Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697/Book IX

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Okinaga-tarashi-hime no Mikoto was the great-grandchild of the Emperor Waka-Yamato-neko-hiko Ohohihi[2] and the daughter of Prince Okinaga[3] no Sukune. Her mother's name was Katsuraki no Taka-nuka-hime. She was made Empress in the second year of the Emperor Naka-tsu-hiko. Whilst still young, she was intelligent and shrewd, and her countenance was of such blooming beauty that the Prince her father wondered at it.

In his 9th year, Spring, the 2nd month, the Emperor Naka-tsu-hiko died in the palace of Kashihi in Tsukushi. At this time the Empress was grieved that the Emperor would not follow the Divine instructions, and had consequently died (IX. 2.) a premature death. She thought she would find out what God had sent the curse, so that she might possess herself of the land of treasures. She therefore commanded her Ministers and functionaries to purge offences[4] and to rectify transgressions, also to construct a Palace of worship[5] in the village of Wayamada.

3rd month, 1st day. The Empress, having selected a lucky day,[6] entered the Palace of worship, and discharged in person the office of priest.[7] She commanded Takechi no Sukune to play on the lute,[8] and the Nakatomi, Igatsu no Omi, was designated as Saniha.[9] Then placing one thousand pieces of cloth, high pieces of cloth, on the top and bottom of the lute, she prayed saying:—"Who is the God who on a former day instructed the Emperor? I pray that I may know his name." After seven days and seven nights there came an answer, saying:—"I am the Deity who dwells in the Shrine of split-bell Isuzu in the district of hundred-transmit Watarahi in the province of divine-wind Ise,[10] and my name is Tsuki-sakaki idzu no mi-tama ama-zakaru Muka-tsu hime[11] no Mikoto.

(IX. 3.) Again she inquired:—"Other than this Deity, are there any Deities present?" The answer was:—"I am the Deity who comes forth on the ears of the flag-like Eulalia,[12] and my dwelling is in the district of Aha in Ada-fushi in Oda." She inquired:—"Are there others?" There was an answer, saying:—"There is the Deity who rules in Heaven, who rules in the Void, the gem-casket-entering-prince, the awful Koto-shiro-nushi."[13]

She inquired:—"Are there others?" There was an answer, saying:—"It is not known whether there are others or not." Hereupon the Saniha[14] said:—"There is no answer now, but they will speak again afterwards." So there was an answer, saying:—"There are the Gods who have settled to the bottom of the water of the Little Strait of Tachibana[15] in the Land of Hiuga, and who are produced and dwell there like fresh water plants. Their names are Uha-tsutsu no wo, Naka-tsutsu no wo, and Soko-tsutsu no wo.[16]

She inquired:—"Are there others?" There was an answer, saying:—"Whether there are or not is unknown." And nothing more was ever said as to the existence of other Gods. Now that the Divine words[17] had been obtained, the Gods were worshipped in accordance with their instructions. Thereafter, Kamo no Wake, the ancestor of the Kibi no Omi, was sent to attack the Kumaso. Before many days had elapsed they freely submitted.

(IX. 4.) Moreover, there was in the village of Notorita a man named Hashiro Kuma-washi.[18] He was a fellow of powerful frame, and had wings on his body, so that he could fly, and with them soar aloft. Therefore he would not obey the Imperial commands, but habitually plundered the people.

17th day. The Empress desired to attack Kuma-washi. So from the Palace of Kashihi she returned to the Palace of Matsunowo. At this time a whirlwind suddenly arose, and her august hat was blown off by the wind. Therefore the men of the time called that place Mikasa.[19]

20th day. She arrived at the Moor of Sosoki, where she took up arms and smote Hashiro Kuma-washi, and destroyed him. Then she addressed her courtiers, saying:—"My mind is at peace now that we have taken Kuma-washi." Therefore the name of that place was called Yasu.[20]

25th day. Going on from thence, she arrived at the district of Yamato,[21] where she put to death a Tsuchi-gumo named Tabura-tsu-hime. Now Tabura-tsu-hime's elder brother Natsuha had raised an army and advanced against the Empress, but on hearing that his younger sister had been already put to death, he took to flight.

Summer, 4th month, 3rd day. Proceeding northwards, she arrived at the district of Matsura in the Land of Hizen, and partook of food on the bank of the river Wogawa,[22] in the village of Tamashima. Here the Empress bent a needle, and made of it a hook. She took grains of rice and used them as bait. Pulling out the threads of her garment, she made of them a line. Then mounting upon a stone in the middle of the (IX. 5.) river, and casting the hook, she prayed, saying:—"We are proceeding westward, where we desire to gain possession of the Land of Treasure. If we are to succeed, let the fish of the river bite the hook." Accordingly, raising up her fishing-rod, she caught a trout. Then the Empress said:—"It is a strange thing." Wherefore the men of the day called that place the Land of Medzura. The present name Matsura[23] is a corruption of this. For this reason, whenever the 1st decade of the 4th month comes round, the women of that land take hooks, which they cast into the river and catch trout—a custom which has not ceased unto this day. The men may angle for fish, but they cannot catch any.

This having been done, the Empress knew that there was virtue in the teaching of the Gods, and she made sacrifice anew to the Gods of Heaven and Earth. As it was her purpose in person to chastise the West, she set apart a sacred rice-field, and tilled it. Then, in order to divert water from the Naka-gaha with which to irrigate it, she dug a channel as far as the Hill of Todoroki. But a great rock stood in the way, and she was unable to pierce a channel through it. Then the Empress sent for Takechi no Sukune, and offering a sword and a mirror made him pray to the Gods of Heaven and Earth, and ask them to allow the channel to be completed. Straightway there came thunder and lightning, and stamped that rock asunder, so that the water passed through. Therefore the men of the time called that channel the Channel of Sakuta.[24]

The Empress returned to the Bay of Kashihi, and loosing her hair, looked over the sea, saying:—"I, having received the instructions of the Gods of Heaven and Earth, and trusting in the Spirits of the Imperial ancestors, floating across the deep blue sea, intend in person to chastise the West. Therefore do (IX. 6.) I now lave my head in the water of the sea. If I am to be successful, let my hair part spontaneously into two." Accordingly she entered the sea and bathed, and her hair parted of its own accord. The Empress bound it up parted into bunches.[25]

Then she addressed her ministers, saying:—"To make war and move troops is a matter of the greatest concern to a country. Peace and danger, success and failure must depend on it. If I now entrusted to you, my ministers, the duties of the expedition we are about to undertake, the blame, in case of ill-success, would rest with you. This would be very grievous to me. Therefore, although I am a woman, and a feeble woman too, I will for a while borrow the outward appearance of a man, and force myself to adopt manly counsels. Above, I shall receive support from the Spirits of the Gods of Heaven and Earth, while below I shall avail myself of the assistance of you, my ministers. Brandishing our weapons, we shall cross the towering billows: preparing an array of ships, we shall take possession of the Land of Treasure. If the enterprise succeeds, all of you, my ministers, will have the credit, while if it is unsuccessful, I alone shall be to blame. Such have been my intentions, do ye deliberate together regarding them." The ministers all said:—"The object of the measure which the Empress has devised for the Empire is to tranquillize the ancestral shrines and the Gods of the Earth and Grain, and also to protect her servants from blame. With heads bowed to the ground we receive thy commands."[26]

Autumn, 9th month, 10th day. The various provinces were ordered to collect ships and to practise the use of weapons. But an army could not be assembled. The Empress said:—"This is surely the will of a God." So she erected the Shrine of Oho-miwa, and offered there a sword and a spear. Then the troops assembled freely. Hereupon a fisherman of Ahe, by (IX. 7.) name Womaro, was sent out into the Western Sea, to spy if there was any land there. He came back and said:—"There is no land to be seen." Again a fisherman of Shika, named Nagusa, was sent to look. After several days he returned, and said:—"To the north-west, there is a mountain girt with clouds and extending crosswise. This is perhaps a country." Hereupon a lucky day was fixed upon by divination. There was yet an interval before they should set out. Then the Empress in person, grasping her battle-axe, commanded the three divisions of her army, saying:—"If the drums are beaten out of time, and the signal-flags are waved confusedly, order cannot be preserved among the troops: if greedy of wealth, and eager for much, you cherish self and have regard for your own interests, you will surely be taken prisoners by the enemy. Despise not the enemy, though his numbers may be few; shrink not from laim, though his numbers may be many. Spare not the violent, slay not the submissive. There will surely be rewards for those who ultimately conquer in battle, and of course punishments for those who turn their backs and flee."

After this a God gave instructions, saying:—"A gentle spirit will attach itself to the Empress's person, and keep watch over her life: a rough spirit will form the vanguard, and be a (IX. 8.) guide to the squadron." So when she had received the divine instructions she did worship, and for this purpose appointed Otarimi,[27] Yosami no Ahiko to be the Director of the ceremonies in honour of the God.

The time had now come for the Empress's delivery. So she took a stone which she inserted in her loins, and prayed, saying:—"Let my delivery be in this land on the day that I return after our enterprise is at an end." That stone is now on the road-side in the district of Ito.[28]

After this the rough spirit was told to act as vanguard of the forces, and the gentle spirit requested to act as guardian of the Royal vessel.

Winter, 10th month, 3rd day. Sail was set from the harbour of Wani.[29] Then the ?Wind-God made a breeze to spring up, and the Sea-God[30] uplifted the billows. The great fishes of the ocean, every one, came to the surface and encompassed the (IX. 9.) ships. Presently a great wind blew from a favourable quarter on the ships under sail, and following the waves, without the labour of the oar or helm, they arrived at Silla. The tide-wave following the ships reached far up into the interior of the country. Hereupon the King of Silla feared and trembled, and knew not what to do, so he assembled all his people and said to them:—"Since the State of Silla was founded, it has never yet been heard that the water of the sea has encroached upon the land. Is it possible that the term of existence granted to it by Heaven has expired, and that our country is to become a part of the ocean?" Scarce had he spoken when a warlike fleet overspread the sea. Their banners were resplendent in the sunlight. The drums and fifes raised up their voices, and the mountains and rivers all thrilled to the sound. The King of Silla beholding this from afar felt that his country was about to be destroyed by this extraordinary force, and was terrified out of his senses. But presently coming to himself, he said:—"I have heard that in the East there is a divine country named Nippon, and also that there is there a wise sovereign called the Tennō. This divine force must belong to that country. How (IX. 10.) could we resist them by force of arms?" So he took a white flag, and of his own accord rendered submission, tying his hands behind his back with a white rope. He sealed up the maps and registers, and going down before the Royal vessel bowed his head to the ground, and said:—"Henceforward, as long as Heaven and Earth endure, we will obediently act as thy forage-providers. Not allowing the helms of our ships to become dry, every spring and every autumn we will send tribute of horse-combs and whips. And, without thinking the sea-distance a trouble, we will pay annual dues of male and female slaves." He confirmed this by repeated oaths, saying:—"When the sun no longer rises in the East, but comes forth in the West; when the River Arinare[31] turns its course backward, and when the river pebbles ascend and become stars—if before this we fail to pay homage every spring and every autumn, or neglect to send tribute of combs and whips, may the Gods of Heaven and Earth both together punish us."

Then someone said:—"Let us put to death the King of Silla." Hereupon the Empress said:—"When I first received the Divine instructions, promising to bestow on me the Land of Gold and Silver, I gave orders to the three divisions of the army, saying:—'Slay not the submissive.' Now that we have taken the Land of Treasure, and its people have freely offered submission, it would be unlucky to slay them." So she loosed the cords with which he was bound, and made him her forage-provider. Ultimately she proceeded to the interior of that country, placed seals on the magazines of precious treasure, and took possession of the books of maps and registers.[32] The spear on which the Empress leant[33] was planted at the gate of the King of Silla as a memorial to after ages. Therefore that spear even now remains planted at the King of Silla's gate.

Now Phasa Mikeun,[34] King of Silla, gave as a hostage Mi-cheul-kwi-chi Pha-chin Kan-ki,[35] and with gold and silver, bright colours, figured gauzes and silks, he loaded eighty vessels, which he made to follow after the Imperial forces. This was the origin of the King of Silla always sending eighty ships of tribute.

Hereupon the kings of the two countries of Koryö and Pèkché[36] (IX. 12.) hearing that Silla had rendered up its maps and registers,[37] and made submission, secretly caused the warlike power (of the Empress) to be spied out. Finding then that they could not be victorious, they came of themselves without the camp, and bowing their heads to the ground, and sighing, said:—"Henceforth for ever, these lands shall be styled thy western frontier provinces, and will not cease to offer tribute." Accordingly interior Governments were instituted. This is what is termed the three Han.[38]

The Empress returned from Silla.

12th month, 14th day. She gave birth to the Emperor Homuda in Tsukushi. Therefore the men of that time called the place where he was born Umi.[39]

(IX. 13.) One version says:—"When the Emperor Tarashi-nakatsu-hiko dwelt in the palace of Kashihi in Tsukushi, there were Deities who spake by the mouth of Uchi-saru-taka, Kuni-saru-taka, and Matsu-ya-tane, ancestors of the Agata-nushi of Saha, and admonished the Emperor, saying:—'If the august descendant wishes to gain the Land of Treasure, we will presently bestow it on him.' So on a later day, a lute was brought and given to the Empress. And the Empress played upon the lute, in accordance with the word of the Gods. Hereupon the Gods spake by the mouth of the Empress, and admonished the Emperor, saying:—'The land which the august descendant wishes for is, as it were, a stag's horn, and not a real country. But if the august descendant now makes due offering to us of the ship in which he sails, and of the water-field[40] called Ohota given him as tribute by Homutate, the Atahe of Anato, we will bestow on the august descendant a dazzling land, a land of plenteous treasures, fair to look upon as a beautiful woman.' Then the Emperor answered the Gods, saying:—'Gods though ye may be, why these deceiving words? Where is there any country? Moreover, when the ship in which We sail has been offered to you Deities, in what ship shall We sail? Nor do I know what Gods ye are. I pray you, let me know your names.' Then the Gods gave their names, saying:—'Uha-tsutsu no wo, Naka-tsutsu no wo, Soko-tsutsu no wo.' Such were the names of the three Gods given by them. And again one said:—'I am Mukahitsu-no wo, Kiki-so-ofu-itsuno mitama, Hayasa-nobori no Mikoto.' Then the Emperor spake to the Empress, and said:—'What ill-sounding things they say! Is it a woman? What is meant by Hayasa-nobori?'[41] Then the (IX. 14.) Gods addressed the Emperor, saying:—'O King, since thou art thus unbelieving, thou shalt not possess that country. But the child which is now in the Empress's womb, he will doubtless take possession of it.' On that night the Emperor took suddenly ill, and died. Afterwards the Empress performed worship in accordance with the directions of the Gods.[42] Then the Empress, clad in male attire, went on the expedition against Silla, and the Gods guided her. Accordingly the wave which followed the ship reached far into the interior of the Land of Silla. Hereupon the Silla Prince Urusohorichiu[43] came to meet the Empress, and kneeling down, took hold of the Royal vessel. Bowing his head to the ground, he said:—'Henceforward thy servant will act as an interior Government for the child of the Gods who dwells in Japan, and will not cease to furnish tribute.'"

One version says:—"She took prisoner the Prince of Silla, and going to the sea-side, plucked out his knee-caps[44], and causing him to crawl on the rocks, suddenly slew him, and buried him in the sand. Accordingly she stationed there one man as Governor of Silla, and departed. Afterwards, the wife of the Prince of Silla, not knowing where the body of her husband was buried, all by herself conceived the thought of deluding the Governor. So, enticing him, she said:—'If thou wilt let me know the place where the Prince's body is buried, I will surely reward thee liberally, and will become thy wife.' Hereupon the Governor believed these deluding words, and secretly made known to her the place where the body was buried. Then the Prince's wife and the people of the country, having consulted together, slew the Governor, and having disinterred the Prince's body, buried it in another place. Then they took the Governor's body, and buried it in the earth under the Prince's tomb, and taking up the coffin, deposited it on the top of the Governor's body, saying:—'This is as it ought necessarily to be, according to the order of things exalted and things base.' Hereupon the Empress,[45] when she heard of this, was mightily incensed, and raised a large army, with which it (IX. 15.) was her intent utterly to destroy Silla. So, with warships filling the sea, she proceeded thither. At this time the people of Silla were all afraid, and knew not what to do. Having assembled, they consulted together, and slew the Prince's wife by way of apology for their crime."[46]

Hereupon the three Gods who accompanied the expedition, viz. Uha-tsutsu no wo, Naka-tsutsu no wo, and Soko-tsutsu no wo, admonished the Empress, saying:—"Let our rough spirits be worshipped at the village of Yamada in Anato." Now Homutate, the ancestor of the Atahe of Anato, and Tamomi no Sukune, ancestor of the Muraji of Tsumori, represented to the Empress, saying:—"Surely thou wilt set apart unto the Gods the lands where they desire to dwell." So Homutate was appointed master of the worship of the rough spirits, and a shrine was erected in the village of Yamada in Anato.

Now in Spring, the second month of the year following the expedition against Silla, the Empress removed with her ministers and functionaries to the palace of Toyora in Anato, where she took up the Emperor's remains, and proceeded towards the capital by the sea-route. Now Prince Kakosaka and Prince Oshikuma, hearing of the Emperor's decease, as well as of the Empress's expedition to the West, and of the recent birth of an Imperial Prince, plotted secretly, saying:—"The Empress has now a child, and all the ministers obey her. They will certainly consult together and establish an infant sovereign. But shall we, the elders, obey our younger brother?" So, pretending that it was in order to build a misasagi for the Emperor, they went to Harima, and raised a misasagi at Akashi.[47] Accordingly they joined boats together in a string across to the island of Ahaji, and so transported the (IX. 16.) stones of that island to build it. Now they made every man take a weapon, and so they awaited the Empress. Hereupon Kurami-wake, the ancestor of the Kimi of Inugami, and Isachi no Sukune, ancestor of the Kishi,[48] together joined selves unto Prince Kakosaka, who made them his generals. and directed them to raise troops from the Eastern Land. Then Prince Kakosaka and Prince Oshikuma went forth together to the moor of Toga, and made a "hunt-prayer,"[49] saying:—"If our project is to be successful, then surely let us take some good game." The two Princes sat each in his shelter, when a wild-boar[50] sprang out suddenly, and climbing on to the shelter, bit Prince Kakosaka and killed him. The soldiers every one shuddered with fear. Then Prince Oshikuma addressed Kurami-wake, saying:—"This is a very ominous thing. We ought not to await the enemy here." So he withdrew his troops, and retreating again, encamped at Sumiyoshi.[51] At this time, the Empress heard that Prince Oshikuma had raised an army, and was awaiting her. She commanded Takechi no Sukune to take in his bosom the Imperial Prince, and going out across by way of the south-sea provinces,[52] to anchor in the harbour of Kiï, while the Empress's ship made straight for Naniha. At this time the Empress's ship swerved towards the midst of the sea, and was unable to proceed. She returned again to the harbour of Muko,[53] where she made divination as to this.

(IX. 17.) Hereupon Ama-terasu no Oho-kami admonished her, saying:—"My rough spirit may not approach the Imperial residence. Let him dwell in the land of Hirota in Mikokoro." So Ha-yama-hime, daughter of Yamashiro-neko, was appointed to worship him. Moreover, Waka-hiru-me no Mikoto admonished the Empress, saying:—"I wish to dwell in the land of Nagawo in Ikuta."[54] So Una-gami no Isachi was appointed to worship her. Again, Koto-shiro-nushi no Mikoto admonished her, saying:—"Worship me in the land of Nakata in Mi-kokoro."[55] So Naga-hime, younger sister of Ha-yama-hime, was appointed to worship him. Again the three Gods, Uha-tsutsu no wo, Naka-tsutsu no wo, and Soko-tsutsu no wo, admonished her, saying:—"Let our gentle spirits dwell at Nagawo[56] in Nuna-kura in Ohotsu, so that they may look upon the ships passing back and forward." Hereupon these Gods were enshrined in (IX. 18.) accordance with their instructions, and the Empress was enabled to cross the sea in peace.

Prince Oshikuma, again withdrawing his troops, retreated as far as Uji, where he encamped. The Empress proceeded southwards to the land of Kiï, and met the Prince Imperial at Hitaka. Having consulted with her Ministers, she at length desired to attack Prince Oshikuma, and removed to the Palace of Shinu. It so happened that at this time the day was dark like night. Many days passed in this manner, and the men of that time said:—"This is the Eternal Night." The Empress inquired of Toyomimi, the ancestor of the Atahe of Ki, saying:—"Wherefore is this omen?" Then there was an old man who said:—"I have heard by tradition that this kind of omen is called Atsunahi no tsumi."[57] She inquired:—"What does it mean?" He answered and said:—"The priests[58] of the two shrines have been buried together." Therefore she made strict investigation in the village. There was a man who said:—"The priest of Shinu and the priest of Amano were good friends. The priest of Shinu fell ill, and died. The priest of Amano wept and wailed, saying:—'We have been friends together since our birth. Why in our death should there not be the same grave for both?' So he lay down beside the corpse and died of himself, so that they were burled together. This is perhaps the reason." So they opened the tomb, and on examination found that it was true. Therefore they again changed their coffins and interred them separately, upon which the sunlight shone forth, and there was a difference between day and night.

3rd month, 5th day. The Empress commanded Takechi no Sukune and Take-furu-kuma, ancestor of the Omi of Wani, to lead an army of several tens of thousands of men to attack (IX. 19.) Prince Oshikuma. Hereupon, Takechi no Sukune and his colleague, having taken picked men, went out by way of Yamashiro as far as Uji, where they encamped north of the river. Prince Oshikuma came out from his camp, and offered battle. Now there was a man called Kuma[59] no Kori, who formed the vanguard of Prince Oshikuma's army.

One version says:—"Ancestor of the Obito of Katsurano no ki." Another says:—"The remote ancestor of the Kishi of Tako."

Accordingly, in order to encourage his men, he sang with a loud voice, saying:—

Beyond the river
Is the rough pine-clad plain—
To that pine-clad plain
Let us cross over,
With bows of tsuki,
And store of sounding arrows.
My dear fellow!
My dear fellows!
My cousin too!
My cousins!
Come! let us join battle
With Uchi no Aso![60]
(Within a tile
Is there any sand?)[61]
(IX. 20.) Come! let us join battle!

Then Takechi no Sukune, giving command to the three divisions of the army, made them all bind up their hair mallet-wise. Accordingly he made an order, saying:—"Let every one of you have spare bow-strings concealed in your top-knots, and gird on wooden swords." Having done so, in accordance with the commands of the Empress, he deluded Prince Oshikuma, saying:—"I am not greedy to possess the Empire. Only, while cherishing the infant Prince, we will obey my Lord the Prince. Why should I contend with thee in battle? I pray thee let us both cut our bow-strings, fling away our weapons, and be in harmony together. Then mayest thou, my Lord the Prince, mount to the Heavenly office, and sit at peace, making high thy pillow, and wielding at thy will the ten thousand appliances."[62]

So he openly gave orders to his army that they should all cut their bow-strings, and ungirding their swords, fling them into the river-water. Prince Oshikuma believed these deluding words, and ordered all his troops to ungird their weapons and fling them into the water of the river, and also to cut their bow-strings. Upon this, Takechi no Sukune commanded the three divisions of his army to produce their spare bow-strings, and to string their bows again, and, girt with their real swords, to advance across the river. Prince Oshikuma, seeing that he had been deceived, spake to Kurami-wake and Isachi no Sukune, saying:—"We have been deceived, and have now no spare weapons. How shall we be able to fight?" So he withdrew his forces and gradually retreated. Then Takechi no Sukune sent forth his choice troops and pursued him, and having come up to him just at Afusaka, put him to the rout. Therefore that place was called Afusaka.[63] The army took to flight, and ran as far as Kurusu in Sasanami. Many were slain. (IX. 21.) Hereupon the blood overflowed into Kurusu. Therefore in horror of this, until this day, the fruit of Kurusu[64] is not offered to the Imperial Palace. Prince Oshikuma, not knowing whither to betake himself in his flight, called to him Isachi no Sukune and made a song, saying:—

Come! my child,
Isachi Sukune!
Rather than receive a severe wound
From the mallet[65]
Of Uchi no Aso,
Like unto the grebe
Let us make a plunge!

So they sank together in the crossing-place of Seta, and died. Then Takechi no Sukune made a song, saying:—

The birds that dived,
At the ferry of Seta,
By the sea of Afumi.[66]
Since with my eyes I cannot see them,
Can they be still alive?

Hereupon they searched for their dead bodies, and were unable to find them. But several days after, they came out on the river-bank at Uji.[67] Then Takechi no Sukune again made a song, saying:—

In the sea of Afumi,
At the ferry of Seta,
The birds that dived—
Passing Tanakami,[68]
Have been caught at Uji.

Winter, 10th month, 3rd day. The ministers honoured the Empress with the title of Grand Empress. This year was the year Midzunoto I (60th) of the Cycle. It was reckoned the first year of her administration of the Government.

(IX. 22.) (A.D. 202.) 2nd year, Winter, 11th month, 8th day. The Emperor was buried in the misasagi of Nagano, in the province of Kahachi.

(A.D. 203.) 3rd year, Spring, 1st month, 3rd day. The Imperial Prince Homuda-wake was appointed Prince Imperial. Accordingly, the capital was made at Ihare. It was called the Palace of Wakazakura.

(A.D. 205.) 5th year, Spring, 3rd month, 7th day. The King of Silla sent O-nyé-să-pöl, Mo-ma-ri Cheul-chi and Pu-ra-mo-chi with tribute. It was their desire to get back Mi-cheul Hö-chi pöl-han, who had formerly come as a hostage. With this object they tampered with Hö-chi pöl-han and caused him to use deceit, telling him to make petition and say:—"The envoys O-nyé-să-pöl, Mo-ma-ri Cheul-chi, and the other have informed me that my king, on account of my long failure to return, has wholly confiscated my wife and family and made them slaves. I pray thee, let me return for a while to my own country and learn whether this be true or false." The Emperor forthwith gave him leave to go, and accordingly sent him away, accompanied by Katsuraki no Sotsuhiko. They (IX. 23.) reached Tsushima together, and stayed for the night at the harbour of Sabi no umi. Then the Silla envoys Mo-ma-ri Cheul-chi and the others secretly provided a separate ship and sailors, on board of which they put Mi-cheul Han-ki and made him escape to Silla. They also made a straw figure which they put in Mi-cheul Hö-chi's berth, and making it appear like a sick man, they informed Sotsuhiko, saying:—"Mi-cheul Hö-chi has taken suddenly ill, and is on the point of death." Sotsuhiko sent men to nurse him, and so discovered the deception. Having seized the three Silla envoys, he placed them in a cage which he burnt with fire and so killed them. Then he proceeded to Silla, where he touched at the harbour of Tatara. He took the Castle of Chhora, and returned. The captives taken on this occasion were the first ancestors of the Han[69] (IX. 24.) people of the four villages of Kuhabara, Sabi, Takamiya, and Oshinomi.[70]

(A.D. 213.) 13th year, Spring, 2nd month, 8th day. Takechi no Sukune was commanded to go with the Prince Imperial and worship the Great God of Kebi in Tsunoga.[71]

17th day. The Prince Imperial returned from Tsunoga. On this day the Grand Empress gave a banquet to the Prince Imperial in the Great Hall. The Grand Empress raising her cup wished long life to the Prince Imperial. Accordingly she made a song, saying:—

This august liquor
Is not my august liquor:
This prince of liquors[72]
He that dwells in the Eternal land
Firm as a rock--
The august God Sukuna,
With words of plenteous blessing,
Blessing all around—
With words of divine blessing
(IX. 25.) Blessing again and again—
Hath sent as an offering to thee.
Drink of it deeply.
Sa! Sa![73]

Takechi no Sukune, on behalf of the Prince Imperial, made an answering song, saying:—

The man who brewed[74]
This august liquor,
Setting up on the mortar
His drum,
Singing all the while,
He must have brewed it.
This august liquor
Is exquisitely more and more delightful.
Sa! Sa!

(A.D. 239.) 39th year. This year was the year Tsuchinoto Hitsuji (56th) of the Cycle.

The History of Wei says:—"In the reign of the Emperor Ming Ti, in the third year of the period King-ch'u (A.D. 239) the Queen of Wa sent the high officer Nan-teu-mi and others to the province, where they begged permission to proceed to the Emperor and offer tribute. The T'ai-sheu,[75] Tăng-hia, sent an officer to escort them to the capital."

(A.D. 240.) 40th year.

The History of Wei says:—"In the first year of Chêng-Shih, Kien Chung-kiao, Wéi T'i-hi and others proceeded to the Wa country charged with an Imperial rescript and a seal and ribbon."[76]

(A.D. 243.) 43rd year.

The Ruler[77] of Wa again sent high officers as envoys with tribute, named I Shing-ché, Yih-Ye-yoh,[78] and others—eight persons in all.

(A.D. 246.) 46th year, Spring, 3rd month, 1st day. Shima no Sukune was sent to the Land of Thak-syun.[79] Hereupon Malkeum Kanki,[80] King of Thak-syun, informed Shima no Sukune, saying:—"In the course of the year Kinoye Ne,[81] three men of Pèkché named Kutyö, Mi-chyu-nyu, and Moko[82] came to my country and said:—'The King of Pèkché, hearing that in the Eastern quarter there is an honourable country, has sent thy servants to this honourable country's court. Therefore we beg of thee a passage so that we may go to that Land. If thou wilt be good enough to instruct thy servants and cause us to pass along the roads, our King will certainly show profound kindness to my Lord the King.'[83] I then said to Kutyö and his (IX. 26.) fellows:—'I have always heard that there is an honourable country in the East, but I have had no communication with it, and do not know the way. There is nothing but far seas and towering billows, so that in a large ship, one can hardly communicate. Even if there were a regular crossing-place, how could you arrive there?' Hereupon Kutyö and the others said:—'Well, then, for the present we cannot communicate. Our best plan will be to go back again, and prepare a ship with which to communicate later.' They also said:—'If envoys should come from the honourable country, thou oughtest surely to inform our country.' Thus they went back. Hereupon Shima no Sukune sent one of his followers named Nihaya, and a Thak-syun man named Kwa-ko to the Land of Pèkché to make friendly inquiries of the King's health.

King Syo-ko[84] of Pèkché was profoundly pleased, and received them cordially. He presented to Nihaya a roll each of five kinds of dyed silk, a horn-bow[85] and arrows, together with forty bars of iron.[86] Thereafter he opened his treasure-house, and pointing to his various rare objects, said:—"In my country there is great store of these rare treasures. I have wished to pay tribute of them to the honourable country, but not knowing the way I was unable to carry out my intention. I (IX. 27.) shall now entrust them to envoys, who will visit your country in order to offer them." Nihaya took charge of this message, and on his return informed Shima no Sukune, who thereupon came back from Thak-syun.

(A.D. 247.) 47th year, Summer, 4th month. The King of Pèkché sent Kutyö, Mi-chu-nyu and Ma-ko with tribute. Now a tribute envoy from Silla came along with Kutyö. Hereupon the Grand Empress and the Prince Imperial Homuda wake no Mikoto were greatly delighted and said:—"People from the countries wished for[87] by our late Sovereign have now come to Court. Alas! that they cannot meet the Emperor!'" There was not one of all the ministers who did not shed tears. But when the articles of tribute of the two countries were examined, the Silla tribute was of rare objects in very great number, while the Pèkché tribute articles were few and mean, and of no value. So inquiry was made of Kutyö and the others, saying:—"How is it that the Pèkché tribute is inferior to that of Silla?" They answered, and said:—"We lost our way and arrived at Sabi.[88] Here thy servants were captured by men of Silla and confined in a gaol. After three months had passed, they wished to kill us. Then Kutyö and the rest looked up towards Heaven, and pronounced a curse. The men of Silla, fearing this curse, refrained from killing us, but robbed us of our tribute. Then they gave us the tribute of Silla in exchange for our tribute, and made it the tribute of thy servants' country, and they spake to thy servants, saying:—'Be careful what ye say, or else, as soon as we return, we will kill you.' Therefore we, Kutyö and the rest, were afraid, and made no objection. For this reason we have hardly been able to reach the Heavenly Court.". Then the Grand Empress and Homuda wake no Mikoto charged the Silla envoys with this deed, and accordingly prayed to the Gods of Heaven, saying:—"Whom is it meet that we send to Pèkché to examine this matter whether it be true or false; whom is it meet that we send to Silla to investigate this charge?" Therewith the Gods of Heaven admonished them, saying:—"Let Takechi no Sukune prepare a plan, and let Chikuma Nagahiko be the envoy. Then it will be as you desire."

(IX. 28.) Chikuma Nagahiko's title () is unknown. One account says:—"Chikuma Nagahiko was a man of the province of Musashi, the first ancestor of the present Obito of Tsukimoto of the Nukada Be."

The Pèkché record[89] says:—"Shimananaga hiko was perhaps this man."

Hereupon Chikuma Nagahiko was sent to Silla to call that country to an account for meddling with the Pèkché tribute.

(A.D. 249.) 49th year, Spring, 3rd month. Areda wake and Kaga wake were made generals. Along with Kutyö and the others they prepared a force with which they crossed over and came to Thak-syun. They were accordingly about to invade Silla, when some one said:—"Your troops are too few. You cannot defeat Silla." They respectfully sent back again Sya-pèk Kè-ro to ask for reinforcements. Mong-na Keun-chă and Sya-sya Nokwé[90]

These two men's surname is unknown. But Mongna Keunchă was a Pèkché general.

were forthwith ordered to take command of choice troops which were sent along with Sya-pèk Kè-ro. They all assembled at Thak-syun, invaded Silla, and conquered it. Seven provinces were accordingly subdued, viz. Pi-chă-pun, South Kara, Tok-kuk, Ara, Tara, Thak-syun, and Kara.[91] Then they moved their forces, and turning westward, arrived at Ko-hyé-chin, where they slaughtered the southern savages of Chim-mi-ta-nyé and granted their country to Pèkché. Hereupon their King, (IX. 29.) Syoko,[92] together with Prince Kusyu, came to meet them with more troops. Then four villages, viz. Pi-ri, Phi-chung, Pho-mi-ki, and Pan-ko, spontaneously surrendered. Thereupon the Kings of Pèkché, father and son, met Areda wake, Mong-na Keunchǎ, and the rest at the village of Wi-niu [now called Tsurusugi],[93] and at an interview offered their congratulations and dismissed them with cordial courtesy. But Chikuma Nagahiko remained in the Land of Pèkché with the King of Pèkché, where they ascended Mount Phi-ki and made a solemn declaration. Afterwards they ascended Mount[94] Ko-sya, where they sat together upon a rock, and the King of Pèkché made a solemn declaration, saying:—"If I spread grass for us to sit upon, it might be burnt with fire; and if I took wood for a seat, it might be washed away by water. Therefore, sitting on a rock, I make this solemn declaration of alliance to show that it will remain undecayed to distant ages. From this time forward, therefore, for a thousand autumns and for ten thousand years, without pause and without limit, we shall bear the regular title of 'The Western Frontier Province,' and every spring and every autumn will attend your Court with tribute." So he took with him Chikuma Nagahiko to his capital, where he treated him with the most cordial courtesy. He also made Kutyö and the others escort him home.

(A.D. 250.) 50th year, Spring, 2nd month. Areda wake and his companions returned.

Summer, 5th month. Chikuma Nagahiko, Kutyö and the rest arrived from Pèkché. Thereupon the Grand Empress was delighted, and inquired of Kutyö, saying:—"The various Han[95] countries west of the sea have been already granted to thy country. Wherefore dost thou come again repeatedly?" Kutyö and the others said to the Empress:—"The vast (IX. 30.) blessings of the Celestial Court reached afar to our mean village, and our king capered with delight. Out of the fulness of his heart he has sent a return mission in token of his great sincerity. Though it come to the ten thousandth year, in what year shall we fail to attend thy Court?" The Grand Empress gave command, saying:—"Good are thy words. These are Our intentions. We grant in addition the Castle of Tasya to serve as a station in going and returning."

(A.D. 251.) 51st year, Spring, 3rd month. The King of Pèkché again sent Kutyö to the Court with tribute. Hereupon the Grand Empress addressed the Prince Imperial and Takechi no Sukune, saying:—"We owe it to Heaven and not to man that we have a friendly country like Corea. Therefore it brings constantly, without missing a year, tribute of trinkets and rarities such as there have never been before. We, seeing this true affection, are always rejoiced at it, and so long as we live will heartily bestow on it Our favour."

That same year she despatched Chikuma Nagahiko to the Land of Pèkché in company with Kutyö and the others. Accordingly, in the most gracious manner, she said:—"We, in accordance with the divine testimony, having for the first time laid open a road, subdued the lands west of the sea and granted them to Pèkché, would now again draw closer the bonds of friendship and make lasting our loving bounty."

At this time the Kings of Pèkché, father and son, both together knocked their foreheads on the ground and made representation, saying:—"The immense bounty of the honourable country is more weighty than Heaven and Earth. What day, (IX. 31.) what hour shall we presume to forget it? The sage sovereign dwells above, illustrious as the sun and moon; thy servants now dwell below, solid as a mountain or hill, and will always be thy western frontier land, never to the last showing double hearts."

(A.D. 252.) 52nd year, Autumn, 9th month, 10th day. Kutyö and the others came along with Chikuma Nagahiko and presented a seven-branched[96] sword and a seven-little-one[97]-mirror, with various other objects of great value. They addressed the Empress, saying:—"West of thy servants' country there is a river-source which issues from Mount Chölsan[98] in Kong-na. It is distant seven days' journey. It need not be approached, but one should drink of this water, and so having gotten the iron of this mountain, wait upon the sage Court for all ages." Moreover, he[99] addressed his grandson, Prince Chhim-nyu,[100] saying:—"The honourable country east of the sea with which we are now in communication has been opened to us by Heaven. Therefore does it bestow on us Celestial bounty, and dividing off the land west of the sea, has granted it to us. Consequently the foundation of our land is confirmed for ever. Thou shouldst cultivate well its friendship, and having collected our national products, wait on it with tribute without ceasing. Henceforth, grudging not even our lives, let us continue to send yearly tribute."

(A.D. 255.) (IX. 32.) 55th year. Syoko, King of Pèkché, died.[101]

(A.D. 256.) 56th year. Kusyu, son of the King of Pèkché, was set up as king.[102]

(A.D. 202.) 62nd year. Silla did not attend the Court. The same year Sotsuhiko was sent to chastise Silla.

The Pèkché record says:—"The year Midzunoye Mŭma.[103] Silla did not wait upon the honourable country. The honourable country sent Sachihiko to attack it. The men of Silla dressed up two beautiful women whom they sent to meet Sachihiko at the port and inveigle him. Sachihiko accepted them, and turning aside, attacked the land of Kara. Kwi-pon[104] Kanki, King of Kara, and his sons, Pèk-ku-chi, A-syu-chi, Ik-sya-ri, I-ra-ma-chyu, and I-mun-chi, fled to Pèkché, taking with them their subjects. Pèkché received them cordially, and Kwi-chön-chi, younger sister of the King of Kara, went to Great Wa and addressed the Empress, saying:—'Your majesty sent Sachihiko to attack Silla. But he has accepted beautiful women of Silla, and abandoned the invasion. On the contrary he has destroyed our country. My brothers and our people have all been driven into exile. Unable to bear my grief, I have come hither to make this representation.' The Empress was greatly enraged, and forthwith sent Mongna Keunchă in command of an army to bring them together in Kara and to restore the temples of the Earth and of Grain."

One account says:—"Sachihiko, when he learnt that the Empress was wroth with him, did not dare to return openly, but hid himself. He had a younger sister who was in the service of the Imperial Palace. Hiko secretly sent a messenger to inquire of her whether or no the Empress's wrath had abated. She, pretending a dream, said to the Empress:—'To-night, in a dream, I saw Sachihiko.' The Empress was greatly enraged, and (IX. 33.) said:—'How should Hiko dare to come?' The Empress's[105] words were reported to Sachihiko, who seeing that he would not be pardoned, went into a cave of a rock and died."

(A.D. 264.) 64th year.[106] Kusyu, King of Pèkché, died, and his son Chhim-nyu was set up as king.

(A.D. 265.) 65th year. King Chhim-nyu of Pèkché[107] died. His son Ahwa was a child, and his father's younger brother, Sinsǎ, by usurpation was set up and made king.[108]

(A.D. 266.) 66th year.

This year was the second year of the period T'ai She of the Emperor Wu Ti of the Tsin Dynasty. K'i Kü-chu of Tsin says:—"In the 10th month of the 2nd year of the period T'ai-she of Wu Ti, the Queen of Wa sent interpreters with tribute."

(A.D. 269.) 69th year, Summer, 4th month, 17th day. The Grand Empress died in the Palace of Waka-zakura at the age of 100.

Winter, 10th month, 17th day. She was buried in the misasagi of Tatanami in Saki. On this day, by way of posthumous honour to the Grand Empress, she was called Okinaga Tarashi-hime no Mikoto.

This year was the year Tsuchinoto Ushi (26th) of the Cycle.

  1. Divine merit or success.
  2. Kaikwa Tennō.
  3. Name of a place in Ohomi. This is hardly consistent with the statement at the end of this reign that Oki-naga (long life) was a posthumous name given her, apparently owing to the great age to which she attained.
  4. The ceremony of purification (harahi) is referred to.

    Motowori observes on the parallel passage of the "Kojiki" that tsumi, offence, includes kegare, pollutions, ashiki waza, ill-deeds, and wazawahi, calamities. The offences for which the ceremony of purification was required are enumerated in the "Kojiki" as flaying alive, flaying backwards, breaking down the divisions between rice-fields, filling up irrigating channels, cominitting nuisances, incest, and bestiality. The Oho-harahi, or Great Purification Ritual, gives a similar but more detailed description. See Ch. K., p. 230.

  5. Lit. religious abstinence. See above, p. 176.
  6. "Lucky day" is probably a Chinese trait.
  7. Kannushi.
  8. The Japanese or Adzuma koto, described as an instrument five or six feet long, with six strings.
  9. Saniha is explained as the official who examines the utterances prompted by the Deity. The literal meaning is "pure court," from the place in which he stood during the ceremony. See Ch. K., p. 229.
  10. The epithets split-bell, hundred-transmit and divine-wind are makura-kotoba or pillow-words, which have no meaning to us. Split-bell is put before Isuzu because suzu means bell (Fr. grêlot). Wataru, "to cross over," suggests the phrase momo-tsutahe (hundred-transmit). See Ch. K., p. 247.
  11. The awful spirit of the planted Cleyera, the lady of sky-distant Mukatsu. Mukatsu, as appears from p. 221, is Corea. The Deity who dwells at Ise is the Sun-Goddess. But she chooses (apparently) to represent herself as a Corean Deity. Sakaki (Cleyera Japonica) is the sacred tree of Shintō.
  12. A tall grass, like pampas grass, hence the epithet flag-like.
  13. Koto-shiro-nushi, thing-know-master. Thing-know is a Chinese idiom for "to rule," and it is the same word which is rendered rule just above.
  14. See above, p. 225.
  15. Little Strait is in the original Wodo: the Bungo Channel.
  16. See Ch. K., p. 41, also above, p. 27.
  17. The term "divine words" probably means the proper names and titles. of the Deities.
  18. Feather-white bear-eagle.
  19. August hat.
  20. Peaceful.
  21. In Chikugo.
  22. Little river.
  23. Medzurashiki means "strange." Matsura is really Matsu-ura, fir-bay.
  24. Sundered field.
  25. In manly fashion.
  26. This speech is copied from a Chinese book.
  27. Otarimi is the na, or personal name; Yosami the uji, or name of the House; Ahiko is the Kabane, or title.
  28. Tradition pointed out two white egg-shaped stones a little over a foot long as those used on this occasion. They were afterwards stolen.
  29. In Tsushima.
  30. The words used here for Wind-God and Sea-God are purely Chinese. "Æolus " and "Neptune" would be just as appropriate in a Saga.
  31. Supposed to be the Am-nok-kang.
  32. The Cadastral records.
  33. As a staff.
  34. The traditional kana rendering is Hasa Mukin. Phasa was the 6th King of Silia. He reigned from A.D. 80 to A.D. 112. Mikeun or Mukin is not clear. The last syllable corresponds with the last syllable of ni-sä-keun (尼師今), an old Silla word for king, mentioned in the Introduction to the "Tongkam."
  35. The traditional kana has Mi-shi-ko-chi Ha-tori Kamu-ki. Pha-chin was the fourth official rank in Silla (see "Tongkam," I. 31), and Kanki is said by the Shiki to be a title. A Silla Prince named Misǎheun (in Japanese Mishikin) was sent as hostage to Japan A.D. 402. It is clear from what follows (A.D. 205) that this is the same person.
  36. The original name of this country is Kokuryö. It did not become officially known as Koryö until A.D. 936, but the contracted form was in use long before, and there are examples of it in Chinese literature as early as A.D. 500 (Parker,"Race Struggles in Corea," "T.A.S.J.," XVIII., Pt. II.). The capital was Phyöngyang, at least at one time.

    The Japanese name for this kingdom was Koma, a word of doubtful derivation. I think it possible that it means bear (in Corean kom), and that the Koma of Corea and the Kuma of Japan were the same race—like the Saxons of Germany and the Saxons of England. Parker, in the article just referred to (p. 216), suggests that Koma was really a part of Pèkché, and not Koryö. The town of Koma or Kuma was certainly in Pèkché territory, and was for a while the capital. But I cannot think that the Japanese could have been mistaken on this point. They were far too well acquainted with Corean matters, and with them Koryö and Koma are the same thing. It is probable nevertheless that Koma or Kumanari was at some time the seat of the race of that name, as Kumamoto in Japan was of the Japanese Kuma. It is now Ung-chhön (bear-river), near the mouth of the R. Nak-tong, and a convenient port for crossing over to Japan.

    Pèkché, known to the Japanese as Kudara was the S.-W. kingdom of Corea.

  37. i.e. the territory described in them.
  38. Corea at one time was divided into three kingdoms, called Ma-han, Sin-han, and Pyön-han, corresponding respectively to Pèkché, Silla, and Koryö. But there is some doubt on the subject.

    The three Han are rendered in the kana gloss mitsu no Kara-kuni. But although Kara is sometimes used loosely for all Corea, and even to include China, I doubt much whether there ever was such a phrase as the three Karas. It looks like a mere literal translation of Samham.

    For an estimate of the historical value of this narrative of the conquest of Corea, I would refer the reader to my paper on Early Japanese History in the "T.A.S.J.," XVI. Pt. I.

  39. Birth.
  40. Rice-field.
  41. Speed-ascend.
  42. i.e. offering the ship and lands.
  43. This transliteration follows the traditional Japanese pronunciation. The Corean would be U-ryu-cho-pu-ri-chi-u. It may be suspected that the final u is a mistake for kan, a frequent element of Corean titles, perhaps = khan, kami? See Parker's "Race Struggles in Corea," p. 220.
  44. A Chinese punishment.
  45. The original has Tennō a word which, strictly speaking, is either masculine or feminine, but which is not usually applied to this Empress.
  46. The "Tongkam," Vol. III. p. 21 has the following under the date A.D. 249, Summer, 4th month:—"The Was invaded Silla, and killed Uro. Before this the Was had sent Kalyako as Ambassador to Silla. The King made Uro entertain him. Uro said, jesting:—"Sooner or later we shall make your King our salt-slave, and your Queen our cook-wench." When the King of Wa heard this, he sent his General Uto-chiu to invade Silla. The King went out and dwelt at Yuchhon. Uro said:—"To-day's attack is owing to the words of thy servant. I pray thee let me deal with it." So he went eventually to the Wa army, and said:—"My words on a former day were a jest, and nothing more. Who would have thought that war should be waged, and that things should come to this extremity?" The men of Wa took him, and made a pile of firewood, on which they burnt him to death, and then went away. Afterwards an Ambassador came from Wa. Uro's wife begged leave from the King to entertain him on her own score. Accordingly she made the Ambassador drunk, seized him, and burnt him. The Was, enraged at this, besieged Keumsyöng (The Silla capital.), but had to retire unsuccessful." Notwithstanding the difference of date—A.D. 200 and A.D. 249 and other discrepancies, I believe these two narratives relate to the same events. The Prince Urusohorichiu of the Japanese account is the Uro of the Corean history. The word which I have translated Prince is , which might also be rendered King. But there is no King of this name in Corean history, and, as appears from a Corean authority quoted in the "Ishōnihonden," XIV. II, Syök Uro was the son of King Nahè of Silla. The "Tongkam" relates several other events of his life, among others his appointment as Sö-pul-han (or Sö-pul-ya), whence probably the sohori of the name given him in the Japanese narrative.

    Kalyako is no doubt the same person as the Katsuraki no Sotsu-hiko mentioned below as having been sent on a mission to Silla. Kal is written , which is katsura in Japanese.

    In "Early Japanese History" I have given reasons for thinking that, for this period, Corean history is much more in accordance with facts than that of Japan.

  47. Two or three miles to the east of Maiko, on the bluff above the village of West Tarumi, there is a very large double mound, which local tradition has associated with the name of Chiuai Tennō. It is surrounded by the usual circles of clay cylinders, known in the neighbourhood as "Chiuai no sen-tsubo," i.e. "the thousand jars of Chiuai."

    There is a smaller mound of circular shape close to the other, also surrounded by a circle of clay cylinders. This is no doubt the tomb of a wife, son, or minister of the personage buried in the main tumulus. The "Nihongi" tradition does not account for it.

    The stones were to build the megalithic chamber.

  48. Kishi (吉師) is obviously the same as the Silla fourteenth official grade kilsǎ (吉士). See "Tongkam," I. 31. Ason, so frequently met with in later times, is also a Corean official grade. Has sukune anything to do with the Silla word for king, isǎkeun?

    The "Kojiki" has "Kishi of Naniha" in this passage, no doubt rightly. Ch. K., p. 235.

  49. Ukehi-gari, a kind of divination.
  50. Lit. a red pig, so called from its flesh being red. The domestic pig is the white pig.
  51. Near Kōbe.
  52. Now called Shikoku.
  53. Now Hiōgo.
  54. Just behind the foreign settlement of Kōbe.
  55. Mikokoro here and above may mean "after my august heart."
  56. Sumiyoshi, near Kōbe.
  57. The calamity of there being no sun.
  58. Hafuri.
  59. The reader will have noticed how frequently Kuma, bear, occurs in proper names. It is, I think, the race Kuma (in Corean, Koma) to which they should be referred.
  60. Aso is the same as Ason or 'Asomi, probably derived from Ason (阿飡), the 6th Silla official rank. This is the first mention of this title. The reference is to Takechi (Take-uchi) no Sukune. Uchi has a pillow-word (tamaki haru) prefixed, which is quite untranslatable. Cf. Ch. K., p. 283.
  61. These two lines are, of course, utterly irrelevant. They are brought in for the sake of a play of words, with which it is not worth while troubling the reader.
  62. i.e. all the machinery of Government.
  63. Pronounced Ôsaka, i.e. the hill of meeting. The pass on the road from Kiôto to Ôtsu. A railway tunnel now goes under it.
  64. Kurusu means chestnut-village.
  65. Kabu-tsuchi. See p. 123.
  66. Now called Lake Biwa, in the province of Afumi or Ômi.
  67. Uji is some miles further down the river issuing from Lake Biwa than Seta. Seta is just where it leaves the lake.
  68. The name of the upper part of the Uji River.
  69. The Chinese character is , i.e. the Chinese Han dynasty. The interlinear kana has ayabito, which also means Chinese. Possibly they were descendants of Chinese emigrants to Corea.
  70. Under the date A.D. 418, Autumn, the "Tongkam" (Vol. IV. 18) has the following:—
    "Pak Ché-syang of Silla went to Wa and died there. The king's younger brother Misăheun came from Wa. Before this Pok-ho (another brother of the King, who had been sent as hostage to Kokuryö) had returned. The King addressed Ché-syang, saying:—'My love for my two younger brothers is like my left and right arms. Now I have got only one arm. What does it avail?' Ché-syang said:—'Though my abilities are those of a broken down horse, I have devoted myself to my country's service. What reason could I have for declining? Kokuryö, however, is a great country, and the king also is wise. Thy servant was able to make him understand with one word. But in dealing with the Was it will be meet to use stratagem to deceive them, and not by mouth and tongue to reason with them. I will pretend that I have committed a crime and absconded. After I have gone I pray thee arrest thy servant's family.' So he swore upon his life not to see again his wife and children, and went to Nyul-pho. The cable was already loosed when his wife came after him, lamenting loudly. Ché-syang said:—'I have already taken my life in my hands, and am leaving for a certain death.'

    At length he went to the Wa country, where he gave out that he was a rebel. The Lord of Wa doubted this. Before this time men of Pèkché had gone to the Wa country, and made a false report, saying:—'Silla and Kokuryö are about to plot together to attack Wa.' The Lord at length sent troops to guard the frontier. And when Kokuryö, having invaded Silla, slew those guards also, the Lord of Wa believed that the story told by the Pèkché men was true. But when he heard that the King of Silla had imprisoned the family of Misăheun and Ché-syang, he thought that Ché-syang was really a rebel. Hereupon he sent forth an army in order to attack Silla, and made Ché-syang and Misăheun guides. Coming to an island in the sea, all the generals consulted secretly how they should destroy Silla and return with Ché-syang and Misǎheun's wives and children. Ché-syang, knowing this, sailed with Misǎheun every day in a boat, under the pretence of making pleasure excursions. The Was had no suspicion. Ché-syang advised Misǎheun to return secretly to his country. Misǎheun said:—'How could I have the heart to abandon thee, my lord, and return alone?' Ché-syang said:—'Supposing that I succeed in saving my Prince's life, and thus gratify the feelings of the Great King, it will be enough, Why should I be so fond of living?' Misǎheun wept, and taking his leave, made his escape back to his country. Ché-syang alone slept in the boat. He got up towards evening and waited until Misǎheun was far on his way. The Was, when they found that Misǎheun had disappeared, bound Ché-syang, and pursued Misǎheun, but mist and darkness coming on, they could not overtake him. The Lord of Wa was enraged. He flung Ché-syang into prison, and questioned him, saying:—'Why didst thou secretly send away Misǎheun?' Ché-syang said:—'As a subject of Kélin (Silla), I simply wished to carry out the desires of my Lord.' The Lord of Wa was wroth, and said:—'As thou hast now become a vassal of mine, if thou callest thyself a vassal of Kélin, thou shalt surely be subjected to the five punishments. But if thou callest thyself a vassal of the Wa country, I will certainly reward thee liberally.' Ché-syang said:—'I had rather be a puppy-dog of Kélin, than a vassal of the Wa country. I had rather be flogged in Kélin than have dignities and revenues in the Wa country.' The Lord of Wa was wroth. He flayed Ché-syang's feet, cut sedge, and made him walk on it (perhaps on the stubble left after the sedge was cut). Then he asked him, saying:—'Of what country art thou the vassal?' He said:—'The vassal of Kélin.' He also made him stand on hot iron, and asked him:—'Of what country art thou the vassal?' He said:—'The vassal of Kélin.' The Lord of Wa, seeing that he could not bend him, put him to death by burning.

    The King, hearing of this at the island of Mokto, was much grieved, and conferred on Ché-syang the posthumous title of Great Ason. He also bestowed rewards on his family, and made Misăheun marry his second daughter; and afterwards Ché-syang's wife, taking with her her three daughters, went up to a mountain whence she had a view of the Wa country, and having wailed bitterly, she died. She was made the Goddess' mother of this mountain, and there is now a shrine there."

    This, no doubt, relates to the same events as the above passage in the "Nihongi." Ché-syang is Mo-ma-ri and Misăheun is Mi-cheul-Hö-chi.

    The Corean names present much difficulty. I have given the Corean pronunciation of the Chinese characters with which they are written, but there is much room for doubt whether the Japanese pronunciation would not sometimes be better. The text cannot be relied on.

    The interlinear kana gives as the names of the three envoys, Ureshi-hotsu, Momari Shichi, and Furamochi, and of the hostage, Mishi Kochi hotsu-kan. Here shichi is probably for 舎知 (sya-chi), the 13th official rank in Silla.

    A Chinese authority quoted by Parker, in "Race Struggles in Corea," gives one or two examples of Kilin (Kélin or Silla), words which show that 1000 years ago the language was the same as modern Corean. But I cannot recognize anything of the modern language in the Corean names of the "Nihongi." Later, all proper names in Corea are of Chinese derivation. Many of the Corean words in the "Nihongi" are names of offices, all of which are replaced in modern Corean by words of Chinese derivation.

  71. Now Tsuruga in Echizen. See Ch. K., p. 237.
  72. In the original "Kushi no Kami." The interpretation given above is Motowori's. This line might also mean "the wondrous deity" or the "God of liquor or sake."
  73. An interjection of encouragement or incitement.
  74. The Japanese word for brew is kamu, which also means to chew. Was chewing ever a part of the process of making strong drink in Japan as it is in some of the South Sea islands at the present time? The last line of this poem is of very doubtful interpretation.
  75. T'ai-sheu means governor. Thé-pang (in Chinese Tai-fang) was at one time a district of the Chinese province of Lolang in Corea. A map of China under the Tsin dynasty, however, makes Thé-pang a separate district further to the north. But the Governor of Thé-pang mentioned in the Wei history under the name of 劉夏 and the Governor of Lolang called by the "Tong-kam" 劉茂 are probably the same person.

    Another authority makes Thé-pang identical with Namwön in Chöllato.

  76. These officials, as we learn from other sources, were sent by the Chinese authorities of Sakpang in Corea, not far from the present Treaty Port of Wönsan. See "Early Japanese History," p. 58; "Ishōnihonden," I. 11; "Tongkam," III. 17.
  77. .
  78. It is doubtful whether these six syllables represent the names of one, two, or three men. I cannot guess what Japanese names are meant. The "Ishōnihonden" gives some of the characters differently.

    The "Shukai" edition rejects these extracts from Chinese History. They were doubtless added at a later date.

  79. The Chinese characters are 卓淳, of which the traditional kana rendering is Toku-shiu. The "Shukai" editor says it was part of Imna (or Mimana). Its destruction by Silla is recorded below—5th year of Kimmei Tennō.
  80. The Japanese traditional rendering is Makin Kanki.
  81. A.D. 244.
  82. The Japanese kana gloss has Kutei, Mitsuru, and Mako.
  83. This is quite inconsistent with the story of Pèkché offering homage to the Empress in the early part of her reign.
  84. There are two kings of this name in Corean history. The first died A.D. 214. This is the second, who reigned from A.D. 346 to A.D. 375. The Japanese chronology is, as usual, at fault.
  85. The Corean bow is to this day the Tatar bow described in Tylor's Anthropology as "formed of several pieces of wood or horn united with glue or sinews. Shorter than the long bow, it gets its spring by being bent outside to string it." The Japanese bow is a variety of the ordinary long-bow.
  86. Iron is plentiful in Corea at the present day, and its quality is much esteemed.
  87. On the contrary, Chiuai Tennō would have nothing to do with them.
  88. A Sabi in Tsushima is mentioned above. But this may be a place in Corea, in which case it should be read Sapi.
  89. This Pèkché record is frequently quoted from. From the circumstance that the character , honourable, is used by the author or authors before the word country in speaking of Japan, it may be inferred that it was compiled by Pèkché Coreans from their own records for the information of the Japanese. I have not much doubt that it was the work of some of the Corean scholars who visited Japan in numbers during the seventh century.
  90. In Japanese Mokura Konshi and Sasa Toki.
  91. These places, in so far as they can be identified, did not belong to Silla, but to Imna. The identification of Corean names of places presents great difficulties, owing to the Corean mania for giving new names. The "Chôsen Zenzu furoku," a little book published by the Japanese War Office, gives as many as eight aliases for some towns. Nearly all have several.
  92. Reigned 346 to 375, when he was succeeded by Kusyu. The "Nihongi" names are nearly correct.
  93. Japanese pronunciation.
  94. Mountain is in the interlinear kana mure, no doubt the modern Corean moi. Similarly, nare, river, which occurs in Kuma-nare, is in modern Corean nǎi, pronounced nè.
  95. Corean.
  96. The traditional kana rendering is nana-saya, i.e. a "seven-sheathed sword," which is nonsense. Seven-branched is not much better.
  97. It is not clear what is meant by nanatsuko (七子), perhaps with seven projections round the rim. See above, p. 44.
  98. Iron mountain. All this about iron is merely symbolical of constancy.
  99. The King of Pèkché.
  100. Came to the throne A.D. 384.
  101. The "Tongkam" places his death in A.D. 375.
  102. The traditional kana rendering of is Kokishi, a word I do not recognize as Corean. But nearly all Corean words relating to official matters have become obsolete, being replaced by Chinese terms.
  103. 19th year of the Cycle, corresponding to A.D. 382.
  104. Si-Pheum was the name of the King of Kara at this time, according to the "Tongkam."
  105. The word for Empress is Tennō, which may also mean Emperor. and indeed this suits the narrative better.
  106. The "Tongkam" has A.D. 384.
  107. This is mentioned almost in the same words by the "Tongkam" under date A.D. 385—just two cycles later.
  108. The narrative from p. 246 down to this point contains a solid nucleus of fact. There can be no doubt that Japan at an early period formed an alliance with Pèkché and laid the foundation of a controlling power over the territory known as Imna or Mimana which lasted for several centuries. But the Japanese chronology cannot be right. See "Early Japanese History," p. 62.