Natural and Political Observations Made upon the Bills of Mortality (Graunt 1676)/Index

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Positions, Observations, and Questions contained
in this Discourse.

1. THE Occasion of keeping the Accompt of Burials arose first from the Plague, Anno 1592. pag. 2 [335]
2. Seven Alterations, and Augmentations of the published Bills, between the years 1592, and 1662. p. 3, to 17 [336-46]
3. Reasons, why the Accompts of Burials and Christenings should be kept universally, and now called for, and perused by the Magistrate, p. 18 [346]
4. A true Accompt of the Plague cannot be kept without the Accompt of other Diseases, ibid. [347]
5. The Ignorance of the Searchers no imp-||ediment to the keeping of sufficient, and useful Accompts, p. 19 [347]
6. That about one third of all that were ever quick die under five years old, and about thirty six per Centum under six, p. 20[1] [349]
7. That two parts of nine die of Acute, and seventy of two hundred twenty nine of Chronical Diseases, and four of two hundred twenty nine of outward Griefs, p. 22 [349]
8. A Table of the Proportions dying of the most notorious, and formidable Diseases, or Casualties, p. 24 [351]
9. That seven per Centum die of Age, p. 26 [352]
10. That some Diseases, and Casualties keep a constant proportion, whereas some other are very irregular, ibid. [352]
11. That not above one in four thousand are Starved, p. 27 [352]
12. That it were better to maintain all Beggars at the publick Charge, though earning nothing, than to let them beg about the Streets; and that imploying them without discretion, may do more harm than good, ibid. [353]
13. That not one in two thousand are Murthered in London, with the Reasons thereof, p. 30 [ 354 ]
14. That not one in fifteen hundred dies Lunatick, p. 31 [355]
15. That few of those, who die of the French-Pox, are set down, but coloured under the Consumption, &c. p. 33 [356]
16. That the Rickets is a new Disease, both as to name, and thing; that from fourteen dying thereof, An. 1634. it hath gradually increased to above five hundred, An. 1660. p. 34 [356]
17. That there is another new Disease appearing; as A Stopping of the Stomach, which hath increased in twenty years, from six, to near three hundred, p. 37 [358]
18. That the Rising of the Lights (supposed in most Cases to be the Fits of the Mother) have also increased in thirty years, from fourty four, to two hundred fourty nine, p. 38 [359]
19. That both the Stopping of the Stomach, and Rising of the Lights, are probably Reliques of, or depending upon the Rickets, p. 39 [359]
20. That the Stone decreases, and is wearing away, p. 40 [360]
21. The Gout stands at a stay, ibid. [360]
22. The Scurvy increases, ibid. [360]
23. The Deaths by reason of Agues, are to those caused by Fevers, as one to forty, p. 41 [360]
24. Abortives, and Stilborn, to those that are Christned, are as one to twenty, ibid. [360]
25. That since the differences in Religion, the Christnings have been neglected half in half, ibid. [361]
26. That not one Woman in an hundred dies in Child-bed, nor one of two hundred in her Labour, p. 42 [361]
27. Three Reasons why the Registring of Children hath been neglected, p. 43 [362]
28. There was a confusion in the Accompts of Chrysoms, Infants, and Convulsions; but rectified in this Discourse, ibid. [362]
29. There have been in London, within this Age, four times of great Mortality, viz. Anno 1592, 1603, 1625, and 1636, whereof that of 1603 was the greatest, p. 46 [363]
30. Annis 1603, and 1625, about a fifth part of the whole died, and eight times more than were born, p. 47 [364]
31. That a fourth part more die of the Plague than are set down, p. 48 [365]
32. The Plague Anno 1603 lasted eight years, that in 1636 twelve years, but that in 1625 continued but one single year, p. 49 [365]
33. That Alterations in the Air do incomparably more operate as to the Plague, than the Contagion of Converse, p. 50 [366]
34. That Purples, Small-Pox, and other malignant Diseases, fore-run the Plague, ibid. [366]
35. A disposition in the Air towards the Plague doth also dispose Women to Abortions, p. 52 [367]
36. That as about one fifth part of the whole people died in the great Plague-years, so two other fifth parts fled, ibid, which shews the large relation, and interest, which the Londoners have in the Country, p. 53 [367]
37. That (be the Plague great or small) the City is fully re-peopled within two years, ibid. [367]
38. The years, 1618, 20, 23, 24, 32, 33, 34, 1649, 52, 54, 56, 58, and 61, were sickly years, p. 55 [368]
39. The more sickly the year is, the less fertile of Births, ibid. [368]
40. That Plagues always come in with King's Reigns is most false, ibid. [369]
41. The Autumn, or the Fall, is the most unhealthful season, p. 56 [369]
42. That in London there have been twelve Burials for eleven Christnings, p. 57 [370]
43. That in the Country there have been, contrariwise, sixty three Christnings for fifty two Burials, p. 58 [370]
44. A Supposition, that the people in and about London, are a fifteenth part of the people of all England, and Wales, ibid. [370]
45. That there are about six Millions and an half of people in England, and Wales, ibid. [371]
46. That the people in the Country double by Procreation but in two hundred and eighty years, and in London in about seventy, as hereafter will be shewn; the reason whereof is, that many of the Breeders leave the Country, and that the Breeders of London come from all parts of the Country, such persons breeding in the Country almost only as were born there, but in London multitudes of others, p.59 [371]
47. That about 6000 per Annum come up to London out of the Country, ibid [371]
48. That in London about three die yearly out of eleven Families, p. 60 [371]
49. There are about twenty five Millions of acres of Land in England, and Wales, ibid. [372]
50. Why the Proportion of Breeders in London, to the rest of the people, is less than in the Country, p. 61 [372]
51. That in London are more impediments of Breeding, than in the Country, ibid. [373]
52. That there are fourteen Males for thirteen Females in London, and in the Country but fifteen Males for fourteen Females, p. 64 [374]
53. Polygamy useless to the multiplication of Mankind, without Castrations, p. 65 [374]
54. Why Sheep, and Oxen out-breed Foxes, and other Vermin-Animals, p. 66 [375]
55. There being fourteen Males to thirteen Females, and Males being prolifique forty years and Females but twenty five, it follows, that in effect there be 560 Males to 325 Females, p. 67 [375]
56. The said inequality is reduced by the latter marriage of the Males, and their imployment in Wars, Sea-voyages, and Colonies, ibid. [375]
57. Physicians have two Women Patients to one Man; and yet more Men die than Women, ibid. [376]
58. The great emission of Males into the Wars out of London Anno 1642 was instantly supplied, p. 68 [376]
59. Castration is not used only to meliorate the flesh of Eatable Animals, but to promote their increase also, p. 69 [377]
60. The true ratio formalis of the evil of Adulteries and Fornications, p. 70 [377]
61. Where Polygamy is allowed, Wives can be no other than Servants, ibid. [378]
62 That ninety seven, and sixteen Parishes of London are in twenty years encreased from seven to twelve, and in forty years from twenty three to fifty two, p. 72 [379]
63. The sixteen Parishes have encreased farther than the ninety seven, the one having encreased but from nine to ten in the said forty years, p. 73 [379]
64. The ten Out-Parishes have in fifty four years encreased from one to four, p. 75 [380]
65. The ninety seven, sixteen, and ten Parishes have in fifty four years encreased from two to five, ibid. [380]
66. What great Houses within the Walls have been turned into Tenements, p. 76 [380]
67. Cripplegate-Parish hath most encreased, &c. p. 77 [380]
68. The City removes Westwards, with the reasons thereof, ibid. [381]
69. Why Ludgate is become too narrow a throat for the City, ibid. [381]
70. That there be some Parishes in London two hundred times as big as others, ibid. [382]
71. The natural bigness and Figure of a Church for the Reformed Religion, p. 78 [382]
72. The City of London and Suburbs, being equally divided, would make 100 Parishes, about the largeness of Christ-Church, Black-friers, or Colemanstreet, ibid. [383] ||
73. There are about 24000 Teeming women in the ninety seven, sixteen, and ten Parishes in and about London, p. 81 [384]
74. That about three die yearly out of eleven Families containing each eight persons, ibid. [385]
75. There are about 12000 Families within the walls of London, p. 83 [385]
76. The housing of the sixteen and ten Suburb-Parishes is thrice as big as that of the ninety seven Parishes within the walls, ibid. [385]
77. The number of souls in the ninety seven, sixteen, and two out-Parishes is about 384000, ibid. [386]
78. Whereof 199000 are Males, and 185000 Females, ibid. [386]
79. A Table shewing of 100 quick conceptions how many die within six years, how many the next Decad, and so for every Decad till 76, p. 84 [387]
80. Tables, whereby may be collected how many there be in London of every Age Assign'd, ibid. [387]
81. That there be in the 97, 16, and ten Parishes near 70000 Fighting Men, that is, Men between the Ages, of 16, and 56, p. 85 [387]
82. That Westminster, Lambeth, Islington, Hackney, Redriff, Stepney, Newington, contain as many people as the 97 Parishes within the walls , and are consequently 15 of the whole Pile, ibid. [387]
83. So that in, and about London are about 81000 Fighting men, and 460000[2] in all, ibid. [387]
84. Adam and Eve in 5610 years might have by the ordinary proportion of Procreation, begotten more people, than are now probably upon the face of the earth, p. 86 [388]
85. Wherefore the World cannot be older than the Scriptures represent it, ibid. [388]
86. That every Wedding one with another produces four Children, p. 87 [388]
87. That in several places the proportion between the Males and Females differ, ibid. [389]
88. That in ninety years there were just as many Males as Females Buried within a certain great Parish in the Country, ibid. [389]
89. That a Parish, consisting of about 2700 Inhabitants, had in 90 years but 1059 more Christnings, than Burials, p. 88 [389]
90. There come yearly to dwell at London about 6000 strangers out of the Countrey, which swells the Burials about 200 per Annum, ibid. [389]
91. In the Country there have been five Christnings for four Burials, p. 89 [390]
92. A Confirmation, that the most healthful years are also the most fruitful, ibid. [390]
93. The proportion between the greatest, and least mortalities, in the Countrey are greater than the same in the City, p. 91 [391]
94. The Countrey Air more capable of good, and bad impressions, than that of the City, p. 92 [392]
95. The difference also of Births are greater in the Countrey, than at London, p. 93 [392]
96. In the Countrey but about one of fifty dies yearly , but at London one of thirty, over and above the Plague, ibid. [393]
97. London not so healthful now as heretofore, p. 94 [393]
98. It is doubted whether increase of people, or the burning of Sea-Coal were the cause, or both, p. 95 [394]
89. The Art of making of Gold would be neither benefit to the World, or the Artist, p. 97 [395]
100. The Elements of true Policy are to understand throughly the Lands, and hands of any Countrey, p. 98 [395]
101. Upon what considerations the intrinsick value of Lands doth depend, ibid. [396]
102. And in what the Accidental, p. 99 [396]
103. Some of the few benefits of having a true Accompt of the people, ibid. [396]
104. That but a small part of the whole people are imployed upon necessary affairs, ibid. [396]
105. That a true Accompt of people is necessary for the Government, and Trade of them, and for their peace and plenty p. 100 [397]
106. Whether this Accompt ought to be confined to the Chief Governours, ibid. [397]


  1. 20 should be 22; there are several similar misprints in the index of original pages.
  2. The calculation of a total population of 460000 is not made in the text at p. 387, but that estimate is used at pp. 371, 399, 400 and 401.