lion, the wolf, the panther, and the bear, and was also exposed to the risk of roving bands of robbers. The shepherd led his sheep to the pasture, watched over them while feeding, supplied them with water, and at night enclosed his flock in the fold, defending it from the attacks of wild beasts and predatory bands. If any sheep was missing, he searched for it until it was found. The Eastern shepherd's office was thus necessarily one of great watchfulness and care, and of tenderness in caring for the weak and the young of his flock. Hence the numerous allusions in the Bible to the shepherd and his sheep. The Psalmist likens himself to a lost sheep, and prays to the Almighty to seek His servant. Our Lord, when sending His chosen disciples to preach the Gospel among their unbelieving brethren, compares them to lambs going among wolves. The Eastern shepherd, by his kind treatment of his sheep, endears them to him, so that they obey his voice, recognize the names by which he calls them, and follow him as he leads them to and from the fold. The beautiful figure of the "Good Shepherd," which occurs so often in the New Testament, expresses the Divine tenderness for mankind. "The good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep." (St. John, x. 11). "I am the good shepherd, and know my sheep, and am known of mine" (St. John, x. 14). "And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear My voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd" (St. John, x. 16).

993.—BONED LEG OF MUTTON, STUFFED. (Fr.Gigot de Mouton farci.)

Ingredients.—A small leg of mutton boned, 2 ozs. of finely-chopped ham or bacon, 4 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 2 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped suet, 2 finely-chopped shallots, 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoonful of grated lemon-rind, ½ a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, 1 saltspoonful of grated nutmeg, salt and pepper, 1 egg, milk, brown sauce or gravy (see "Sauces and Gravies").

Method.—Mix all the dry ingredients together, adding the needful seasoning of salt and pepper. Moisten with the egg and as much milk as is necessary to bind the whole together, press the mixture into the cavity whence the bone was taken, and secure the opening. Roast before a clear fire, or bake in a moderately hot oven from 2¼ to 2½ hours, and when ready, serve with brown sauce or good gravy.

Time.—About 2½ hours. Average Cost, 10d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

994.—BRAIN AND TONGUE PUDDING. (Fr.Pouding de Cervelles et Langue.)

Ingredients.—4 sheeps' tongues, 4 sheep's brains, 1 hard-boiled egg sliced, 1 shallot finely-chopped, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 1 teaspoonful of flour, salt and pepper, ¼ of a pint of milk, suet paste.

Method.—Let the tongues and brains soak in salt and water for 2 or 3 hours, then cover the former with hot stock or water, and simmer gently until the skin can be removed. Line a basin with some of the paste (see "Beef Steak Pudding"), slice the tongues, chop the brains coarsely, place them in the basin in alternate layers, sprinkling each layer with shallot, parsley, flour, salt and pepper, and intersperse with slices of boiled egg. Add the milk, cover with suet paste (see pastes) and boil for 3 hours, or steam for 3½ hours.

Time.—From 3 to 3½ hours. Average Cost, 2s. to 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

995.—BRAISED LEG OF MUTTON. (Fr.Gigot de Mouton braisé.)

Ingredients.—1 small leg of mutton. For the mirepoix: 2 onions thickly sliced, 2 carrots thickly sliced, 1 small turnip thickly sliced, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 10 peppercorns. For the sauce: 1½ ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 2 shallots finely-chopped, 1 pint of stock, salt and pepper, stock or water.

Method.—Put the mirepoix into a braising-pan or large stewpan, nearly cover with boiling stock or water, lay the meat on the top, and wrap round it a well-greased paper. Put on the lid, which should fit closely, and cook gently from 3 to 3½ hours, adding more stock or water as that in the pan becomes reduced. Half an hour before serving melt the butter in a stewpan, fry the shallots lightly, then add the flour, and cook until it acquires a nut-brown colour. Keep the meat hot, strain the stock, increase the quantity to 1 pint, pour it over the browned flour and butter, and stir until boiling. Season to taste, boil gently for ten minutes, then pour a little over the meat, and serve the remainder in a tureen. Cooked tomatoes, mushrooms, fancifully-cut turnips and carrots, small timbales of spinach or green pea purée, haricots verts and macedoine are all suitable garnishes for this dish.

Time.—About 4 hours. Average Cost, 10d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

996.—BRAISED MUTTON, PROVENCE STYLE. (Fr.Mouton braisé à la Provençale.)

Ingredients.—A small leg of mutton (or shoulder, loin or neck, if preferred). For the mirepoix, or foundation: 3 ozs. of butter, 2 large onions, 2 carrots, 1 turnip, 2 strips of celery, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 10 peppercorns, 1 quart of stock. For the farce: 2 ozs. of lean raw ham, 2 ozs. of pork or veal, 2 ozs. of breadcrumbs, 6 button mushrooms, preferably fresh ones, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, ½ a teaspoonful of grated lemon-rind, 1 shallot finely-chopped, 2 yolks and 1 white of eggs, salt and pepper. For the Provençale sauce: 1 pint of brown sauce, 1 tomato, 1 onion, 2 large fresh mushrooms, ½ a teaspoonful of chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 1 oz. of butter, glaze.

Method.—Bone the leg as far as the knuckle. Pass the ham and pork or veal 2 or 3 times through a mincing machine, pound it well with the breadcrumbs, herbs, lemon rind, parsley, shallot and eggs, season to taste, and when smooth, rub through a wire sieve. Add to the farce the mushrooms cut into small pieces, press it lightly into the cavity of the leg, and sew up the opening. Slice the vegetables, place them at the bottom of a large stewpan with the butter, bouquet-garni, and peppercorns, and on the top of these lay the meat. Put on the lid, cook gently for ½ an hour, then add as much hot stock as will 3 parts cover the vegetables and the remainder to make good the reduction in the pan. Cover the meat with a buttered paper, put on the lid, cook gently for 2 hours, basting frequently, then transfer from the stewpan to a hot baking-tin, and continue the cooking for ¾ of an hour longer, keeping the meat well basted with hot butter or fat. Strain the liquor, and either boil it down to glaze, or use it to make the brown sauce (see Sauces). Melt 1 oz. of butter in a small stewpan, add the tomato, onion and mushrooms, all of which should be previously sliced, put in the parsley, cook gently for 15 or 20 minutes, and add the brown sauce, boil for 15 minutes longer. Season to taste, rub through a fine hair sieve or tammy-cloth, re-heat, add the lemon-juice, and keep hot until required. Place the meat on a hot dish, brush it over with warm glaze, garnish it with baked tomatoes, mushrooms au gratin, braised olives, or fancifully-cut glazed vegetables, and serve the sauce separately.

Time.—From 3¼ to 3½ hours. Average Cost, 10d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

997.—BREAST OF MUTTON, GRILLED OR BROILED. (Fr.Poitrine d'Agneau Grillée.)

Ingredients.—A breast of mutton, salt and pepper, tomato, piquante or other suitable sauce.

Method.—Divide the breast into pieces convenient for serving, and trim away some of the fat. Grill slowly over or in front of a clear fire, in order that the meat may be thoroughly cooked, turning frequently meanwhile, and sprinkling liberally with salt and pepper. Serve the sauce separately.

Time.—About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

998.—BREAST OF MUTTON, TO COLLAR.

Ingredients.—A breast of mutton boned, 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 1 tablespoonful of finely-chopped capers, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, ¼ of a teaspoonful of finely-grated lemon-rind, vinegar, a good pinch of nutmeg, salt and pepper, 1 yolk of egg.

Method.—Make a forcemeat of the above ingredients, taking care to season it rather highly with salt and pepper. Flatten the meat, spread the forcemeat evenly, roll up as lightly as possible, and secure with string. Put the roll into a stewpan containing just sufficient stock to cover it, or failing stock, use water and add the bones removed from the meat, also vegetables and herbs to give flavour. Simmer very gently for 2½ hours, then transfer to an earthenware vessel, and strain the stock. Add to it half its quantity of vinegar and a tablespoonful of salt, and pour the mixture over the meat, which it should completely cover. It should remain for at least 5 or 6 days before being used, and may be kept for a much longer time, but the liquor must be boiled up twice a week, and not replaced until quite cold.

Time.—To cook, 2½ hours. To pickle, 5 or 6 days. Average Cost, 6d. per lb.

999.—BROILED BREAST OF MUTTON WITH CAPER SAUCE. (Fr.Poitrine de Mouton aux Câpres.)

Ingredients.—A breast of mutton, 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 1 tablespoonful of finely-chopped suet, 1 dessertspoonful of chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, milk, salt and pepper, ½ a pint of caper sauce, No. 182, stock, or water; when using the latter, add 1 onion, 1 carrot, ½ a small turnip, 10 peppercorns and salt.

Method.—Remove the bones and any superfluous fat, flatten the meat and season it well. Mix the breadcrumbs, suet, parsley, herbs, and a good seasoning of salt and pepper together, and moisten with milk. Spread the mixture on the meat, roll up lightly, and bind securely with string. Put it into the stock or water when boiling (see "Notes on Boiling," p 429), simmer gently for 2 hours, then serve with the caper sauce poured over.

Time.—About 2 hours. Average Cost, 6d. per lb. Seasonable all the year.

The Order of the Golden Fleece.—This military Order, the Toison d'Or, at the present time the highest Order of the Austrian and the Spanish courts was founded, 1429, by Philip III "the Good" Duke of Burgundy, and of the Netherlands on the occasion of his marriage with the Princess Isabella of Portugal. Its emblem, worn suspended from the collar of the Order, is the figure of a sheep or fleece in gold, and probably owes its origin to the circumstance that the Netherlands were the principal seat of the woollen manufactures. The original number of the members of the Order was thirty-one, including the sovereign at its head. In 1516 the Order was enlarged by Pope Leo X to fifty-two. The Duke of Burgundy was the hereditary Grand Master until the Order, together with their dominions, passed from the Dukes of Burgundy to Austria. In 1700 the German Emperor, Charles VI, by virtue of his possession of the Netherlands, and Philip V, King of Spain, both laid claim to the headship of the Order. The former, however, when unable to maintain his supremacy in Spain, took with him the archives of the Order to Vienna, where he solemnized with great magnificence its inauguration in 1713. Philip V, on the other hand, declared himself Grand Master, and at the Congress of Cambrai, 1721, formally protested against the pretensions of the Emperor. The dispute, though settled subsequently by the intercession of France, England and Holland, was frequently renewed, until the Order was tacitly introduced into both countries by the names respectively of the Spanish or Austrian "Order of the Golden Fleece," according to the country where it is conferred.

1000.—BROILED MUTTON AND TOMATO SAUCE. (Fr.Rechauffé de Mouton—Sauce Tomate.)

Ingredients.—Slices of cooked mutton, salad-oil or melted fat or butter, salt and pepper, ½ a pint of tomato sauce (see "Sauces"), mashed potato.

Method.—Brush the meat over on both sides with oil or melted fat, sprinkle carefully with salt and pepper, and broil quickly over a clear fire. Serve on a border of mashed potato, with the sauce poured round.

Time.—From 10 to 15 minutes. Seasonable at any time.

1001.—BROILED OR GRILLED KIDNEYS. (Fr.Rôgnons de Mouton Grillés.)

Ingredients.—Sheep's kidneys, salt and pepper, salad-oil or oiled butter.

Method.—Split the kidneys lengthwise down to the root, remove the skin, turn each half back, and run a skewer through them to keep them flat. Brush over with salad-oil or oiled butter, and broil quickly over a clear fire, taking care to cook the cut side first. Remove the skewers, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and serve as hot as possible.

Time.—5 to 6 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. each. Sufficient, 1 to each person. Seasonable at any time.

Note.—See "Kidneys Grilled," also recipes for cooking ox-kidney.

1002.—CHAUD-FROID OF MUTTON CUTLETS. (Fr.Côtelettes de Mouton en Chaud-froid.)

Ingredients.—8 or 10 cutlets from the best end of the neck, 6 ozs. of liver farce, No. 398, 6 leaves of French gelatine, ⅓ of a pint of tomato sauce, ⅓ of a pint of Béchamel sauce, dressed salad, salt and pepper.

Method.—Braise the neck as directed in recipe No. 1052; when cold cut it into neat cutlets, trim off the greater part of the fat, season with salt and pepper, and cover one side with a thin layer of the liver farce. Dissolve the gelatine in 2 tablespoonfuls of cold water, and divide it equally between the tomato and Béchamel sauces, which should be warm when the gelatine is added. Let the sauces cool slightly, then coat the covered sides of the cutlets, making one half red and the other white. Let them remain on ice or in a cool place until the sauce is quite set, then arrange them in a circle in alternate colours, place a frill on each cutlet, and serve the dressed salad in the centre.

Time.—1½ hours after the meat is cooked. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for 7 to 8 persons.

Note.—Brown sauce may be substituted for the white, the combination of red and brown being very effective; or a green chaud-froid sauce may be used instead of the tomato sauce (see Sauces).

1003.—CHAUDFROID OF FILLETS OF MUTTON. (Fr.Chaud-Froid de Noisettes de Mouton.)

Ingredients.—The best end of a neck of mutton, 1 oz. of butter, 2 oz. of ham or lean bacon, ½ a glass of sherry, ¼ of a pint of good stock, 1 onion, 1 small carrot, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 3 peppercorns, 1 clove, glaze, dressed salad, 2 whites of eggs, 1 truffle, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove the lean part from the neck of mutton, and cut it into slices about ⅓ of an inch in thickness. Slice the vegetables, cut the ham into small pieces, and place them in a sauté-pan with the butter, sherry, stock, herbs, clove and peppercorns. Season the noisettes on both sides with salt and pepper, lay them on the top of the vegetables, cover with buttered paper, cook slowly on the stove or in the oven for 40 minutes, basting frequently, then press them between 2 dishes until cold. Season the whites of eggs with a little salt and pepper, steam in a buttered dariol mould until firm, then cut into thin slices, which must afterwards be stamped into rounds 1 inch in diameter. Cut the truffle into thin strips about 1 inch in length, and rather less than ⅛ of an inch in thickness. If necessary, trim the noisettes to make them a uniform round shape; brush one side over with meat glaze, place a round of white of egg in the centre of each, and over it 4 or 5 strips of truffle, lattice-work style. Arrange the noisettes in a circle, slightly overlapping each other, fill the centre with the dressed salad, and garnish the base of the dish between the noisettes with tufts of endive, fancifully-cut slices of cucumber, and, if convenient, cubes of aspic jelly.

Time.—3 hours. Average Cost, 3s. 9d. to 4s. Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Note.—For noisettes of mutton to be served hot, see "Noisettes d'Agneau, recipe No. 985.

The Downs.—The well-known substance chalk in its chemical composition is a nearly pure carbonate of lime. When carefully examined under the microscope, it is found to consist of an aggregation of exceedingly minute shells, fragments of corals, sponge-organisms, the work of lime secreting creatures, such as the foraminifera and polyzoa. Chalk-hills form the sub-soil of the hilly districts of the south-east of England. Those known as the South Downs start from the bold promontory of Beachy Head, traverse the county of Sussex from east to west, and pass through Hampshire into Surrey. The North Downs extend from Godalming, by Godstone, into Kent, and terminate in the line of cliffs from Dover to Ramsgate. The Downs are covered in short verdant turf, but the layer of soil which rests on the chalk is too thin to support trees and shrubs. The hills have rounded summits, with smooth undulating outlines. The coombes and furrows which ramify and extend into deep valleys, resemble dried-up channels of streams and rivulets. From time immemorial immense flocks of sheep have been reared on the Downs. The herbage of the hills is remarkably nutritious, and the climate, consequent on the dryness of the air and moderate elevation of the land, is eminently favourable to rearing a superior breed of sheep. The mutton of the South-Down breed of sheep is highly valued for its delicate flavour, and the wool for its fineness.

1004.—FILLET OF MUTTON, TO DRESS. (Fr.Filet de Mouton.)

Ingredients.—A large leg of mutton, veal forcemeat (see "Forcemeats"), gravy or suitable brown sauce.

Method.—This method is specially suited to a small household where cold meat is disliked. Cut off the knuckle part which, braised or boiled, will supply a dinner on a following day. From the other end of the leg cut a roasting piece, thus leaving the fillet 3 or more inches in thickness. Remove the bone, flatten the meat with a cutlet-bat or rolling-pin, season well with salt and pepper, and spread on the forcemeat. Roll up tightly, bind securely with string, and either boil, braise, roast or bake according to the directions given under respective headings. If preferred the fillet may be grilled, or roasted in a Dutch oven, the forcemeat, of course, being omitted. It will be found excellent if lightly fried, and afterwards stewed slowly, and served with tomatoes or mushrooms. (See also "Oxford John," No. 1055, and "Mutton Pudding.")

1005.—FRENCH HASH. (Fr.Mirliton de Mouton.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of Patna rice, 3 ozs. of preserved cherries, 4 ozs. of prunes, 2 lb. of cold shoulder or leg of mutton, paprika pepper and salt, ¾ of a pint of Espagnole sauce, No. 244.

Mode.—Boil the rice in a large saucepan with plenty of seasoned water until tender, when drain and dry well. Cut the meat into neat pieces, and put it into the sauce, which must be first made hot. Allow it to simmer very gently for an hour, then add the prunes, previously stewed and stoned, also the cherries and rice. Season carefully with paprika pepper and salt.

Time.—1½ hours. Average Cost, about 2s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1006.—FRIED KIDNEY. (Fr.Rôgnons Frits.)

Ingredients.—Sheep's kidneys, butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the kidneys open lengthwise, but without quite dividing them, and remove the skins. Run a skewer through them to keep them flat, place the kidneys, cut side down, in a frying-pan containing a little hot butter, and fry quickly on both sides. Season with salt and pepper, pour a little hot gravy round them and serve as hot as possible.

Time.—5 or 6 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. each. Sufficient, 1 for each person. Seasonable at any time.

1007.—GRILLED MUTTON WITH TOMATO SAUCE. (Fr.Tranches de Mouton Grillées, Sauce Tomate.)

Ingredients.—Two slices of mutton, about an inch in thickness, cut from the middle of the leg, ⅓ of a pint of tomato sauce. For the marinade: 2 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil or oiled butter, 1 dessertspoonful of vinegar, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ¼ of a teaspoonful of finely-chopped shallot or onion, a pinch of powdered mixed herbs, 1 saltspoonful of salt, ½ a saltspoonful of pepper, potato garnish.

Method.—Put the slice of meat on to a dish, pour over it the marinade, and let it remain for 2 hours, turning and basting occasionally. When ready to cook, drain, dry well, brush over with salad-oil or warm butter, and grill over a clear fire for about 15 minutes. Have ready the tomato sauce and some crisply fried straws, ribbons, or chips of potato, place the meat on a hot dish, arrange the potatoes round the base, and serve the sauce in a sauce-boat. The dish may be varied by serving with it mushroom sauce and baked tomatoes, or baked or stewed mushrooms and brown sauce.

Time.—To grill the meat, about 15 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. per lb. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

1008.—HARICOT MUTTON. (Fr.Ragoût de Mouton.)

Ingredients.—2 lb. of neck of mutton (or scrag end), 2 ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1½ pints of stock or water, 1 large onion or 12 button onions, 2 carrots, 1 turnip, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and pepper.

Method.—Divide the meat into thin cutlets, and trim off the skin and greater part of the fat. When a large onion is used cut it into dice; scoop the carrots and turnip into small rounds, about the size of a Spanish nut, or shape them like small olives. Melt the butter in a stewpan, fry the meat until well browned on both sides, then take it out. Fry the carrot and turnip until they acquire a good colour, then drain them from the butter. Now fry the onion dice or button onions, and when slightly browned add to them the flour, which must be cooked and stirred until it becomes nut-brown. Have ready the hot stock, pour it into the stewpan, stir until it boils, put in the carrot and turnip, then add the bouquet-garni and salt and pepper to taste, replace the meat, and stew gently for 1½ to 1¾ hours. Arrange the meat neatly in the centre of a hot dish, strain the sauce over, and garnish with the onions, carrot, and turnip.

Time.—To cook, about 2 hours. Average Cost, 2s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Note.—When a more simple dish is required, fat may be substituted for the butter, and the turnip and carrot cut into dice.

The Golden Fleece.—The beautiful classic legend of the Golden Fleece may be briefly told as follows: Phrixus, a son of Athamus, King of Thebes, to escape from the persecutions of Ino, his stepmother, paid a visit to the court of his friend Æetes, King of Colchis. A ram, whose fleece was pure gold, carried the youth through the air. On his safe arrival at Colchis, Phrixus offered the ram on the Altar of Ares, but kept the golden fleece. Æetes received the youth with great kindness and gave him his daughter Chalciope in marriage; but some time after, he murdered Phrixus to obtain posession of the coveted fleece. To avenge the murder of Phrixus and recover the fleece, which was said to be a sleepless dragon, Jason, commissioned by his uncle Pelias of Iolcus, commanded Argus, the son of Phrixus, to build a ship of fifty oars, which he manned with fifty of the most celebrated heroes in Greece, including Hercules, Castor and Pollux, Theseus, and Orpheus. The Argonauts, after various adventures, reached Colchis, and King Æetes promised Jason the Golden Fleece on the condition that he should yoke to a plough two fine-breathing, brazen-hoofed oxen, and sow the dragon's teeth which Cadmus had left at Thebes. By the aid of Medea, the sorceress, and daughter of the King, who had fallen deeply in love with Jason, the fleece was secured, and brought to Iolcus. Various interpretations have been given to the legend, which probably refers to a voyage of discovery to the coasts of the Euxine by adventurers inspired by the desire to find new fields of commercial enterprise.

1009.—HOT POT (LANCASHIRE).

Ingredients.—2 lb. of the best end of the neck, 3 sheep's kidneys, 12 sauce oysters, 2 lb. of potatoes, 1 Spanish onion, salt and pepper, ½ a pint of gravy, 1 oz. of butter, stock.

Method.—Divide the meat into neat cutlets, trim off the skin and greater part of the fat. Put the short rib bones, the lean trimming of the meat, the beards of the oysters, and a small onion into a stewpan, cover these with cold water, and boil them down for gravy. Grease a fireproof baking-dish, put in a deep layer of sliced potato, on the top of them arrange the cutlets to slightly overlap each other, and on each place 1 or 2 slices of kidney, and an oyster. Season well, put in the remainder of the potatoes, but let the top layer consist of small potatoes cut in halves and uniformly arranged to improve the appearance of the dish. Pour down the side of the dish ½ a pint of hot stock, or hot water, seasoned with salt and pepper. Brush the upper layer of potatoes over with warm butter, cover with a buttered paper, and bake for 2 hours in a moderate oven. The paper must be removed during the latter part of the time to allow the potatoes to become crisp and brown. When ready to serve, pour in a little gravy, and send the rest to table in a tureen. The hot pot must be served in the dish in which it is baked.

Time.—About 2 hours. Average Cost, 4s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Note.—For a more economical dish, see "Hot Pot," made of beef.

1010.—HUNTER'S MUTTON. (Fr.Mouton à la Chasseur.)

Ingredients.—A boned leg of mutton, 8 ozs. of common salt, 4 ozs. of bay-salt, 1½ ozs. of moist sugar, 1 oz. of saltpetre, 1 teaspoonful of ground allspice, ½ a teaspoonful of ground cloves, ½ a nutmeg grated, slices of bacon.

Method.—Mix the salting ingredients well together, and rub the mixture over the entire surface of the meat, the skin being previously closely scored, to allow the flavour to penetrate. Turn and rub the meat daily for a fortnight, then rinse in warm water, and bind it into a good shape. Place in a deep baking-dish or tin with about ½ a pint of water, cover first with slices of bacon, and afterwards with several folds of well-greased paper, which must be secured round the edge of the dish or tin to keep in the steam. Cook as gently as possible for 4 hours, press until cold, then glaze, and use as required.

Time.—To pickle, 14 days. To cook, 4 hours. Average Cost, 1s. per lb.

1011.—IRISH STEW. (Fr.Ragoût à l'Irlandaise.)

Ingredients.—3 lb. of neck of mutton, 4 lb. of potatoes, 1 large onion, 12 button onions, 1½ pints of stock or water, salt and pepper, a little finely-chopped parsley.

Method.—Cut the meat into pieces convenient for serving, and trim off some of the fat. Wash, peel, and slice the potatoes and the large onion, peel the button onions and blanch them. Put a layer of potatoes at the bottom of a stewpan, cover these with a layer of meat, add a slice or two of onion, and season well with salt and pepper. Repeat until all the materials are used; the top layer must consist of potato, and the button onions should be interspersed. Add the stock or water, and when it comes to the boil skim well, but unless the meat be very fat very little subsequent skimming is needed, as the potatoes absorb the greater part melted out of the meat. The stewpan must be kept covered, and the contents cooked gently for about 1½ hours, or until the potatoes are thoroughly cooked and the stew loses its watery appearance. If liked, a teaspoonful of mushroom or walnut ketchup may be added before serving. Pile in the centre of a hot dish, sprinkle on a little chopped parsley, and serve.

Time.—From 2 to 3 hours. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 2s. 9d. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

1012.—KIDNEYS, GRILLED. (Fr.Rôgnons Grillés.)

Ingredients.—Kidneys, croûtons of fried bread or buttered toast, salad-oil or oiled butter, Maître d'hôtel butter, see recipe No. 551.

Method.—Cover the kidneys with boiling water, and let them remain in it for 2 minutes. Drain, dry, remove the skin, split in two lengthwise, but without detaching the halves. Pass a steel skewer through them, to keep them open, brush over with salad-oil or oiled butter, season with salt and pepper, and grill them over a clear fire, cooking the cut side first. Time required for cooking depends upon the size of the kidney and individual taste; 5 minutes will be found sufficient for a small kidney, and 8 minutes for a large one; kidneys are almost uneatable when overcooked. Have the croûtons ready and as hot as possible, place a kidney on each with a small pat of maître d'hôtel butter in the centre of each kidney. Serve at once.

Time.—To grill, from 5 to 8 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. to 4d. each. Sufficient, 1 to each person.

1013.—KIDNEYS, SAUTED. (Fr.Rôgnons Sautés.)

Ingredients.—3 sheep's kidneys, 1 oz. of butter, ¼ of a pint of brown sauce, 1 tablespoonful of sherry, 1 shallot finely-chopped, salt and pepper.

Method.—Immerse the kidneys in boiling water for 2 minutes, drain, dry, remove the skins and cores, and cut them into ¼ inch slices. Heat the butter in a sauté-pan, fry the shallot slightly, put in the kidney, and shake or toss over the fire for 3 or 4 minutes. Drain off a little of the butter, add the brown sauce, sherry, salt and pepper, stir by the side of the fire until thoroughly hot, but do not let the mixture boil. Serve as hot as possible.

Time.—About 5 or 6 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. or 4d. each. Sufficient, 1 kidney to each person.

Note.—For other methods of cooking kidneys, see recipes for dressing veal and beef kidney.

1014.—KIDNEY, RAMAKINS OF. (Fr.Rôgnons Sautés en Caisses.)

Ingredients.—4 sheep's kidneys, 8 croûtons of fried bread, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1 level dessertspoonful of flour, ¼ of a pint of good stock or gravy, ½ a glass of sherry or Madeira, 1 finely-chopped shallot, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, salt and pepper.

Method.—Soak the kidneys for 2 minutes in boiling water, dry, remove the skins and cores, and slice them as thinly as possible. Heat the butter in a sauté-pan, fry the shallot until lightly browned, add the sliced kidneys, toss them over the fire for 3 or 4 minutes, then draw them to the side of the pan farthest away from the fire, and sprinkle the flour on the bottom of the pan on the side nearest the fire. Brown the flour quickly, then add the wine and stock, stir until boiling, season to taste, and draw the pan aside for 4 or 5 minutes, but do not let the contents boil or the kidneys will harden. The croûtons of fried bread must fit easily inside the ramakin cases, which should be heated in the oven before being used. Have the cases ready, with the hot croûtons in them, fill each case with kidney and sauce, sprinkle on a little parsley, and serve as hot as possible.

Time.—About 10 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. to 4d. each. Sufficient 1 to each person.

1015.—KIDNEY TOAST. (Fr.Rôgnons sur Croûtes.)

Ingredients.—2 sheep's kidneys, or ½ a lb. of bullock's kidney, 1 oz. of butter, ½ a teaspoonful of lemon-juice, cayenne, pepper, salt, 2 slices of hot buttered toast.

Method.—Stew the kidneys in a little stock or water until tender, remove the skin and gristle, and pound them in a mortar until quite smooth. Add the butter, lemon-juice, a good pinch of cayenne, and salt and pepper to taste, and pass the mixture through a wire sieve. Spread lightly on the prepared toast, make thoroughly hot in the oven, then serve.

Time.—From 1½ to 2 hours. Average Cost, 9d. to 11d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

1016.—KNUCKLE OF MUTTON, TO BOIL.

Ingredients.—1 knuckle of mutton (see "Fillet of Mutton, to Dress"), 1 onion, 1 carrot, ¼ of a turnip, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 8 peppercorns, salt.

Method.—Prepare and slice the vegetables. Place the knuckle in a stewpan just large enough to hold it, and containing sufficient boiling stock or water to barely cover the meat. Add the vegetables, herbs, peppercorns and a little salt, and simmer very gently for about 1½ hours (see "Boiled Mutton," also "Notes on Boiling," p. 429). If liked, the stock in which the mutton has cooked may be converted into onion sauce (see "Sauces").

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 10d. per lb.

1017.—LEG OF MUTTON, WITH OYSTERS. (Fr.Gigot de Mouton aux Huîtres.)

Ingredients.—A well-hung boned leg of mutton, 12 sauce oysters, 1 tablespoonful of breadcrumbs, 2 hard-boiled yolks of eggs, 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, 1 shallot finely-chopped, salt and pepper, oyster sauce (see No. 310 "Sauces").

Method.—Blanch the oysters in their own liquor, which afterwards strain. Chop the oysters coarsely, add to them the breadcrumbs, yolks of eggs, parsley, shallot, and a little salt and pepper, and moisten slightly with oyster liquor. Press the forcemeat lightly into the cavity from which the bone was removed, carefully secure any opening there may be, and bind with strong string. Boil gently in stock, or water flavoured with vegetables and herb's, from 2½ to 3 hours, according to size, and serve with oyster sauce.

Time.—To boil, 2½ to 3 hours. Average Cost, 10d. per lb.; oysters, 1s. to 1s. 6d. per dozen. Sufficient for 12 or more persons, according to size. Seasonable from September to April.

1018.—LIVER AND BACON.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of liver, ½ a lb. of bacon, flour, salt and pepper.

Method.—Put the liver into a basin, cover with boiling water, let it remain for 10 minutes, then drain, dry well, and cut into ½ inch slices. Season 1 tablespoonful of flour with 1 teaspoonful of salt, and ½ the quantity of pepper, and dip each slice of liver in the mixture. Heat the frying-pan, cut the bacon into thin slices, fry them, remove to a hot dish or tin, and keep hot until required. Fry the liver in the fat from the bacon, but quickly, in order that it may be well-browned on both sides without over-cooking. Transfer to a hot dish, sprinkle in about a dessertspoonful of flour, let it brown, then add about ⅓ of a pint of water, stir until it boils, and strain over the liver. Arrange the bacon neatly on the top, and serve as hot as possible.

Time.—To fry the liver, 5 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to 8d. per lb. Sufficient for 3 persons.

Note.—See recipe for cooking calves' and ox liver.

1019.—LOIN OF MUTTON, BONED AND STUFFED. (Fr.Longe de Mouton, farcie Rôtie.)

Ingredients.—A loin of mutton, 3 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 2 tablespoonfuls of chopped suet, 2 tablespoonfuls of chopped ham or bacon, 1 teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, 2 teaspoonfuls of chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoonful of grated lemon-rind, 1 egg, milk, nutmeg, salt and pepper, gravy or sauce.

Method.—Bone the meat, trim away any superfluous fat, and flatten with a cutlet-bat or rolling-pin. Mix all the dry ingredients well together, add a good seasoning of salt and pepper, stir in the egg and as much milk as is necessary to moisten the whole. Spread the forcemeat on the inner surface of the meat, roll up tightly, and secure with tape. Bake the meat in a moderately hot oven for 2 or 2½ hours, according to size basting frequently with hot fat, or, if preferred, the meat may be either braised or stewed according to directions given under the respective headings. Serve with good gravy, brown sauce, or any other sauce preferred.

Time.—To bake, from 2 to 2½ hours. Average Cost, 1s. per lb. Sufficient for 6 or more persons, according to weight. Seasonable at any time.

1020.—LOIN OF MUTTON, DAUBE STYLE. (Fr.Longe de Mouton à la Daube.)

Ingredients.—A loin of mutton boned, 3 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 2 tablespoonfuls of chopped suet, 1 tablespoonful of finely-chopped ham or bacon, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ¼ of a teaspoonful of finely-grated lemon-rind, 1 egg, milk, nutmeg, salt and pepper, stock, tomato, brown or other suitable sauce, slices of bacon glaze.

Method.—Place the bones, removed from the meat, at the bottom of a stewpan, and cover with stock, or, failing stock, use water and the usual flavouring vegetables (see recipes for braising mutton). Mix the breadcrumbs, suet, ham, parsley, lemon-rind and a seasoning of salt well together, add a good pinch of nutmeg, and stir in the egg and as much milk as will slightly moisten the whole. Stuff the loin with the preparation, secure the openings, and fold in several thicknesses of greased paper. Place the meat in the stewpan, cover with slices of bacon, put on a close-fitting lid, and cook very slowly for 4 or 5 hours, according to size, adding more stock from time to time. Remove the paper, brush over with glaze, let the meat remain in a hot oven for 10 or 15 minutes, then serve with the prepared sauce.

Time.—Altogether, from 4½ to 5½ hours. Average Cost, 1s. per lb. Sufficient for 6 or more persons, according to weight. Seasonable at any time.

1021.—MEAT AND POTATO PIE.

Ingredients.—2 lb. of cold lean mutton, 2 lb. of potatoes, 2 onions, ¾ of a pint of gravy (made from the bones and trimmings of the meat), salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the meat into small thin slices, parboil and slice the potatoes and onions. Line the bottom of a pie-dish with potato, cover with a layer of meat and a few slices of onion, and season liberally with salt and pepper. Repeat until the materials are used, the top layer consisting of potato. Pour in the gravy, cover with a greased paper, and bake about 1 hour in a moderate oven. A ¼ of an hour before serving, remove the paper to allow the potatoes to brown.

Time.—To prepare and cook, about 1½ hours. Average Cost, 3d., exclusive of the meat. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1022.—MUTTON, CASSEROLE OF, ENGLISH STYLE. (Fr.Casserole de Mouton à l'Anglaise.)

Ingredients.—Neck or loin of mutton, good gravy, suet paste, (see pastes), salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the meat into small chops or cutlets, remove the bones, and trim away nearly all the fat. Place the meat in a casserole it will about ½ fill, cover with good gravy, and season to taste. Put on the lid, and cook gently for about 1 hour, either on the stove or in a moderately cool oven. Meanwhile, make the paste as directed, and roll it into a round or oval form of smaller dimensions than the casserole. Lay the paste on the top of the meat, replace the lid, and cook gently for 1½ hours longer. Divide the paste into sections before serving.

Time.—2½ hours. Average Cost,' 9d. to 1s. per lb.

1023.—MUTTON CHOPS, BROILED OR GRILLED.

Ingredients.—Loin of mutton, salad-oil or oiled butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Divide the loin into chops, trim away any superfluous fat, curl the end round, and fasten securely with a small skewer. Brush over with salad-oil or butter, broil over or in front of a clear fire, turning 3 or 4 times, then season with salt and pepper, and serve.

Time.—To broil, 7 to 10 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. per lb.

1024.—MUTTON COLLOPS.

Ingredients.—6–8 slices of cooked mutton, 2 shallots or 1 small onion finely-chopped, ½ a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, ½ a saltspoonful of mace, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, butter or fat for frying, ½ pint of gravy or stock, lemon-juice or vinegar, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the meat into round pieces about 2½ inches in diameter. Mix together the shallot, herbs, mace, and a little pepper and salt, and spread this mixture on one side of the meat. Let it remain for 1 hour, then fry quickly in hot butter or fat, taking care to cook the side covered with the mixture first. Remove and keep hot, sprinkle the flour on the bottom of the pan, which should contain no more fat than the flour will absorb, let it brown, then add the gravy or stock. Season to taste, boil gently for about 15 minutes, add a little lemon-juice or vinegar to flavour, and pour the sauce round the meat.

Time.—Altogether, 1¼ hours. Average Cost, about 1s. 8d. Sufficient, 1 lb for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1025.—MUTTON, CURRY OF. (Fr.Kari de Mouton.)

Ingredients.—1 lb. of cooked mutton, ½ a pint of curry sauce (see No. 241), boiled rice.

Method.—Remove all skin and fat from the meat and cut it into small thin slices. Make the sauce as directed, let the meat remain in it for at least ½ an hour, then serve with well-boiled rice.

Time.—To re-heat the meat, ½ an hour. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable at all times.

Note.See "Veal, Curry of," "Chicken, Curry of," also "Indian Cookery."

1026.—MUTTON CUTLETS, TO PREPARE.

The best end of a neck of mutton must be selected for this purpose. Saw off the chine bone and the ends of the rib bones, leaving the part to be divided into cutlets about 4 inches long, but this must be determined by the size of the fillet or lean portion of the meat. The end of each bone must be scraped quite bare to the depth of about ¾ of an inch. A more even surface and a better shape may be obtained by beating them slightly with a wetted cutlet-bat or chopping-knife. When the mutton is large, 1 cutlet may be cut with a bone and 1 cutlet between each of the bones: when the cutlet frills are attached the appearance of the boneless cutlets is identical with the rest. Nearly all the fat must be trimmed off, and should be clarified and used for frying or making plain pastry and cakes, while the lean parts may be boiled down for gravy or sauce to be served with the cutlets, or when not required for this purpose they may be put into the stock pot.

Shepherds and their Flocks.—From the sheikh downwards, every one in a nomadic state of society is more or less a shepherd. The ancestors of the Israelites in the patriarchal age tended sheep, and until after the Egyptian Captivity, when the shepherd held a subordinate position, the occupation of tending flocks was undertaken not only by the sons, but also by the daughters of wealthy chiefs. Among the earlier Eastern nations sheep constituted an important part of their possessions. The first mention of sheep occurs (Gen. iv. 2) in connexion with Abel, who is mentioned as a "keeper of sheep." Both the adult and the lamb were used in sacrificial offerings. Many passages in the Bible indicate the magnitude of the pastoral riches of the Eastern people, for instance, the giving of a hundred sheep by Jacob to the children of Hamor as the price of a field, and the yearly tribute which the King of Israel received from the King of Moab, comprising a hundred thousand sheep, and a similar number of rams with their fleeces. The tendency of sheep to ramble necessitates the care of a shepherd, and it is no easy task to keep a flock within bounds; but the watchful shepherd, aided by his cleverly trained and intelligent dogs, manages to accomplish it without harassing the sheep. In the Highlands of Scotland, where the herbage is scanty, sheep farms are of wide extent, necessitating the services of numerous shepherds.

1027.—MUTTON CUTLETS, BRAISED. (Fr.Côtelettes de Mouton Braisées.)

Ingredients.—7 or 8 cutlets from the best end of the neck, larding bacon, 1½ ozs. of butter, ½ a pint of stock, 1 onion, 1 carrot, 1 or 2 strips of celery, ½ a small turnip, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), glaze, salt and pepper, ⅓ of a pint of tomato or demi-glace sauce (see Sauces), peas, spinach, or other vegetable garnish.

Method.—Trim and flatten the cutlets into a good shape, and insert 5 or 6 fine lardoons, or pieces of fat bacon used for larding, in the lean part of each one. Slice the vegetables, put them into a stewpan with the butter and bouquet-garni, lay the cutlets on the top, put on the lid, and cook gently for 20 minutes. Have the stock boiling, pour into the stewpan as much of it as will ¾ cover the vegetables, and add the remainder of the stock as that in the pan reduces. Cover the cutlets with a buttered paper, put on the lid, and cook gently for about 50 minutes on the stove or in the oven. When done, brush over one side with meat-glaze, and put them into a hot oven for a few minutes to crisp the bacon. Arrange them in a close circle on a border of potato, serve the prepared vegetables in the centre, and pour round the sauce.

Time.—To cook the cutlets, about 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 1s. per lb. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Various Qualities of Mutton.—Mutton is the meat most generally consumed in families, and in the estimation of medical men and connoisseurs, it takes the first place for its digestibility, its fine flavour, and its wholesomeness. The mutton of the South Down sheep is the most highly esteemed, and it is also the most expensive. The London and other markets are largely supplied by sheep, called half-breeds, which are a cross between the South Down and the Lincoln or Leicester breeds. Sheep of this description yield mutton of greater weight than that of the true South Downs, and for this reason they are preferred by the great sheep masters. The legs of this mutton range from 8 lb. to 13 lb. in weight; the shoulders, neck, or loins 10 lb. to 13 lb.; and if care be taken not to purchase it too fat, it will be found to be the most satisfactory and economical mutton that can be bought. Welsh mutton, although small in size, is of excellent flavour, and large quantities of New Zealand and Australian mutton are now supplied to the London market. The finer qualities are but little inferior to those of home production. The New Zealand mutton, commonly known as "Cantebury," takes the prior place, and is sold at an average rate of 1½d. per lb. more than the Australian.

1028.—MUTTON CUTLETS, GRILLED. (Fr.Côtelettes de Mouton Grillés.)

Ingredients.—7 or 8 cutlets cut from the best end of the neck, 7 or 8 very small tomatoes stuffed with mushrooms (see Vegetables), ¼ of a pint of demi-glace sauce (see Sauces), 1½ ozs. of butter, breadcrumbs.

Method.—Trim and flatten the cutlets into a good shape. Prepare the tomatoes as directed, and bake them until tender in a moderate oven. Warm the butter, dip in the cutlets, taking care that the sides are well coated, cover lightly with breadcrumbs, and press them firmly on with a knife. Grill them over or in front of a clear fire, turning them carefully 2 or 3 times, in order that both sides may be equally cooked and browned. Arrange neatly on a border of potato, serve the tomatoes piled in the centre, and pour the sauce round.

Time.—From 8 to 10 minutes, to cook the cutlets. Average Cost, 1s. per lb. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1029.—MUTTON CUTLETS, ITALIAN STYLE. (Fr.Côtelettes de Mouton à l'Italienne.)

Ingredients.—8 or 9 cutlets, 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped mixed herbs, 1 egg, 3 or 4 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 1 tablespoonful of finely-chopped mushrooms, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped shallots, ¼ of a teaspoonful of finely-grated lemon-rind, a pinch of mace, clarified butter, salt and pepper, ½ a pint of Italian sauce (see "Sauces").

Method.—Mix the salad-oil, lemon-juice, herbs, and a little salt and pepper together, pour the mixture over the cutlets, and let them remain for 1 hour, turning 2 or 3 times. Mix together the breadcrumbs, mushrooms, parsley, shallots, lemon-rind and mace, and season to taste with salt and pepper. Drain the cutlets, brush them over with egg, and coat carefully with the above mixture. Fry in hot butter until nicely browned on both sides, and serve with Italian sauce.

Time.—To fry, 5 or 6 minutes. Average Cost, 4s. to 4s. 3d. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1030.—MUTTON CUTLETS, MAINTENON STYLE. (Fr.Côtelettes de Mouton à la Maintenon.)

Ingredients.—8 or 9 thick mutton cutlets, ½ a pint of Espagnole sauce (see "Sauces"), gravy or good stock, 4 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped fresh mushrooms, 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped shallot, 1 tablespoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 1 oz. of butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Trim the cutlets (see "Mutton Cutlets, to Prepare"), insert a sharp knife, and split the meat nearly down to the bone. Heat the butter in a sauté-pan, fry the shallot until lightly-browned, then add the mushroom and parsley. Season to taste, add a very little gravy or stock if too dry, and toss over the fire for a few minutes. Fill the openings made in the cutlets with the preparation, and press the edges firmly together. Grill over a clear fire, or, if preferred, fry in a little butter until nicely browned, and arrange them neatly on a silver or fireproof dish. Coat them lightly with sauce, sprinkle on the remainder of the mushroom preparation, and cook in a hot oven for 5 or 6 minutes. Serve the remainder of the sauce in a tureen.

Time.—To grill or fry, 6 or 7 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. per lb. Sufficient for 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1031.—MUTTON CUTLETS, PORTUGUESE STYLE. (Fr.Côtelettes de Mouton à la Portugaise.)

Ingredients.—8 or 9 cutlets, 4 tomatoes sliced, 2 shallots or 1 onion sliced, 1 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of cornflour, ¼ of a pint of stock or water, vinegar, castor sugar, salt and pepper.

Method.—Trim the cutlets (see "Mutton Cutlets, to Prepare," No. 1026). Heat the butter in a sauté or frying-pan, fry the onion brown, add the tomatoes, cook gently for ½ an hour, then pass through a fine sieve. Replace in the sauté-pan, add the cornflour and stock previously mixed smoothly together, stir until boiling, and season to taste. Stir and boil gently for 2 or 3 minutes, then add 2 or 3 teaspoonfuls of vinegar and a good pinch of sugar, cover and keep hot until required. Grill the cutlets over a clear fire, or, if more convenient, fry quickly in a little hot butter or fat. Serve arranged in a close circle on a hot dish with the sauce poured round.

Time.—To grill or fry the cutlets, 7 or 8 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. per lb. Sufficient for 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1032.—MUTTON CUTLETS, REFORM STYLE. (Fr.Côtelettes de Mouton à la Réforme.)

Ingredients.—7 or 8 mutton cutlets, 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 1 tablespoonful of finely-chopped ham, salt and pepper, 1 egg. For the garnish: 1 tablespoonful of shredded cooked ham, 1 tablespoonful of shredded gherkin, 1 tablespoonful of shredded champignons, 1 tablespoonful of shredded white of egg, 1 tablespoonful of shredded truffle, ½ an oz. of butter, stock, ½ a pint of Espagnole or brown sauce (see "Sauces"). frying fat.

Method.—Mix the breadcrumbs and chopped ham together, and season rather highly with salt and pepper. Flatten the cutlets slightly, trim them to a good shape, and coat them first with beaten egg, and afterwards with the breadcrumbs, etc. Melt the butter, add all the shredded ingredients and a little pepper, moisten with stock, and make thoroughly hot. Fry the cutlets quickly in hot butter or fat until nicely browned, and drain free from fat. Arrange them on a hot dish in a close circle with the garnish in the centre, and the sauce poured round, or, if preferred, in a close row with the sauce poured round, and the garnish arranged lightly on one side.

Time.—To fry, 6 or 7 minutes. Average Cost, about 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1033.—MUTTON CUTLETS WITH GREEN PEAS. (Fr.Côtelettes de Mouton aux Petits Pois.)

Ingredients.—7 or 8 cutlets cut from the best end of a neck of mutton, 1 pint of shelled peas, ⅓ of a pint of Espagnole sauce, 3 ozs. of butter, 1 egg, breadcrumbs, salt and pepper.

Method.—Trim the cutlets, and flatten them with a wetted cutlet-bat or heavy chopping-knife. Beat the egg, add to it ½ an oz. of warm butter and a liberal seasoning of salt and pepper; dip the cutlets in the preparation, and coat them carefully with breadcrumbs. Boil the peas, drain them well, and just before serving put them into a stewpan with 1 oz. of butter and a little salt and pepper, and toss over the fire until well mixed with the butter. Heat the remaining 1½ ozs. of butter in a sauté-pan and fry the cutlets quickly until lightly browned on both sides, then drain well. Arrange them overlapping each other on a thin potato border, serve the peas in the centre, and pour the hot Espagnole sauce round.

Time.—To cook the cutlets, from 7 to 10 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. per lb. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1034.—MUTTON CUTLETS WITH SOUBISE SAUCE. (Fr.Côtelettes de Mouton à la Soubise.)

Ingredients.—7 or 8 cutlets cut from the best end of the neck, ½ a pint of Soubise sauce, ¼ of a pint of demi-glace or brown sauce (see Sauces), salt and pepper, salad-oil, or butter.

Method.—Trim and flatten the cutlets into a good shape, brush them over with oiled butter or salad-oil, and grill over or in front of a clear fire for 8 or 10 minutes. The cutlets should be turned 2 or 3 times, and before serving sprinkle both sides with a little salt and pepper. Arrange them in a close circle on a border of mashed potato, serve the Soubise sauce in the centre, and pour the other sauce round.

Time.—8 to 10 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. per lb. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1035.—MUTTON CUTLETS, VENETIAN STYLE. (Fr.Côtelettes de Mouton à la Venetienne.)

Ingredients.—7 or 8 mutton cutlets, 4 ozs. of quenelle meat, No. 413, 3 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped ham, 1 hard-boiled white of egg, finely-chopped, 1 small truffle, finely-chopped, 2 ozs. of butter ½ a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces). For the garnish: 1 tablespoonful each of hard-boiled white of egg, gherkin and cold boiled ham cut into very fine strips about 1¼ inches in length, salt and pepper.

Method.—Prepare the cutlets, then fry them in 2 ozs. of hot butter, drain and press lightly until cool. Cover one side of each cutlet with a layer of quenelle meat, which in its turn must be covered with a thin layer of chopped ham. Sprinkle half the cutlets with chopped truffle, the remainder with white of egg, and place them in a sauté-pan. Pour some of the brown sauce round, cover with a buttered paper and cook on the stove or in the oven for about ½ an hour. Heat the garnish in a bain-marie or over a saucepan of boiling water. Remove the cutlets, add the remainder of the sauce, and boil up. Arrange the cutlets in a close circle on a potato border, serve the garnish in the centre, and pour the sauce round

Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, 4s. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1036.—MUTTON, DEVILLED. (Fr.Mouton à la Diable.)

Ingredients.—8–9 slices of cold roast mutton, oiled butter, browned breadcrumbs, lemon-juice, salt and pepper, cayenne, watercress.

Method.—Season the meat with salt, pepper and cayenne, sprinkle with lemon-juice, and put aside for ½ an hour. When ready, dip it into oiled butter, coat lightly with browned breadcrumbs, and bake in a moderately hot oven for a few minutes. Arrange in a close circle on a hot dish, fill the centre with watercress seasoned with salt, pepper and lemon-juice, and serve.

Time.—To bake, about 10 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 8d. to 1s 10d. Sufficient for a dish.

1037.—MUTTON DORMERS.

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of underdone mutton finely-chopped, 4 ozs. of cooked rice (see "Rice for Curries"), 3 ozs. of finely-chopped suet, 1 shallot or small onion finely-chopped, salt and pepper, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat, gravy made from the bones and trimmings.

Method.—Cook and dry the rice as directed, add to it the meat, suet, shallot, and a good seasoning of salt and pepper, mix the ingredients well together, and form them into cork-shaped pieces. Coat with egg and breadcrumbs, fry in hot fat until nicely browned, and drain well. Serve garnished with crisply-fried parsley, and send the gravy to table in a tureen.

Time.—To fry, 5 or 6 minutes. Average Cost, 5d., in addition to the meat. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1038.—MUTTON, FRITTERS OF. (Fr.Beignets de Mouton.)

Ingredients.—Frying-batter (see "Apple Fritters"). For the meat mixture: ½ a lb. of finely-chopped cooked mutton, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ¼ of a teaspoonful of finely-chopped shallot or onion, ½ an oz. of butter, ¾ of an oz. of flour, ¼ of a pint of strong stock, salt and pepper, frying-fat.

Method.—Make the batter as directed, and put it aside until required. Melt the butter in a stewpan. fry the onion lightly, then stir in first the flour and afterwards the stock, and boil quickly for 3 or 4 minutes, stirring meanwhile. Add salt, pepper, parsley and the meat, turn the preperation on to a plate, and when cool drop pieces about the size of a walnut into the batter. Take them put one at a time in a spoon and fry in hot fat until crisp and lightly browned. Drain well, and serve garnished with crisply-fried parsley.

Time.—To fry, 7 or 8 minutes. Average Cost, 8d., in addition to the meat. Sufficient for 3 persons.

Note.—If preferred, the meat may be cut into thin slices, seasoned with salt and pepper, flavoured with onion or herbs, and, after standing for a time, finished off as directed above.

1039.—MUTTON CUTLETS TALLEYRAND STYLE. (Fr.Côtelettes de Mouton à la Talleyrand.)

Ingredients.—7 or 8 mutton cutlets, 4 oz. of cooked chicken, ¼ of a pint of demi-glace sauce, ½ a gill of white sauce (about), 1 oz. of butter, 1 whole egg, 2 yolks of eggs, 4 preserved mushrooms finely-chopped, 2 shallots finely-chopped, frying-fat, salt and pepper, cayenne, breadcrumbs, vegetable garnish.

Method.—Heat the butter in a sauté-pan; trim the cutlets neatly, fry them for not more than 5 minutes, turning them once, then press between 2 dishes until cool. Chop the meat of the chicken finely, pound it in a mortar until smooth, adding the 2 yolks of eggs and as much of the white sauce as is necessary to moisten the meat, season to taste, and rub through a fine sieve. Re-heat the butter in the sauté-pan, fry the shallots slightly, add to them the mushrooms, cook for 2 or 3 minutes longer, then mix with the meat purée. Mask the cutlets completely with the preparation, brush them lightly over with beaten egg, coat carefully with breadcrumbs, and fry until nicely browned in hot fat. Dish in a close circle on a thin potato border, serve spinach, peas, asparagus points, or whatever may be preferred, in the centre, and pour the hot demi-glace sauce round.

Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, 1s. per lb. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1040.—MUTTON HAM, TO CURE.

Ingredients.—A leg of mutton, 1 lb. of salt, ¼ of a lb. of moist sugar, 1 oz. of saltpetre.

Method.—In cool weather let the meat hang for 2 or 3 days. Pound the ingredients for curing in a mortar, dry them well before the fire, then rub them into the meat, taking care that the parts surrounding the knuckle bone are done thoroughly. Repeat the rubbing every morning for a fortnight, turning the meat each day. At the end of the time dry well, rub the centre surface with common salt, let the meat remain under heavy pressure for 3 or 4 days, and smoke it for at least 10 days before using.

1041.—MUTTON, HASHED. (Fr.Hachis de Mouton.)

Ingredients.—Cold mutton, pickles, brown sauce, breadcrumbs, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the meat into thin slices, and boil the bones and trimmings for stock for the brown sauce. No. 233. Cover the bottom of a greased pie-dish with a layer of breadcrumbs, add 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of brown sauce, and on the top arrange the slices of meat slightly overlapping each other. Sprinkle with chopped gherkins (or other pickle), salt and pepper, and cover lightly with the breadcrumbs and sauce. Repeat the process until the materials are used, making the top layer a rather thick one of breadcrumbs. Cover with a greased paper, and bake very gently for about ½ an hour. Serve in the dish in which it is cooked.

Time.—1 hour. Seasonable at any time.

Note.—The re-heating of cooked meat is more fully dealt with in the chapters on cooking veal, beef and tinned meats. Recipes will there be found for curries, croquettes, rissoles, meat shapes, meat cakes, meat croûtes.

Hashed Mutton.—Many persons have a decided aversion to hashed mutton: a dislike probably due to the fact that they have never been properly served with this dish. If, however, the meat be tender, the gravy well made and abundant, and the sippets nicely toasted, the whole being neatly served, hashed mutton is not a despicable dish, and is much more wholesome and more appetising than the traditional cold shoulder, of which fathers and husbands and their bachelor friends stand in not unnatural awe.

1042.—MUTTON, IN IMITATION OF VENISON. (Fr.Mouton à la Venaison.)

Ingredients.—A neck, loin, or leg of mutton, ¼ of a pint of vinegar, ¼ of a pint of claret or other red wine, 3 bay-leaves, 3 shallots sliced, 1 teaspoonful of pepper, 1 teaspoonful of pounded allspice.

Method.—Let the meat hang at least 3 or 4 days, then rub it over with mixed pepper and allspice, and repeat the rubbing at intervals for 48 hours. Mix together the vinegar, wine, shallots and bay–leaves, baste the meat well with the mixture, and let it remain for 2 days, basting frequently. When ready, wash in warm water, dry thoroughly, and enclose in a flour and water paste. Cook according to directions given for dressing venison, and serve with good gravy and red-currant jelly.

Time.—About 8 days. Average Cost, 10d. to 1s. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

1043.—MUTTON, LEG OF, STEWED. (Fr.Gigot de Mouton braisé.)

Ingredients.—A small leg of mutton boned, stock or water. When using the latter add 2 onions, 1 carrot, ½ a turnip, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 10 peppercorns. For the forcemeat: ¾ of a lb. of mutton trimmings, ¾ of a lb. of raw ham or bacon, 1 Spanish onion finely-chopped, a clove of garlic bruised, salt and pepper. For the sauce: 1½ ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 1 pint of stock, slices of fat bacon.

Method.—Remove any superfluous fat, and from the cavity from which the bone was taken trim off the lean meat needed for the forcemeat. Chop both bacon and mutton finely, add the onion, garlic, and a good seasoning of salt and pepper, moisten with a little stock; and fill the cavity with the mixture. Secure any opening that would allow the forcemeat to escape, and bind the meat into a good shape with strong string. Put the meat into a stewpan containing hot stock, or vegetables and hot water to half cover the meat, lay slices of fat bacon on the top of it, and put on a close-fitting lid. Stew very gently for 4 hours, adding more stock or water when necessary. Half an hour before serving heat the butter in a stewpan, add the flour and stir and cook slowly until well-browned. Remove the string from the meat and keep hot; strain 1 pint of the stock on to the browned flour and butter, stir until boiling, and season to taste. The meat may either be glazed or served with a little of the sauce poured over, and the remainder sent to table in a tureen.

Time.—About 4 hours. Average Cost, 10d. per lb. Sufficient 1 leg for 10 or more persons. Seasonable at any time.

1044.—MUTTON, MINCED. (Fr.Emincé de Mouton.)

Ingredients.—1 lb. of cooked mutton cut into very small dice, 1 small onion finely-chopped, ¾ of a pint of stock made from bones and trimmings, ¾ of an oz. of butter, ½ an oz. of flour, 1 tablespoonful of walnut liquor, mushroom ketchup or some sharp sauce, salt and pepper, cooked macaroni (see "Breast of Lamb, Milanaise Style").

Method.—Melt the butter in a stewpan, fry the onion until lightly browned, add the flour and brown it also. Stir in the stock, add the walnut liquor and seasoning to taste, and simmer gently for 10 minutes. Put in the meat, draw the stewpan aside, where the contents will be kept just below simmering point, and let it remain for at least ½ an hour. Arrange the macaroni in the form of a border, place the mince in the centre, and serve. If preferred, mashed potato or sippets of toasted bread may be substituted for the macaroni.

Time.—From 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost, 6d. or 7d., exclusive of the meat. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1045.—MUTTON, MINCE OF, BAKED.

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of cooked mutton finely-minced, 3 tablespoonfuls of white breadcrumbs, 1 tablespoonful of browned breadcrumbs, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 1 shallot very finely minced, 1 egg, salt and pepper, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, gravy, a little butter or fat.

Method.—Coat a plain mould or round cake-tin rather thickly with butter or fat, and cover it lightly with browned breadcrumbs. Mix the meat, white breadcrumbs, parsley and shallot well together, season rather highly with salt and pepper, and add the egg, mushroom ketchup, and sufficient gravy to slightly moisten the whole. Turn the mixture into the prepared tin, bake gently from 1 to 1¼ hours, then unmould carefully, and serve with good gravy.

Time.—To bake, from 1 to 1¼ hours. Average Cost, about 1s. Sufficient for three persons. Seasonable at any time.

1046.—MUTTON PUDDING. (Fr.Pouding de Mouton.)

Ingredients.—2 lb. of lean mutton (see "Fillet, to Dress"), suet paste, (see Paste section) salt and pepper.

Method.—Follow directions given for "Beef Steak Pudding." A little kidney will be found a great improvement.

Time.—About 4 hours. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1047.—MUTTON, RECHAUFFE OF. (Fr.Réchauffé de Mouton.)

Ingredients.—Slices of cold mutton, 1 onion finely-chopped, a few slices of carrot, a few slices of turnip, ¾ of a pint of stock made from bones and trimmings, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup or some sharp sauce, salt and pepper.

Method.—Simmer the bones, meat trimmings, turnip and carrot in just sufficient water to cover them for at least 1 hour, then strain and season to taste. Heat the butter, fry the onion until lightly browned, add the flour, stir and cook slowly until brown, and put in ¾ of a pint of stock. Stir until boiling, season to taste, add the mushroom ketchup, and boil gently for 10 minutes. Place the slices of meat in the prepared sauce, let the stewpan stand for at least ½ an hour, where the contents will remain just below simmering point, then arrange the meat neatly on a hot dish, and strain the sauce over.

Time.—Altogether, about 2 hours. Average Cost, about 1s 8d. for a dish. Sufficient for 4 persons.

1048.—MUTTON, ROLL OF. (Fr.Roulade de Mouton.)

Ingredients.—3 lb. of lean mutton, 1 lb. of ham or bacon finely-chopped, 4 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-grated lemon-rind, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped shallot or onion, a good pinch of nutmeg, salt and pepper, 1 or 2 eggs, stock, gravy or sauce, fat for basting.

Method.—Chop the meat finely, or pass it 2 or 3 times through a mincing machine. Mix with it all the dry ingredients enumerated above, and season somewhat liberally with salt and pepper. Add 1 large or 2 small eggs, and enough stock to gradually moisten the whole, then form the mixture into a short thick roll. Enclose in 3 or 4 folds of greased paper, bake in a moderate oven for about 2 hours, and baste frequently meanwhile. Half an hour before serving remove the paper, and either dredge the roll lightly with flour, or coat it with egg and breadcrumbs. Serve with good gravy or brown sauce.

Time.—To cook, about 2 hours. Average Cost, 4s. Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Note.—Underdone cold mutton may be utilized in this way, and the ham or bacon may be either raw or cooked. When cold materials are used, the roll should be cooked for about 1 hour.

1049.—MUTTON SAUSAGES. (Fr.Saucisses de Mouton.)

Ingredients.—1 lb. of lean, raw or underdone mutton, 2 ozs. of finely-chopped ham or bacon, 4 ozs. of finely-chopped suet, 4 ozs. of breadcrumbs, 2 ozs. of finely-chopped mushrooms, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped shallot or onion, ½ a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, salt and pepper, 2 eggs, stock, sausage-skins.

Method.—Chop the meat finely, mix with it the rest of the dry ingredients, seasoning liberally with salt and pepper. Stir in the eggs and as much stock as is necessary to slightly moisten the whole. Press the mixture lightly into skins, or, if more convenient, form it into cork-shaped pieces or small cakes. Fry in hot butter or fat.

Time.—To fry, 8 to 10 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 8d. to 1s. 10d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1050.—MUTTON, SCRAG OF, TO COOK.

Ingredients.—The scrag end of a neck, slices of bacon, stock or water, 2 onions sliced, 2 carrots sliced, ½ a turnip sliced, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 10 peppercorns, salt, 1 egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat.

Method.—Wash the extreme end of the neck in salt and warm water, saw the rib bones across, and remove the short ends. Place the vegetables in a stewpan just large enough to hold the meat, lay the meat on the top, cover with slices of bacon, and add the herbs, peppercorns and either stock or water to nearly cover the vegetables. Put on a close-fitting lid, cook very gently for 2½ hours, then coat with egg and breadcrumbs, and bake in a quick oven until nicely browned. Serve with brown sauce, or any sauce of which the stock used in cooking the meat may form the base.

Time.—About 3 hours. Average Cost, 6½d. per lb.

1051.—MUTTON WITH VINAIGRETTE SAUCE. (Fr.Mouton à la Vinaigrette.)

Ingredients.—8–9 slices of cooked mutton, sliced gherkin, capers, salad. For the sauce: 4 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar (preferably tarragon), ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped gherkin, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped shallot or onion, salt and pepper.

Method.—Mix the sauce ingredients together, adding salt and pepper to taste. Arrange the meat neatly on the dish to be sent to table, pour the sauce over, and put aside for at least 1 hour. Garnish with sliced gherkin, capers, and small tufts of salad, and serve the rest of the salad separately.

Time.—About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 1s. 9d. to 2s. Sufficient for 6 persons.

1052.—NECK OF MUTTON, BRAISED, WITH BROWN CAPER SAUCE. (Fr.Carré de Mouton Braisé aux Câpres.)

Ingredients.—The best end of a neck of mutton, 3 ozs. of butter, 2 ozs. of flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of capers, 1 tablespoonful of caper vinegar, 1¼ pints of stock or water, 2 onions, 2 carrots, 1 small turnip, 2 stalks of celery, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 6 peppercorns, 2 cloves, meat glaze, salt and pepper.

Method.—Trim the meat, saw the rib bones across, remove the short bones, and fold the flap under. Slice the vegetables, put them into a stewpan with 1 oz. of butter, the herbs, peppercorns, and cloves, lay the meat on the top, put on the lid of the stewpan, and cook gently for ½ an hour. The vegetables must be occasionally stirred or shaken, and when sufficiently fried, add stock to ¾ cover them, and the remainder as that in the pan reduces. Cover the meat with a buttered paper, and cook gently for about 2 hours. Fry the flour and remaining 2 ozs. of butter together until a brown roux is formed. When the meat is ready, transfer it to a hot dish, brush it over with the stock reduced to glaze, and keep it hot. Strain the liquor on to the brown roux, stir until boiling, season to taste, simmer for five minutes, then add the capers, and serve in a sauce-boat. If preferred, glazing the meat may be omitted, and a little sauce poured over instead.

Time.—To cook, about 2 hours. Average Cost, 1s. per lb. Allow 3 lbs. for 6 or 7 persons.

1053.—NECK OF MUTTON, BROWNED. (Fr.Carré de Mouton rôti au four.)

Ingredients.—Best end of a neck of mutton, stock, 2 ozs. of butter, 2 ozs. of flour, 1 egg, breadcrumbs, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ¼ of a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, pepper and salt, frying-fat.

Method.—Saw the rib bones across, remove the short ends, fold the flap under, and bind securely. Place the meat in a stewpan containing as much boiling stock (or boiling water and usual flavouring vegetables) as will barely cover it, simmer gently for 1 hour, then drain well. Beat the egg, add the parsley, herbs, and a good seasoning of salt and pepper, and coat the meat thickly with the mixture. Cover lightly with breadcrumbs, and bake in a moderately hot oven until well-browned, meanwhile basting frequently with hot fat. Heat the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, stir and cook slowly until well-browned, and add 1 pint of boiling stock from the larger stewpan. Stir until boiling, season to taste, simmer gently until required, and serve separately.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 6d., in addition to the meat, which will cost from 10d. to 1s. per lb. Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Wollen Manufactures.—The woollen industry was the earliest, and, at one period, the most important of English manufactures, until the great development of cotton manufactures at the early part of the nineteenth century. During the Middle Ages English wool was esteemed the best in Europe. Flemish weavers came to England at the time of the Norman Conquest, and later on, in the reign of Edward III, the settlement of a number of Flemish clothworkers gave the first effective impulse to the woollen industry. Many legislative enactments were passed from time to time for the encouragement and protection of this important manufacture, and it was not until 1824 that a law prohibiting the export of wool was repealed. The distinction between wool and hair is rather arbitrary than natural, wool being in reality a modified form of hair, and similar to it in its chemical composition. It is characterized by a greater fineness in its fibre, by its softness and pliability, and also by being more scaly than common hair, which gives it its special felting property. The sheep, the llama, the Angora goat, and the goat of Tibet, are animals from which most of the wool used in manufactures is obtained, the last named furnishing the fine wool from which Cashmire shawls are made. Of European wools, the finest is yielded by the Merino sheep, the Spanish and Saxon breeds taking the preference. The Merino sheep, now naturalized in Australia, from whence large quantities of wool are exported, supplies an excellent fleece; but all varieties of sheep-wool, reared whether in Europe or Australia, are less soft to the touch than that grown in India, or than the wool of the llama of the Andes. The best of our British wools are inferior in fineness of texture to any of the above-mentioned varieties, but for the ordinary purposes of the manufacturer they are unrivalled.

1054.—NECK OF MUTTON, TO ROAST. (Fr.Carré de Mouton Rôti.)

Ingredients.—Best end of the neck of mutton, fat for basting, salt and pepper.

Method.—Saw the rib bones across, remove the short ends, fold the flap under, and fasten securely. Roast in front of a clear fire, or, if more convenient, bake in a moderately hot oven, in either case basting frequently with hot fat (see "Roast Mutton" and "Notes on Roasting," p. 428). Serve with good gravy and, if liked, onion sauce.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 10d. to 1s. per lb. Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1055.—OXFORD JOHN.

Ingredients.—Thin slices off a well-hung leg of mutton, 2 ozs. of butter, ¾ of an oz. of flour, ½ a pint of good gravy or stock, 1 tablespoonful of finely-chopped ham or bacon, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped shallot or onion, ½ a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, salt and pepper, 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice.

Method.—Cut the meat into rounds about 3 inches in diameter, and season well with salt and pepper. Mix the ham, parsley, shallot, herbs, and a little salt and pepper together, spread the mixture on one side of the meat, and pile the pieces one above the other. Let them remain for at least 1 hour, then separate them and fry quickly in hot butter. Remove and keep them hot, sprinkle in the flour, which the butter should completely moisten, otherwise more must be added, brown well, and add the stock. Stir until boiling, season to taste, add the lemon-juice, and replace the meat. Let the stewpan stand for 10 or 15 minutes, where the contents will be kept just below simmering point, then serve.

Time.—Altogether, about 2 hours. Average Cost, 10d. to 1s. per lb. Allow 1 lb. for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1056.—RAGOÛT OF COLD MUTTON.

Ingredients.—The remains of a saddle, loin or neck of mutton, 1 onion shredded, 1 carrot cut into dice, ½ a turnip cut into dice, 2 ozs. of butter or fat, 1 oz. of flour, ¾ of a pint of gravy, stock or water, salt and pepper.

Method.—Divide the meat into cutlets, and trim away some of the fat. Heat the butter or fat in a stewpan, fry the meat quickly on both sides, then take it out, and put in the onion. Fry until lightly browned, sprinkle in the flour, and when well-browned add the stock or water. Boil up, season to taste, add the trimmings of carrot and turnip, and replace the meat. Cover closely, cook very gently for 1 hour, then arrange the cutlets neatly on a hot dish, strain the sauce over, and serve garnished with the vegetable dice, which must have been meanwhile boiled in salted water.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 6d., in addition to the meat and gravy. Allow 1 lb. to 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1057.—ROAST HAUNCH OF MUTTON. (Fr.Hanche de Mouton Rôtie.)

Ingredients.—A haunch of mutton.

Method.—This joint requires great care in roasting, for if cooked too quickly the loin is overdone while the thick part of the leg remains insufficiently cooked. This may be remedied to some extent by enclosing the loin in several thicknesses of well-greased paper, also by hanging the thick part of the leg where it will receive the hottest rays of heat from the fire. Follow directions given for "Roast Mutton," also see "Notes on Roasting," p. 428.

Time.—About 15 minutes per lb. Average Cost, 10d. per lb. Sufficient for 12 or more persons according to size of joint. Seasonable from June to January.

1058.—ROAST MUTTON. (Fr.Mouton rôti.)

When possible, mutton should be roasted before the fire, for this method of cooking imparts a more delicate and better flavour to the meat. Whatever the joint, it should be well basted with hot fat before setting the roasting-jack in motion; and for 10 or 15 minutes it must be placed quite close to a clear, bright fire, in order to quickly form a hard surface layer. (see "Notes on Roasting," p. 428). The meat revolves too quickly for it to become over-browned in a short space of time. During the first few minutes the joint should be almost constantly basted, and afterwards at short intervals. The time required for roasting depends principally upon the condition of the fire and the form or the size of the joint (see pp. 428).

How to buy Meat Economically.—If the housekeeper is not very particular as to the precise joints she wishes to cook for dinner, there is frequently an opportunity for her to save money in her purchases. For instance, the butcher may have an over supply of certain joints, and will, to get rid of these, make a reduction, sometimes to the extent of 1d. or 1½d. per lb. It often happens that in consequence of a demand for legs and loins of mutton butchers have only shoulders left, and these they are glad to dispose of at a reduction, especially in very cold weather.

1059.—SADDLE OF MUTTON, TO ROAST. (Fr.Selle de Mouton Rôtie.)

Ingredients.—Saddle of mutton, salt and pepper, fat for basting, gravy, red-currant jelly.

Method.—Remove the skin, pare off any superfluous fat, and take away the fat and kidneys from the inside. Fold the flaps under, bind securely in shape, and cover the back with several folds of greased paper. Roast in front of a clear fire, basting frequently, or, if more convenient, bake in a moderately hot oven (see "Roast Mutton" and "Notes on Roasting," p. 428). Serve with good gravy and red-currant jelly.

Time.—About 15 minutes per lb. Average Cost, 1s. per lb. Sufficient for from 12 to 18 persons, according to weight. Seasonable at any time.

1060.—SCOTCH HAGGIS.

Ingredients.—A sheep's paunch and pluck, 1 lb. of finely-chopped beef suet, ½ a pint of oatmeal, 2 finely-chopped Spanish onions, 2 tablespoonfuls of salt, 1 teaspoonful of pepper, ½ a nutmeg finely-grated, 1½ pints of good stock or gravy, the juice of 1 lemon.

Method.—Soak the paunch for several hours in salt and water, then turn it inside out, and wash it thoroughly in several waters. Wash the pluck, cover the liver with cold water, boil it for 1½ hours, and

JOINTS.

 
Mrs Beeton (689).jpg
 

1.—Roast Loin of Pork. 2.—Roast Haunch of Mutton. 3.—Roast Aitchbone of Beef. 4.—Round of Beef. 5.—Leg of Mutton. 6.—Calf's Head. 7.—Ham. 8.—Sirloin of Beef. 9.—Shoulder of Mutton. 10.—Saddle of Mutton.

at the end of ¾ of an hour add to it the heart and lights. Chop half the liver, chop the remainder and the heart and lights finely, mix all together, add the oatmeal, onions, salt, pepper, nutmeg, lemon-juice and stock. Turn these ingredients into the paunch, sew up the opening, taking care that sufficient space is left for the oatmeal to swell: if the paunch be over-full, there is a possibility of its bursting. Put the haggis into boiling water, and cook gently for about 3 hours; during the first hour it should be occasionally pricked with a needle, to allow the air to escape. As a rule, neither sauce nor gravy is served with a haggis. When a small dish is required, a lamb's paunch and pluck may be substituted for those of the sheep's.

Time.—To boil the haggis, 3 hours. Average Cost, 2s. 9d. to 3s. 9d. Sufficient for 8 or 9 persons.

1061.—SHEEP'S BRAINS WITH PARSLEY SAUCE. (Fr.Cervelles de Mouton à la Maître d'Hôtel.)

Ingredients.—6 sheep's brains, 1 pint of white stock, 2 ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, ½ a small onion, 1 small carrot, 1 bay-leaf, salt and pepper.

Method.—Soak the brains in salt and water for 2 hours, then remove the skin and fibres, cover them with boiling water, and boil for 3 minutes. Replace the brains in fresh cold water, let them remain until cold, then put them into the boiling stock, add the onion and carrot sliced, bay-leaf, salt and pepper to taste, and simmer gently for 20 minutes. Meanwhile, melt the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, and cook these for 3 or 4 minutes without browning. Drain the brains, and strain the stock on to the flour and butter, stir until boiling, simmer for 10 minutes, add the lemon-juice and seasoning to taste. Re-heat the brains in the sauce, and just before serving add the lemon-juice.

Time.—½ an hour, after the brains are blanched. Average Cost, 1s. 9d. to 2s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

The Ettrick Shepherd.—James Hogg, more commonly known as the "Ettrick Shepherd," from the place of his birth in Selkirkshire, was one of the most remarkable men who ever wore the shepherd's maud. Under the garb, aspect, and bearing of an uncultured peasant—for his early education was of the most scanty description—the world discovered a true poet. Sir Walter Scott, who became interested in Hogg through some of his rhymings which came to the baronet's notice, induced him to publish a volume of ballads, under the title of the Mountain Bard. The Queen's Wake, which contains the charming ballad of "Kilmeny," appeared in 1813, and established Hogg's reputation. It was followed by other poetic and prose works, including The Pilgrims of the Sun, The Border Garland, Lay Sermons, etc. His poetry is characterized by richness of description, delicate imagination, and sweet intensity of pathos. If the shepherd of Professor Wilson's "Noctes Ambrosianae" may be regarded as a true potrait of James Hogg, the poet of Ettrick Forest possessed a rare quaintness of humor. Sir Walter Scott affirmed that Hogg's innumerable little touches of absurdity afforded him more entertainment than the most laughable comedy. Among the productions of the shepherd-poet is an account of his own experiences in sheep-tending, called The Shepherd's Calendar. This work contains a vast amount of useful information on sheep, their diseases, habits and management. The Ettrick Shepherd died in 1835.

1062.—SHEEP'S BRAINS WITH MATELOTE SAUCE. (Fr.Cervelles de Mouton en Matelote.)

Ingredients.—6 sheep's brains, vinegar, salt, a few slices of bacon, 1 small onion, 2 cloves, a small bunch of parsley, sufficient stock or weak broth to cover the brains, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, matelote sauce (see Sauces).

Method.—Detach the brains from the heads without breaking them, remove the skin, cover with warm water, and let them remain for 2 hours. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, add a little vinegar and salt, and put in the brains. When they are quite firm take them out, and put them into very cold water. Place 2 or 3 slices of bacon in a stewpan, put in the brains, the onion stuck with 2 cloves, the parsley, and a good seasoning of pepper and salt. Cover with stock or weak broth, and boil them gently for about 25 minutes. Have ready some fried bread croûtons, arrange them in a dish alternately with the brains, and cover with a matelote sauce, to which the lemon-juice has been added.

Time.—25 minutes after the brains are blanched. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1063.—SHEEP'S HEAD, TO DRESS. (Fr.Tête de Mouton.)

Ingredients.—A sheep's head, 2 tablespoonfuls of pearl barley or rice, 2 onions, 2 small carrots, 1 small turnip, a bouquet-garni (parsley thyme, bay-leaf), 10 peppercorns, salt and pepper. For the sauce: ¾ pint of liquor the head was cooked in, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour.

Method.—Cut the head in half, remove the brains, wash them and put them into cold water, with a little salt. Wash the head in several waters, carefully remove any splintered bones, and let it soak in salt and water for 1 hour. Cover with cold water, bring to the boil, pour away the water, replace with fresh cold water, add the bouquet-garni, peppercorns and salt, boil up, and skim well. The head must be cooked slowly for about 3 hours; 1½ hours before serving add the vegetables sliced, with the rice or barley, and when the latter is used it must be previously blanched. Remove the skin and fibres from the brains, tie them in muslin, boil them for 10 or 15 minutes in the liquor, then chop them coarsely. Heat the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, stir over the fire for 2 or 3 minutes, then add ¾ of a pint of liquor from the pot, simmer for 10 minutes, add the brains, season to taste, and keep hot until required. When ready, bone the head, put the meat in the centre of a hot dish, pour the sauce over, and garnish with slices of tongue and the vegetables. Serve the broth separately.

Time.—To cook, about 3 hours. Average Cost, 1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d. Sufficient for 2 or 3 persons.

Singed Sheep's Head.—The village of Dudingston, now a suburb of Edinburgh was formerly celebrated for this ancient and homely Scottish dish. It was the custom during the summer months for the well-to-do citizens to resort to this place and regale themselves with sheep's heads, boiled or baked. The sheep pastured on the neighbouring hills were slaughtered at the village, the carcasses were sent to town, but the heads were reserved for consumption by the visitors to Dudingston.

1064.—SHEEP'S HEART. (Fr.Coeur de Mouton.)

Ingredients.—1 sheep's heart, veal forcemeat (see Forcemeat), dripping for basting.

Method.—Soak heart for 1 hour in warm water. Cut off the deaf ears, any cartilage or gristle there may be, and the muscular wall dividing the cavities of the heart, and boil them down for gravy. Dry the heart thoroughly, fill the inside with forcemeat, and tie a greased paper round the base to keep in the forcemeat. Heat 2 or 3 ozs. of dripping in a baking-tin, baste the heart well, and bake in a moderate oven for about 1¼ hours. Gentle cooking and frequent basting are necessary to prevent the heart becoming dry and hard. When done, drain off the fat, but leave the sediment, pour in the prepared gravy, boil up, season to taste, and either pour over the heart or serve separately. The excellence of this dish depends mainly on its being served as hot as possible.

Time.—To bake, about 1 hour. Average Cost, 9d. to 1s. Sufficient for 2 persons.

Note.—Sheep's hearts may also be stuffed with onion farce (see "Bullock's Heart, Roasted"); if more convenient, they may be cooked in an iron saucepan over by the side of the fire, care being taken to baste them liberally with dripping all the time.

1065.—SHEEP'S TAILS. (Fr.Queues de Mouton.)

Sheep's tails may be dressed as directed in the recipe for "Sheep's Tongues, Braised," and "Sheep's Tongues, Fried." Instead of being braised, they may be stewed in good stock until tender, and served with a vegetable garnish and brown sauce.

1066.—SHEEP'S TONGUES, BRAISED. (Fr.Langues de Mouton Braisées.)

Ingredients—4 sheep's tongues, ¾ of a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces), glaze. For the mirepoix, or foundation: 1 oz of butter, 1 or 2 slices of bacon, 1 onion, 1 carrot, ½ a turnip, 1 or 2 strips of celery, a bouquet-garni (parsely, thyme, bay-leaf), 6 peppercorns, ½ a pint of stock.

Method.—Soak the tongues in salt and water for 2 hours, blanch and fry them thoroughly. Slice the vegetables, put them in a stewpan with the butter, bouquet-garni, and peppercorns, lay the tongues on the top, put on the lid, and cook gently for 20 minutes. Then add hot stock to nearly cover the vegetables, lay the bacon on the top of the tongues, cover with a greased paper, put on the lid, and cook gently for 2½ hours, or until the tongues are tender. When ready, skin them, slit them in halves lengthwise, brush over with warm glaze, place them on a buttered paper on a baking-sheet, and put them into a moderate oven for a few minutes to re-heat. Dish in 2 rows on a bed of mashed potato, or a purée of spinach, pour a little hot sauce round, and serve the remainder in a sauce-boat.

Time.—About 3 hours. Average Cost, 1s. 10d. to 2s. 2d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1067.—SHEEP'S TONGUES, FRIED. (Fr.Langues de Mouton frites.)

Ingredients.—4 sheep's tongues, ⅓ of a pint of tomato or piquante sauce, 3 ozs. of butter, breadcrumbs, mirepoix of vegetables, as in preceding recipe.

Method.—Braise the tongues as directed in the preceding recipe. Warm the butter, dip each half tongue in it, and coat these with breadcrumbs, pressing them firmly on with a knife. Turn the butter into a sauté-pan, and fry the tongues until the entire surface is lightly browned. Dish on a bed of spinach or green-pea purée, and serve the sauce round the base of the dish.

Time.—About 3 hours. Average Cost, 4d. each. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1068.—SHEEP'S TROTTERS, STEWED. (Fr.Pieds de Mouton en Ragoût.)

Ingredients.—2 gangs (8) of dressed trotters, 1 small onion, 1 tablespoonful of flour, milk, salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash the trotters, put them into a stewpan, cover them with milk and water in equal proportions, add the onion sliced, season with salt and pepper, cover, and cook gently for about 3 hours, or until the bones may be easily removed. Take away the bones, strain the liquor if necessary, add milk to increase the quantity to ¾ of a pint, return it to the stewpan, and re-heat. Mix the flour smoothly with a little milk, pour it into the stewpan, stir until boiling, simmer for 10 minutes, and season to taste. Replace the trotters, and when thoroughly hot, serve.

Time.—From 3 to 3½ hours. Average Cost, 1s. 2d. to 1s. 6d. Sufficient for 2 or 3 persons.

Note.—Sheep's trotters may also be boiled in stock or water until the bones are easily removed, and afterwards marinaded and fried in batter. Or they may be stuffed with sausage meat or veal forcemeat, and either coated with egg and breadcrumbs, or dipped into batter and fried in hot fat. (See recipes for cooking calf's feet and cow-heel.)

1069.—SHEPHERD'S PIE.

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of cold mutton, 1 lb. of mashed potato, 1 oz. of butter or dripping, ½ a pint of gravy or stock, 1 teaspoonful of parboiled and finely-chopped onion, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the meat into small thin slices. Melt half the butter or fat in a stewpan, add to it the potato, salt and pepper, and stir over the fire until thoroughly mixed. Grease a pie-dish, line the bottom thinly with potato, put in the meat, sprinkle each layer with onion, salt and pepper, pour in the gravy, and cover with potato. The potato covering may be given a rough appearance by scoring it in every direction with a fork, or it may be made to resemble an ordinary crust by being smoothed over with a knife, notched at the edges, and brushed over with the yolk of egg before baking. When egg is not used for this purpose, the remainder of the butter or fat must be put on the top of the pie in small pieces. Bake in a moderate oven until the surface is well-browned.

Time.—To bake, from 30 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, 10d. to 1s. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

1070.—SPICED MUTTON. (Fr.Mouton Épicé.)

Ingredients.—A boned leg or shoulder of mutton, 8 ozs. of common salt, 1 oz. of bay-salt, ¾ of an oz. of saltpetre, 4 ozs. of moist sugar, 1 teaspoonful of pepper, 1 dessertspoonful of finely-chopped shallot or onion, 1 saltspoonful of powdered allspice, 1 saltspoonful of powdered cloves.

Method.—Mix the ingredients together, rub the preparation well into the meat, and repeat daily for a fortnight. When ready, rinse in warm water, and bind into a good shape with strong tape. Cook very gently for 5 or 6 hours in good stock, or water flavoured with vegetables, press between 2 dishes until cold, glaze, and use as required.

Time.—To pickle, 14 days. To cook, 5 to 6 hours. Average Cost, 10d. to 1s. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

1071.—SQUAB PIE.

Ingredients.—2 lb. of neck of mutton, 2 lb. of apples sliced, 1 lb. of onions sliced, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, sugar, salt and pepper, suet paste (see Pastes).

Method.—Divide the neck into cutlets, place them in a piedish, and season rather well with salt and pepper. Add the apples and onions in layers, sprinkle with sugar, and half fill the dish with boiling water. Bake in the oven for about 1½ hours. Before serving, pour the gravy out at the side, skim off all the fat, add the mushroom ketchup, season to taste, and return to the pie. Serve hot. Bake in the oven for about 1½ hours.

Time.—Two hours. Average Cost, 2s. 3d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1072.—TIMBALES OF MUTTON, MERIDIONAL STYLE. (Fr.Timbales à la Méridionale.)

Ingredients.—¾ of a lb. of lean tender mutton, 8 or 9 Spanish olives, 2 tablespoonfuls of Espagnole Sauce, No. 244, 1 tablespoonful of cream, 1 tablespoonful of sherry or Madeira, ½ an oz. of butter, 2 eggs, 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of tomato sauce, No. 281, nutmeg, salt and pepper. ¼ of a pint of demi-glace sauce, No. 242.

Method.—Pass the meat 2 or 3 times through a mincing machine, pound it in a mortar until quite smooth, then add the eggs one at a time, and the butter, Espagnole sauce, cream and wine. Season to taste with salt and pepper, add a pinch of nutmeg, pound until smooth, and pass through a wire sieve. Butter 8 or 9 small dariol moulds, fill them with this preparation, leaving a small hollow in the centre of each, in which place a teaspoonful of tomato sauce and an olive filled with a little of the meat farce. Cover with farce, place the moulds in a sauté-pan containing boiling water to half their depth, bring to the boil on the stove, then cover with a greased paper, and finish cooking in a moderately hot oven. Serve with the demi-glace sauce poured over them.

Time.—To cook, about 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 9d. to 3s. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1073.—TONGUES IN PAPER CASES. (Fr.Langues de Mouton en Papillotes.)

Ingredients.—Sheep's tongues, stock. To 2 or 3 tongues allow ½ a pint of brown sauce, No. 233, ½ an oz. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of chopped mushroom, 1 shallot finely-chopped.

Method.—Soak the tongues in salted water for 2 or 3 hours, and afterwards simmer them in stock for about 2 hours, or until tender. Skin them, cut them in halves, and trim away all the root of the tongue. Heat the butter, fry the shallot lightly, add the mushroom, toss over the fire for 2 or 3 minutes, then put in the sauce and bring to the boil. Have ready some well-oiled sheets of foolscap paper, lay half a tongue in each, adding a little of the prepared sauce. Fold neatly, place the cases on a baking-sheet, cover with 3 or 4 folds of greased paper, bake gently for 15 minutes, then serve in the cases.

Time.—To simmer, about 2 hours. To bake, 15 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. each. Allow one case for each person.