Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: Series I/Volume VIII/Expositions on the Book of Psalms/Psalm XLIII
1. This Psalm is a short one; it satisfies the mental cravings of the hearers, without imposing too severe a trial on the hunger of those fasting. Let our soul feed upon it; our soul, which he who sings in this Psalm, speaks of as “cast down;” cast down, I suppose, either in consequence of some fist, or rather in consequence of some hunger he was in. For fasting is a voluntary act; being an-hungered is an involuntary thing. That which is an-hungered, is the Church, is the Body of Christ: and that “Man” who is extended throughout the whole world, of which the Head is above, the limbs below: it is His voice which ought by this time to be perfectly known, and perfectly familiar, to us, in all the Psalms; now chanting joyously, now sorrowing; now rejoicing in hope, now sighing at its actual state, even as if it were our own. We need not then dwell long on pointing out to you, who is the speaker here: let each one of us be a member of Christ’s Body; and he will be speaker here.…
2. “Judge me, O Lord, and separate my cause from the ungodly nation” (ver. 1). I do not dread Thy judgment, because I know Thy mercy. “Judge me, O God,” he cries. Now, meanwhile, in this state of pilgrimage, Thou dost not yet separate my place, because I am to live together with the “tares” even to the time of the “harvest:” Thou dost not as yet separate my rain from theirs; my light from theirs: “separate my cause.” Let a difference be made between him who believes in Thee, and him who believes not in Thee. Our infirmity is the same; but our consciences not the same: our sufferings the same; but our longings not the same. “The desire of the ungodly shall perish,” but as to the desire of the righteous, we might well doubt, if He were not “sure” who promised. The object of our desires is He Himself, who promiseth: He will give us Himself, because He has already given Himself to us; He will give Himself in His immortality to us then immortal, even because He gave Himself in His mortality to us when mortal.…
3. And since patience is needful in order to endure, until the harvest, a certain distinction without separation, if we may so speak (for they are together with us, and therefore not yet separated; the tares however being still tares, and the corn still corn, and therefore they are already distinct); since then a kind of strength is needful, which must be implored of Him who bids us to be strong, and without whose making us strong, we should not be what He bids us to be; of Him who said, “He that endures unto the end shall be saved,” lest the soul’s powers should be impaired in consequence of her ascribing any strength to herself, he subjoins immediately,
“For Thou, O God, art my strength: why hast Thou cast me off, and why go I mourning, while the enemy harasseth me?” (ver. 2). I go mourning: the enemy is harassing me with daily temptations: inspiring either some unlawful love, or some ungrounded cause of fear; and the soul that fights against both of them, though not taken prisoner by them, yet being in danger from them, is contracted with sorrow, and says unto God, “Why?”
Let her then ask of Him, and hear “Why?” For she is in the Psalm enquiring the cause of her dejection; saying, “Why hast Thou cast me off? and why go I mourning?” Let her hear from Isaiah; let the lesson which has just been read, suggest itself to her. “The spirit shall go forth from me, and every breath have I made. For iniquity have I a little afflicted him; I hid my face from him, and he departed from me sorrowful in the ways of his heart.”  Why then didst thou ask, “Why hast Thou cast me off, and why go I mourning?” Thou hast heard, it was “for iniquity.” “Iniquity” is the cause of thy mourning; let “Righteousness” be the cause of thy rejoicing! Thou wouldest sin; and yet thou wouldest fain not suffer; so that it was too little for thee to be thyself unrighteous, without also wishing Him to be unrighteous, in that thou wouldest fain not be punished by Him. Consider a speech of a better kind in another Psalm. “It is good for me that Thou hast humbled me, that I might learn Thy righteousnesses.” By being lifted up, I had learned my own iniquities; let me by being “humbled,” learn “Thy righteousnesses.” “Why go I mourning, while the enemy harasses me?” Thou complainest of the enemy. It is true he does harass thee; but it was thou didst “give place” to him. And even now there is a course open to thee; choose the course of prudence; admit thy King, shut the tyrant out.
4. But in order that she may do this, hear what she says, what she supplicates, what she prays for. Pray thou for what thou hearest; pray for it when thou hearest it; let these words be the voice of us all: “O send out Thy Light and Thy Truth. They have led me, and brought me on unto Thy holy hill, and into Thy Tabernacles” (ver. 3). For that very “Light” and “Truth” are indeed two in name; the reality expressed is but One. For what else is the “Light” of God, except the “Truth” of God? Or what else is the “Truth” of God, except the “Light” of God? And the one Person of Christ is both of these. “I am the Light of the world: he that believeth on Me, shall not walk in darkness.” “I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life.” He is Himself “the Light:” He is Himself “the Truth.” Let Him come then and rescue us, and “separate at once our cause from the ungodly nation; let Him deliver us from the deceitful and unjust man,” let him separate the wheat from the tares, for at the time of harvest He will Himself send His Angels, that they may “gather out of His kingdom all things that offend,” and cast them into flaming fire, while they gather together the corn into the garner. He will send out His “Light,” and His “Truth;” for that they have already “brought us and led us to His holy hill, and into His Tabernacles.” We possess the “earnest;” we hope for the prize. “His holy Hill” is His holy Church. It is that mountain which, according to Daniel’s vision, grew from a very small “stone,” till it crushed the kingdoms of the earth; and grew to such a size, that it “filled the face of the earth.” This is the “hill,” from which he tells us that his prayer was heard, who says, “I cried unto the Lord with my voice, and He heard me out of His holy hill.” Let no one of those that are without that mountain, hope to be heard unto eternal life. For many are heard in their prayers for many things. Let them not congratulate themselves on being heard; the devils were heard in their prayer, that they might be sent into the swine. Let us desire to be heard unto eternal life, by reason of our longing, through which we say, “Send out Thy Light and Thy Truth.” That is a “Light” which requires the eye of the heart. For “Blessed” (He saith) “are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.” We are now on His Hill, that is, in His Church, and in His Tabernacle. The “tabernacle” is for persons sojourning; the house, for those dwelling in one community. The tabernacle is also for those who are both from home, and also in a state of warfare. When thou hearest of a tabernacle, form a notion of a war; guard against an enemy. But what shall the house be? “Blessed are they that dwell in Thine house: they will be alway praising Thee.”
5. Now then that we have been led on even to “the Tabernacle,” and are placed on “His holy Hill,” what hope do we carry with us?
“Then will I go in unto the Altar of God” (ver. 4). For there is a certain invisible Altar on high, which the unrighteous man approaches not. To that Altar he alone draws nigh, who draws nigh to this one without cause to fear. There he shall find his Life, who in this one “separates his cause.” “And I will go in unto the Altar of God.” From His holy Hill, and from His Tabernacle, from His Holy Church, I will go in unto the Altar of God on High. What manner of Sacrifice is there? He himself who goeth in is taken for a burnt-offering. “I will go in unto the Altar of God.” What is the meaning of what he says, “The Altar of my God”?
“Unto God, who makes glad my youth.” Youth signifies newness: just as if he said, “Unto God, who makes glad my newness.” It is He who makes glad my newness, who hath filled my old estate with mourning. For now “I go mourning” in oldness, then shall “I stand,” exulting in newness!
“Yea, upon the harp will I praise Thee, O God my God.” What is the meaning of “praising on the harp,” and praising on the psaltery? For he does not always do so with the harp, nor always with the psaltery. These two instruments of the musicians have each a distinct meaning of their own, worthy of our consideration and notice. They are both borne in the hands, and played by the touch; and they stand for certain bodily works of ours. Both are good, if one knows how to play the psaltery, or to play the harp. But since the psaltery is that instrument which has the shell (i.e. that drum, that hollow piece of wood, by straining on which the chords resound) on the upper part of it, whereas the harp has that same concave sounding-board on the lower part, there is to be a distinction made between our works, when they are “upon the harp,” when “on the psaltery:” both however are acceptable to God, and grateful to His ear. When we do anything according to God’s Commandments, obeying His commands and hearkening to Him, that we may fulfil His injunctions, when we are active and not passive, it is the psaltery that is playing. For so also do the Angels: for they have nothing to suffer. But when we suffer anything of tribulation, of trials, of offences on this earth (as we suffer only from the inferior part of ourselves; i.e. from the fact that we are mortal, that we owe somewhat of tribulation to our original cause, and also from the fact of our suffering much from those who are not “above”); this is “the harp.” For there rises a sweet strain from that part of us which is “below:” we “suffer,” and we strike the psaltery, or shall I rather say we sing and we strike the harp.…
6. And again, in order that he may draw the sound from that sounding-board below, he addresses his soul: he says, “Why art thou sorrowful, O my soul, and why dost thou disquiet me?” (ver. 5). I am in tribulations, in weariness, in mourning, “Why dost thou disquiet me, O my soul?” Who is the speaker, to whom is he speaking? That it is the soul to which he is speaking, everybody knows: for it is obvious: the appeal is addressed to it directly: “Why art thou sorrowful, O my soul, and why dost thou disquiet me?” The question is as to the speaker. It is not the flesh addressing the soul, surely, since the flesh cannot speak without the soul. For it is more appropriate for the soul to address the flesh, than for the flesh to address the soul.…We perceive then that we have a certain part, in which is “the image of God;” viz. the mind and reason. It was that same mind that prayed for “God’s Light” and “God’s Truth.” It is the same mind by which we apprehend right and wrong: it is by the same that we discern truth from falsehood. It is this same that we call “understanding;” which “understanding,” indeed, is wanting to the brutes. And this “understanding” whoever neglects in himself, and holds it in less account than the other parts of his nature, and casts it off, just as if he had it not, is addressed in the Psalm, “Be ye not as the horse and the mule, which have no understanding.”  It is our “understanding” then that is addressing our soul. The latter is withered away from tribulations, worn out in anguish, made “sorrowful” in temptations, fainting in toils. The mind, catching a glimpse of Truth above, would fain rouse her spirits, and she says, “Why art thou sorrowful, O my soul?”…
7. These expressions, brethren, are safe ones: but yet be watchful in good works. Touch “the psaltery,” by obeying the Commandments; touch the harp, by patiently enduring your sufferings. You have heard from Isaiah, “Break thy bread to the hungry;” think not that fasting by itself is sufficient. Fasting chasteneth thine own self: it does not refresh others. Thy distress will profit thee, if thou affordest comfort to others. See, thou hast denied thyself; to whom wilt thou give that of which thou hast deprived thyself? Where wilt thou bestow what thou hast denied thyself? How many poor may be filled by the breakfast we have this day given up? Fast in such a way that thou mayest rejoice, that thou hast breakfasted, while another has been eating; fast on account of thy prayers, that thou mayest be heard in them. For He says in that passage, “Whilst thou art yet speaking I will say, Here I am,” provided thou wilt with cheerful mind “break thy bread to the hungry.” For generally this is done by men reluctantly and with murmurs, to rid themselves of the wearisome importunity of the beggar, not to refresh the bowels of him that is needy. But it is “a cheerful giver” that “God loves.” If thou givest thy bread reluctantly, thou hast lost both the bread, and the merit of the action. Do it then from the heart: that He “who seeth in secret,” may say, “whilst thou art yet speaking, Here I am.” How speedily are the prayers of those received, who work righteousness! And this is man’s righteousness in this life, fasting, alms, and prayer. Wouldest thou have thy prayer fly upward to God? Make for it those two wings of alms and fasting. Such may God’s “Light” and God’s “Truth” find us, that He may find us without cause for fear, when He comes to free us from death, who has already come to undergo death for us. Amen.
- Lat. XLII.
- Ventribus. It is noted that this was an afternoon sermon on a fast-day.
- Ps. cxii. 14.
- Quandam indiscretam discretionem.
- Matt. xxiv. 31.
- Isa. lvii. 16, 17.
- Ps. cxix. 71.
- Eph. iv. 27.
- John viii. 12, xiv. 6.
- Matt. xiii. 41.
- Dan. ii. 35.
- Ps. iii. 4.
- Sibi plaudant.
- Matt. viii. 31, 32.
- Matt. v. 8.
- Ps. lxxxiv. 4.
- Cui innitentes.
- Prima nostra causa. He seems to mean our original from Adam.
- Al. “anguishes.”
- T. Aquin. Prolog ad. I. II. Per imaginem Dei significatur (sicut Damascen. dicit), intellectuale, et arbitrio liberum; et per se potestativum.
- Ps. xxxii. 9.
- Some mss. languoribus.
- Isa. lviii. 7.
- Al. “you.”
- Isa. lviii. 9 and lxv. 24.
- 2 Cor. ix. 7.
- Matt. vi. 6.