Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: Series II/Volume XII/Leo the Great/Sermons/Sermon 9
Upon the Collections, IV.
I. The devil’s wickedness in leading men astray is now counteracted by the work of redemption in restoring them to the truth.
God’s mercy and justice, dearly-beloved, has in loving-kindness disclosed to us through our Lord Jesus Christ’s teaching, the manner of His retributions, as they have been ordained from the foundation of the world, that accepting the significance of facts we might take what we believe will happen, to have, as it were, already come to pass. For our Redeemer and Saviour knew what great errors the devil’s deceit had dispersed throughout the world and by how many superstitions he had subjected the chief part of mankind to himself. But that the creature formed in God’s image might not any longer through ignorance of the Truth be driven on to the precipice of perpetual death, He inserted in the Gospel-pages the nature of His judgment that it might recover every man from the snares of the crafty foe; for now all would know what rewards the good might hope for and what punishments the evil must fear. For the instigator and author of sin in order first to fall through pride and then to injure us through envy, because “he stood not in the Truth” put all his strength in lying and produced every kind of deceit from this poisoned source of his cunning, that he might cut off man’s devout hopes from that happiness which he had lost by his own uplifting, and drag them into partnership with his condemnation, to whose reconciliation he himself could not attain. Whoever therefore among men has wronged God by his wickednesses, has been led astray by his guile, and depraved by his villainy. For he easily drives into all evil doings those whom he has deceived in the matter of religion. But knowing that God is denied not only by words but also by deeds, many whom he could not rob of their faith, he has robbed of their love, and by choking the ground of their heart with the weeds of avarice, has spoiled them of the fruit of good works, when he could not spoil them of the confession of their lips.
II. God’s just judgment against sin is denounced that we may avoid it by deeds of mercy and love.
On account therefore, dearly-beloved, of these crafty designs of our ancient foe, the unspeakable goodness of Christ has wished us to know, what was to be decreed about all mankind in the day of retribution, that, while in this life healing remedies are legitimately offered, while restoration is not denied to the contrite, and those who have been long barren can at length be fruitful, the verdict on which justice has determined may be fore-stalled and the picture of God’s coming to judge the world never depart from the mind’s eye. For the Lord will come in His glorious Majesty, as He Himself has foretold, and there will be with Him an innumerable host of angel-legions radiant in their splendour. Before the throne of His power will all the nations of the world be gathered; and all the men that in all ages and on all the face of the earth have been born, shall stand in the Judge’s sight. Then shall be separated the just from the unjust, the guiltless from the
guilty; and when the sons of piety, their works of mercy reviewed, have received the Kingdom prepared for them, the unjust shall be upbraided for their utter barrenness, and those on the left having naught in common with those on the right, shall by the condemnation of the Almighty Judge be cast into the fire prepared for the torture of the devil and his angels, with him to share the punishment, whose will they choose to do. Who then would not tremble at this doom of eternal torment? Who would not dread evils which are never to be ended? But since this severity is only denounced in order that we may seek for mercy, we too in this present life must show such open-handed mercy that after perilous neglect returning to works of piety it may be possible for us to be set free from this doom. For this is the purpose of the Judge’s might and of the Saviour’s graciousness, that the unrighteous may forsake his ways and the sinner give up his wicked habits. Let those who wish Christ to spare them, have mercy on the poor; let them give freely to feed the wretched, who desire to attain to the society of the blessed. Let no man consider his fellow vile, nor despise in any one that nature which the Creator of the world made His own. For who that labours can deny that Christ claims that labour as done unto Himself? Your fellow-slave is helped thereby, but it is the Lord who will repay. The feeding of the needy is the purchase money of the heavenly kingdom and the free dispenser of things temporal is made the heir of things eternal. But how has such small expenditure deserved to be valued so highly except because our works are weighed in the balance of love, and when a man loves what God loves, he is deservedly raised into His kingdom, whose attribute of love has in part become his?
III. We minister to Christ Himself in the person of his poor.
To this pious duty of good works, therefore dearly beloved, the day of Apostolic institution invites us, on which the first collection of our holy offerings has been prudently and profitably ordained by the Fathers; in order that, because at this season formerly the Gentiles used superstitiously to serve demons, we might celebrate the most holy offering of our alms in protest against the unholy victims of the wicked. And because this has been most profitable to the growth of the Church, it has been resolved to make it perpetual. We exhort you, therefore, holy brethren throughout the churches of your several regions on Wednesday next to contribute of your goods, according to your means and willingness, to purposes of charity, that ye may be able to win that blessedness in which he shall rejoice without end, who “considereth the needy and poor.” And if we are to “consider” him, dearly beloved, we must use loving care and watchfulness, in order that we may find him whom modesty conceals and shamefastness keeps back. For there are those who blush openly to ask for what they want and prefer to suffer privation without speaking rather than to be put to shame by a public appeal. These are they whom we ought to “consider” and relieve from their hidden straits in order that they may the more rejoice from the very fact that their modesty as well as poverty has been consulted. And rightly in the needy and poor do we recognize the person of Jesus Christ our Lord Himself, “Who though He was rich,” as says the blessed Apostle, “became poor, that He might enrich us by His poverty.” And that His presence might never seem to be wanting to us, He so effected the mystic union of His humility and His glory that while we adore Him as King and Lord in the Majesty of the Father, we might also feed Him in His poor, for which we shall be set free in an evil day from perpetual damnation, and for our considerate care of the poor shall be joined with the whole company of heaven.
IV. To complete their acceptance by God, they must not neglect to lay all information against the Manichees who are in the city.
But in order that your devotion, dearly beloved, may in all things be pleasing to God, we exhort you also to show due zeal in informing your presbyters of Manichees where
ever they be hidden. For it is naught but piety to disclose the hiding-places of the wicked, and in them to overthrow the devil whom they serve. For against them, dearly beloved, it becomes indeed the whole world and the whole Church everywhere to put on the armour of Faith: but your devotion ought to be foremost in this work, who in your progenitors learnt the Gospel of the Cross of Christ from the very mouth of the most blessed Apostles Peter and Paul. Men must not be allowed to lie hid who do not believe that the law given through Moses, in which God is shown to be the Creator of the Universe, ought to be received: who speak against the Prophets and the Holy Ghost, dare in their damnable profanity to reject the Psalms of David which are sung through the universal Church with all reverence, deny the birth of the Lord Christ, according to the flesh, say that His Passion and Resurrection was fictitious, not true, and deprive the baptism of regeneration of all its power as a means of grace. Nothing with them is holy, nothing entire, nothing true. They are to be shunned, lest they harm any one: they are to be given up, lest they should settle in any part of our city. Yours, dearly beloved, will be the gain before the Lord’s judgment-seat of what we bid, of what we ask. For it is but right that the triumph of this deed also should be joined to the oblation of our alms, the Lord Jesus Christ in all things aiding us, Who lives and reigns for ever and ever. Amen.
- The Ballerinii in an excellent note have shown that the series of six Sermons de Collectis were delivered in connexion with the annual Collections then in vogue at Rome for the sick and poor of the seven city regions. These collections seem to have been continued for several consecutive days (cf. Serm. VI. primus collectarum dies, and Serm. X. chap. 4), and probably began on the 6th of July (the octave of SS. Peter and Paul), the day on which in pagan times the Ludi Apollinares had also begun: this date being designedly chosen, as Leo himself says (Serm. VIII.), ad destruendas antiqui hostis insidias in die quo impii sub idolorum suorum nomine diabolo serviebant: cf. what he says also in the first and third chapter of this Sermon (IX.).
- S. John viii. 44.
- Dies apostolicæ institutionis: this was, as note 6 explains, the octave of SS. Peter and Paul, but how far Leo actually attributes its institution to the Apostles themselves, is a little doubtful. In the next clause here he speaks of the Collection as a patribus ordinata (so too in Serm. VII. dies saluberime a sanctis patribus institutus, and Serm. XI. chap. 2: cf. Serm. X. chap. 1, auctoritatem patrum); whereas in Sermon VIII. the day is said to be apostolicis traditionibus institutis, and in Serm. XI. chap. 1, apostolicis didicimus institutis, and strongest of all the opening words of Serm. X. chap. 1, apostolicæ traditionis instituta servantes ut diem quem illi ab impiorum consuetudine purgatum misericordiæ operibus consecrarunt celebremus. Patres however often includes apostoli, e.g. Serm. LXXIII. chap. 1, gratias agamus.…sanctorum patrum necessariæ tarditati, where patrum = apostoli aliique discipuli. The fact is, as Bright points out upon a similar matter (the origin of Lent), Leo “would be prone to make that claim for any institute of his own church (see Bingham xxi. 1, 8.)” (n. 103.). On Serm. LXXIX. 1 the Ball. appropriately quote a dictum of S. Augustine’s that what the universal Church had always held is correctly credited with the authority of the Apostles.
- Regionum, viz. the seven regions into which Rome was then divided: see n. 6, above.
- The Ball. wish to alter this to Thursday (against mss.) to suit their calculations, by which as the detection of Manichæism at Rome, mentioned in chap. iv., occurred after the 6th of July, 443, this sermon must have been delivered in 444.
- Ps. xli. 1.
- 2 Cor. viii. 9.
- Cf. Lett. VII. and VIII.