Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697/Book XX

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Pub. for the Society by K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, pages 90–105






The Emperor Nunakura Futo-tama-shiki was the second child of the Emperor Ame-kuni-oshi-hiraki-hiro-niha. His mother was called the Empress Consort Iha no hime [the Empress Consort Iha no hime was a daughter of the Emperor Take-o-hiro-kuni-oshi-tate]. The Emperor was not a believer in Buddhism, but was fond of literature.[3] At the age of twenty-nine he was raised to the position of Prince Imperial. In the fourth month of the thirty-second year of his reign the Emperor Ame-kuni-oshi-hiraki-hiro-niha died.

A.D. 572. 1st year, Summer, 4th month, 3rd day. The Prince Imperial assumed the Imperial Dignity. The Empress was honoured with the title of Grand Empress.

In this month the Emperor made his palace at Oho-wi in Kudara.[4] Mononobe no Yuge no Moriya no Ohomuraji was continued in his office of Ohomuraji, and Soga no Mumako no Sukune was made Oho-omi.

5th month, 1st day. The Emperor inquired of the Imperial Prince and the Oho-omi, saying:—"Where are the Koryö Envoys now?" The Oho-omi answered His Majesty, saying:—"They are in the official residence of Sagaraka." The Emperor hearing this was exceedingly vexed, and flushing up, exclaimed, saying:—"How sorry I am! The names of these Envoys were already announced to the Emperor, my deceased father." So he despatched the Ministers to the (XX. 2.) official residence of Sagaraka to inspect and take note of the tribute offered by them, and to cause them to be sent on to the capital.

15th day. The Emperor took the Koryö memorial, and passing it on to the Oho-omi, assembled all the scribes and directed them to read and explain it. At this time all the scribes for the space of three days were unable to read it. Now there was one Ō Chin-ni, founder of the family of the Funa no fubito,[5] who was able to read it and explain its meaning to the Emperor. Consequently the Emperor and the Oho-omi, both together, complimented him, saying:—"What diligence, Chin-ni! Well done, Chin-ni! If thou hadst not been fond of learning, who could have done the interpretation? From this time forward let thy attendance be near Us in the Palace." After this, an edict was issued to the scribes of East and West,[6] saying:—"How is it that the art which ye practise has come to naught? Though ye are many, none of you is equal to Chin-ni." Nor was this all. The memorial presented by Koryö was written on crow's feathers, and the characters, like the feathers, being black, nobody had been able to read them. Chin-ni accordingly steamed the feathers in the vapour from boiled rice, and took an impression of them on a piece of silk, whereupon all the characters were transferred to it, to the wonder of the Court.

6th month. The Chief Koryö Envoy addressed the Associate Envoys, saying:—"In the time of the Emperor of Shikishima,[7] ye, contrary to my advice, allowed yourselves to be deceived by others. You unauthorizedly shared the national tribute, and without due consideration granted it to mean persons. Were you not to blame in this? If the King of our country were to hear of it, he would certainly have you executed." The Associate Envoys then said to one another:—"If on our return to our country the Chief Envoy reveals our misconduct, it will be unfortunate for us. It is desirable to slay him secretly, and so stop his mouth." The same night their conspiracy (XX. 3.) leaked out, and became known to the Chief Envoy. He put on his clothes, and stealing out alone, stood in the inner court of the official residence. He was there not knowing what to do, when one of the ruffians came forward with a club and struck the Chief Envoy on the head, and then went away. Next there came another ruffian, who, facing right opposite to the Chief Envoy, struck him on the head and hands and then went away. The Chief Envoy remained silent, and stood his ground, wiping the blood from his face. Again there came another ruffian, who rushed forward with a sword, and having stabbed the Chief Envoy in the belly, went away. This time the Chief Envoy prostrated himself on the ground in fear, and in an attitude of supplication. Afterwards there came another ruffian, who killed him, and went away. The next morning, the official entertainer Komaro, Yamato no Aya no Saka no Uhe no Atahe, and the others inquired the cause of this. The Associate Envoys got up a false story, and said:—"The Emperor presented a wife to the Chief Envoy. The Chief Envoy was disobedient to the Imperial command and refused to accept her. This was a piece of extreme insolence, and your servants therefore slew him on the Emperor's behalf." The officials buried him with due ceremony.

Autumn, 7th month. The Koryö Envoys took their departure.

This year was the year Midzunoye Tatsu (29th) of the Cycle.

A.D. 573. 2nd year, Summer, 5th month, 2nd day. Koryö Envoys anchored on the coast of the Sea of Koshi. Their ship was wrecked and a great many were drowned. The suspicions of the Court were excited by their so frequently losing their way, and they were dismissed without entertainment. Accordingly Naniha, Kibi no Amabe no Atahe, was sent by the Emperor's orders to escort home the Koryö Envoys.

Autumn, 7th month, 1st day. Naniha and the Koryö Envoys met in consultation on the coast of the Sea of Koshi. Ihahi, Ohoshima no Obito, and Masa, Saoka no Obito, seamen of Naniha, the escort Envoy, were made to go on board the Koryö Envoys' ship, while two Koryö men were made to embark in the escort Envoy's ship. Having in this manner exchanged ships, as a precaution against treachery, they both set sail together. They had only gone a few ri, when the escort Envoy, Naniha, fearing the waves, took the two Koryö men and flung them into the sea.

(XX. 4.) 8th month, 14th day. The escort Envoy, Naniha, returned and reported the result of his mission, saying:—"The whale-fish of the sea assemble in great numbers and intercept and devour the ships with their sculls and oars. Naniha and his companions fearing to be swallowed up by these fishes were unable to go upon the sea." The Emperor hearing this saw that his language was untruthful, and employed him in one of the public offices,[8] not allowing him to return to his own province.

A.D. 574. 3rd year, Summer, 5th month, 5th day. The Koryö Envoys anchored on the sea-coast of Koshi.

Autumn, 7th month, 20th day. The Koryö Envoys entered the capital and addressed the Emperor, saying:—"Last year thy servants departed, in company with the escort Envoy, in order to return to their own country. Formerly when thy servants arrived at their frontier State,[9] thy servants' frontier State entertained Ihahi, Ohoshima no Obito, and his companions in accordance with the ceremony due to Envoys, and the King of Koryö treated them with specially cordial civility. Notwithstanding this, the ship of the escort Envoy had not arrived up till now, and therefore he has respectfully again sent Envoys along with Ihahi and his companions to request information as to why our Envoys[10] have not come." When the Emperor heard this he enumerated Naniha's offences, saying:—"Thou art doubly guilty, first for having deceived the Court, and secondly, for having drowned the Envoys of a neighbouring State. These are heinous crimes, and thou canst not be released." He was therefore sentenced to punishment.[11]

Winter, 10th month, 9th day. The Oho-omi, Soga no Mŭmako, was sent to the province of Kibi to extend the Shirawi Miyake and the staff of serfs attached to it. He accordingly took the register of serfs and handed it over to Itsu, Shirawi no Fubito.

11th day. By an Imperial order, the title of Tsu no Fubito[12] was granted to Ushi,[13] younger brother of Ō Chin-hi, Funa no Fubito.[14]

(XX. 5.) 11th month. Silla sent Envoys to offer tribute.

A.D. 575. 4th year, Spring, 1st month, 9th day. Hirohime, daughter of Prince Mate of Okinaga, was raised to the rank of Empress Consort. She had one son and two daughters. The eldest was called the Imperial Prince Oshizaka Hikohito no Ohine [otherwise the Imperial Prince Maroko]. The second was called the Imperial Princess Sakanobori. The third was called the Imperial Princess Uji no Shitsukahi.

In this month a consort was appointed named Womuna gimi no Otoshi,[15] the daughter of Nakatsu kimi, Kasuga no Omi. [She was otherwise called Kusu-kimi no Iratsuko.] She bore three sons and one daughter. The first was called the Imperial Prince Naniha; the second was called the Imperial Prince Kasuga; the third was called the Imperial Princess Kuwada; the fourth was called the Imperial Prince Ohomata. The next, an Uneme named Unako no Otoshi, daughter of Wokuma, Ise no Ohoka no Obito, gave birth to the Imperial Princess Futo hime [otherwise called the Imperial Princess Sakurawi] and the Imperial Princess Nukade hime [also called the Imperial Princess Tamura].

(XX. 6.) 2nd month, 7th day. The Oho-omi, Mŭmako no Sukune, returned to the capital and reported the result of his mission respecting the Miyake.

3rd month, 11th day. Pèkché sent envoys to offer tribute, more in quantity than in ordinary years. The Emperor, inasmuch as Silla had not yet established Imna, gave orders to the Imperial Prince and to the Oho-omi, saying:—"Be not remiss in the matter of Imna."

Summer, 4th month, 6th day. The Kishi, Kanako, was sent on a mission to Silla, the Kishi, Itahiko, to Imna, and the Kishi, Wosa-hiko,[16] to Pèkché.

6th month. Silla sent envoys to offer tribute, more in quantity than usual. They also sent tribute for the four townships of Ta-ta-ra, Su-na-ra, Hwa-tha, and Pal-kwi.

In this year, by command, the diviners divined a site for the dwellings of Prince Amabe and Prince Itowi. The divination was propitious, and eventually a palace was constructed at Wosada,[17] which was called the Palace of Sakidama.

Winter, 11th month. The Empress Consort Hirohime died.

A.D. 576. 5th year, Spring, 3rd month, 10th day. The functionaries petitioned that an Empress Consort should be appointed. By the Emperor's command Toyomike Kashikiya hime no Mikoto[18] was appointed Empress Consort. She bore two sons and five daughters. The first was called the Imperial Princess Uji no Kahitako [otherwise called the Imperial Princess Uji (XX. 7.) no Shitsukahi]. She was wedded to Shō-toku, the heir to the throne. The second was called the Imperial Prince Takeda; the third was called the Imperial Princess Woharida. She was wedded to the Imperial Prince Hiko-hito no Ohine.[19] The fourth was called the Imperial Princess Umori [otherwise called the Imperial Princess Karu no mori]; the fifth was called the Imperial Prince Wohari; the sixth was called the Imperial Princess Tame. She was wedded to the Emperor Okinaga tarashi-hi hiro-nuka.[20] The seventh was called the Imperial Princess Sakurawi no Yumibari.

A.D. 577. 6th year, Spring, 2nd month, 1st day. By Imperial command there were established a Sun-worship Be and a private Be.[21]

Summer, 5th month, 5th day. Prince Ohowake and Woguro no Kishi were sent to govern the Land of Pèkché.

The representatives of the Crown, who by Imperial command were sent on service to the three Han, called themselves , meaning that they governed Corea. This was doubtless an ancient rule. They resembled what are now called Envoys. This explanation applies to all other passages also. It is not clear what was the extraction of Prince Ohowake.

Winter, 11th month, 1st day. The King of the Land of Pèkché presented to the Emperor, through the returning Envoys Prince Ohowake and his companions, a number of volumes of religious books,[22] with an ascetic,[23] a meditative monk,[24] a nun, a reciter of mantras,[25] a maker of Buddhist images, and a temple architect, six persons in all. Eventually there was founded the (XX. 8.) Temple of Prince Ohowake of Naniha.

A.D. 578. 7th year, Spring, 3rd month, 5th day. The Imperial Princess Uji was made to attend on the shrine of Ise, but an intrigue which she had with the Imperial Prince Ikenobe having come to light, this appointment was cancelled.

A.D. 579. 8th year, Winter, 10th month. Silla sent Chi-cheul-chöng Nami[26] to bring tribute. At the same time he sent a Buddhist image.

A.D. 580. 9th year, Summer, 6th month. Silla sent Ato Nami and Chil-syo Nami to offer tribute, but they were dismissed without its being received.

A.D. 581. 10th year, Spring, Intercalary 2nd month. Several thousand Yemishi showed hostility on the frontier.[27] Accordingly their chiefs [they were very hairy men] Ayakasu[28] and others were sent for, and the Emperor gave them his commands, saying:—"You Yemishi! In the reign of the Emperor Oho-tarashi-hiko[29] those of you whom it was meet to kill were put to death, and those who deserved forgiveness were pardoned. We now, in observance of this precedent, intend to put to death the ring-leaders." Hereupon Ayakasu and the others were filled with fear and awe. They went down into the middle stream of the (XX. 9.) Hatsuse river, and with their faces turned towards Mount Mimoro rinsed[30] their mouths and made oath, saying:—"We Yemishi promise that from this time forward, we, our children, and our children's children [there is an old saying, 'The children of our body eighty times continued'] will serve the Celestial Gate with sincerity of heart. If we break this oath, may all the Gods of Heaven and Earth, and also the spirits of the Emperors, destroy our race."

A.D. 582. 11th year, Winter, 10th month. Silla sent Ato Nami and Sil-syo Nami to render tribute. They were dismissed, their tribute not being accepted.

A.D. 583. 12th year, Autumn, 7th month, 1st day. The Emperor made an order, saying:—"In the reign of the late Emperor, my father, Silla destroyed our inner Miyake State.

In the 23rd year of the Emperor Ame-kuni oshi-hiraki hiro-niha, Imna was destroyed by Silla. Therefore it is said that Silla destroyed our inner Miyake State.

Our father, the late Emperor, devised measures for restoring Imna, but he died without carrying them out, and did not fulfil his purpose. It therefore devolves on Us to render assistance to his divinely admirable policy, and to restore Imna again. The Talsol, Illa, son of the Arisăteung, Miyakko of the Province of Ashigita in Hi,[31] now resident in Pèkché, is a wise and brave man. Therefore we wish to consult with him." Accordingly he sent Oshikatsu, Ki no kuni no Miyakko, and Hashima, Kibi no Amabe no Atahe, to summon him from Pèkché.

Winter, 10th month. Oshikatsu, Ki no Kuni no Miyakko, and his colleague returned from Pèkché and reported the result of their mission to the Court, saying:—"The King of the Land of Pèkché grudged Ilia and would not consent to allow him to come up."

This year, Hashima, Kibi no Amabe no Atahe, was again sent to summon Illa from Pèkché. Hashima, having gone to Pèkché, wished first of all to see Illa privately. He was (XX. 10.) standing all by himself facing the door of his house, when there suddenly came from within the house a Corean woman who addressed him in the Corean language, saying:—"Radix tua ineat in meam radicem," and then went away into the house. Hashima perceived her meaning, and followed in after her. Upon this Illa came to meet him, and taking him by the hand, made him take his place on a seat. He then secretly informed him, saying:—"I have received private information that the King of the Land of Pèkché is suspicious of the Celestial Court, fearing that if I were sent, I might afterwards be detained and not allowed to return. He is therefore reluctant, and will not consent to offer me. It would be well, when the Imperial commands are delivered, to make a show of severity, and to insist peremptorily on summoning me." Hashima accordingly followed this plan, and required Illa from the King of the Land of Pèkché. He stood in awe of the Celestial Court, and, not daring to disobey the Imperial message, sent Illa to the Emperor. The Eun-sol,[32] Tök-ni, Yö-no, and Kanochi, the Associate Official the Tök-sol,[33] Chhă-kan-tök, with a good number of steersmen and sailors, together with Illa and his companions, arrived at the Miyake of Kojima in Kibi. The Court sent Ohotomo no Nukadeko no Muraji to express sympathy for their fatigues. Afterwards Daibu[34] were sent to the official residence at Naniha to wait upon Illa. At this time Illa, clad in armour, and riding on horseback, came up to the gate.[35] Then advancing in front of the Hall of Audience, he did his obeisances when advancing and retiring in a kneeling posture, and sighing bitterly, said:—"In the reign of the Emperor who ruled the world from the Palace of Hinokuma,[36] my Lord Ohotomo no Kanamura no Ohomuraji sent Arisăteung, Hi no Ashigita no Miyakko, and Yugehi[37] of the Osaka Be,[38] beyond the sea, on the service of the State. Thy servant, the son of the Arisăteung, the Talsol Illa, having heard the Imperial summons, with fear and awe presents himself at thy Court." He accordingly took off his armour and delivered it to the Emperor. An official lodging was built for him at Kuha no ichi in Ato, where he was made to dwell, and provided with everything which he desired. Afterwards Abe no Me no Omi, (XX. 11.) Mononobe no Niheko no Muraji, and Ohotomo no Nukadeko no Muraji were sent to inquire of Illa respecting the government of the country. Illa answered and said:—"The Emperor's aim in governing the Empire is to ensure the protection and nourishment of the people. Why should he hastily stir up warfare which will redound to their destruction? Therefore now having made all, from his counsellors, viz. the Omi, Muraji, and Miyakko of both kinds [the Kuni no Miyakko and the Tomo no Miyakko], whose duty it is to serve the Court, down to the people, without exception, to enjoy prosperity, let him cause them to want for nothing. When this has been continued for three years, when food has been made abundant, and arms plentiful, the people being dealt with by means of gladness, will fear neither water nor fire, and will join with the Emperor in commiserating the troubles of the country. Thereafter let ships be built in numbers and stationed in order at all the ports, so that visitors from abroad may view them and be filled with dread. There should then be sent a capable Envoy to Pèkché to summon the King of that country. If he does not come, let his Prime Minister or a Prince be summoned to appear. Their hearts will in that case naturally be filled with submissive reverence, and they ought then to be called to an account for their misconduct" [the crime of delaying to establish Imna].

Moreover he addressed (a message to) the Emperor, saying:—"The people of Pèkché talk of a plan according to which it is intended to request (a settlement in) Tsukushi for 300 ships (of emigrants?). If they really make this request, I advise Your Majesty to pretend to grant it. Pèkché will then wish to create a new country, and will certainly put the women and children on ship-board and come with them in advance. The Government, when this time is at hand, should place in ambush in Iki and Tsushima plenty of troops, and, awaiting their arrival, slay them. On the other hand, guard against being yourselves over-reached, and solidly build fortresses in all the strong positions."[39]

Hereupon one of the Eun-sol and the Associate, on the eve of their departure for their own country [an old book says:—"One Eun-sol and one Associate"] held secret communication with Tök-ni and others, saying:—"If you, having allowed sufficient time for us to get past Tsukushi, will secretly kill Illa, we will report the matter fully to the King, who will (XX. 12.) confer on you high official rank, so that you and your families will leave prosperity to your descendants." Tök-ni and Yö-no both agreed. The Associate Official and the others at length started on their journey to Chika.[40] Hereupon Illa removed from the village of Kuha-ichi to the official residence of Naniha. Tök-ni and his colleague conspired together day and night how they were to slay him. Now Illa's body was radiant like a flame of fire,[41] and therefore Tök-ni and the others were afraid, and did not kill him. At length, during the interlune of the 12th month, they awaited his loss of radiance and slew him. But Illa came to life again, and said:—"This is the doing of Our slaves, and not of Silla." [This is said because there were at this time Silla Envoys (at the Court).] Having thus spoken, he died.

The Emperor gave command to Niheko no Ohomuraji and Nukadeko no Muraji, and had him buried in front of the Hill of the western boundary of Wogohori. His wife, children, and sailors were made to live at Ishikaha.[42] Hereupon Ohotomo no Nukadeko no Muraji counselled, saying:—"If they are made to live all together at one place, I fear it may give rise to trouble." Accordingly the wife and children were made to dwell at Kudara[43]-mura in Ishikaha, and the sailors at Ohotomo no mura in Ishikaha. Tök-ni and the other were arrested and kept at Ada-mura in Lower Kudara, where a number of Daibu were sent to investigate the matter. Tök-ni and the other confessed their guilt, saying:—"Indeed it was the Eun-sol and the Associate who by their instructions made us do this. We, being underlings, did not dare to refuse." (XX. 13.) They were accordingly cast into prison, and the Daibu reported the result of their mission to the Court. A messenger was sent to Ashigita[44] to summon all Illa's household, and Tök-ni and the other were delivered to them to fix their punishment at their discretion. Then the Kimi of Ashigita took them, and having slain them all, cast away their bodies on the Island of Mimejima. [Mimejima is perhaps Hime-jima.] Illa was removed for interment at Ashigita. Later the coast people reported that the Eun-sol's ship had met with a storm and foundered, and that the Associate's ship had not been able to return until it had first drifted to Tsushima.

A.D. 584. 13th year, Spring, 2nd month, 8th day. Kitahiko, Naniha no Kishi, was sent to Silla. He at length arrived at Imna.

Autumn, 9th month. Kafuka no Omi [the personal name is wanting], who had come from Pèkché, had a stone image of Miroku,[45] and Saheki no Muraji [the personal name is wanting] an image of Buddha. This year Soga no Mŭmako no Sukune, having asked for these two Buddhist images, sent Shiba Tattō,[46] Kurabe no Sukuri, and Hida, Ikenobe no Atahe, in all directions to search out persons who practiced (Buddhism). Upon this he only found in the province of Harima a man named Hyé-phyön (XX. 14.) of Koryö,[47] who from a Buddhist priest had become a layman again. So the Oho-omi made him teacher, and caused him to receive Shima, the daughter of Shiba Tattō, into religion. She took the name of Nun Zen-shin [twelve years of age]. Moreover he received into religion two pupils of the Nun Zen-shin. One was Toyome, the daughter of Ayabito[48] no Yaho. She took the name of Nun Sen-zō. The other was Ishime, daughter of Nishikori Tsubu. She took the name of Nun Kei-zen. Mŭmako no Sukune, still in accordance with the Law of Buddha, reverenced the three nuns, and gave them to Hida no Atahe and Tattō, with orders to provide them with food and clothing. He erected a Buddhist Temple on the east side of his dwelling, in which he enshrined the stone image of Miroku. He insisted on the three nuns holding a general meeting to partake of maigre fare.[49] At this time Tattō found a Buddhist relic on the food of abstinence, and presented it to Mŭmako no Sukune. Mŭmako no Sukune, by way of experiment, took the relic, and placing it on the middle of a block of iron, beat it with an iron sledge-hammer, which he flourished aloft. The block and the sledge-hammer were shattered to atoms, but the (XX. 15.) relic could not be crushed. Then the relic was cast into water, when it floated on the water or sank as one desired. In consequence of this, Mŭmako no Sukune, Ikenobe no Hida, and Shiba Tattō held faith in Buddhism and practised it unremittingly. Mŭmako no Sukune built another Buddhist Temple at his house in Ishikaha. From this arose the beginning of Buddhism.

A.D. 585. 14th year, Spring, 2nd month, 15th day. Soga no Oho-omi, Mŭmako no Sukune, erected a pagoda north of the Hill of Ohono, and having held a general meeting to partake of maigre food, deposited the relic obtained by Tattō on the top of the pillar.[50]

24th day. Soga no Oho-omi took ill. Having made inquiry of a diviner,[51] the diviner answered and said:—"It is a curse sent by will of the Buddha[52] worshipped in thy father's time." Soga no Oho-omi accordingly sent a young man of his family to report to the Emperor the nature of the divination. The Emperor gave orders, saying:—"In accordance with the words of the diviner, let thy father's Gods be worshipped." The Oho-omi, in obedience to the Emperor's commands, worshipped the stone image, and prayed that his life might be prolonged. At this time there was a pestilence rife in the land, and many of the people died.

3rd month, 1st day. Mononobe no Yugehi no Moriya no Ohomuraji and Nakatomi no Katsumi no Daibu addressed the Emperor, saying:—"Why hast thou not consented to follow thy servants' counsel? Is not the prevalence of pestilence from the reign of the late Emperor thy father down to thine, so that the nation is in danger of extinction, owing absolutely to the establishment of the exercise of the Buddhist religion by Soga no Omi?" The Emperor gave command, saying:—"Manifestly so: let Buddhism be discontinued."

30th day. Mononobe no Yugehi no Moriya no Ohomuraji (XX. 16.) went himself to the Temple, and sitting on a chair,[53] cut down the pagoda,[54] which he then set fire to Agura.
and burnt. He likewise burnt the image of Buddha and the Temple of Buddha. Having done so, he took the remains of the image of Buddha which were left from the burning and had them flung into the Naniha canal. On this day there was wind and rain without any clouds, and the Ohomuraji had on his rain-coat. He upbraided Mŭmako no Sukune and those who followed him in the exercise of religion, and made them feel shame and contrition of heart. Moreover he sent Mimoro [also called Oruke], Saheki no Miyakko, to summon Zen-shin and the other nuns provided for by Mŭmako no Sukune. So Mŭmako no Sukune did not dare to disobey this command, but with grief and lamentation called forth the nuns and delivered them to Mimoro. The officials accordingly took away from the nuns their three garments,[55] imprisoned them and flogged them at the road-station of Tsubaki no ichi.

The Emperor, with the view of establishing Imna, appointed as his Envoy Prince Mimiko of Sakata. Just at this time the Emperor and the Ohomuraji were suddenly afflicted with sores, and he was therefore after all not sent. The Emperor gave command to the Imperial Prince Tachibana no Toyohi, saying:—"The injunctions of the late Emperor my father must not be disregarded: the Government of Imna must be diligently put in order."

Again the Land was filled with those who were attacked with sores and died thereof. The persons thus afflicted with sores said:—"Our bodies are as if they were burnt, as if they were beaten, as if they were broken," and so lamenting, they died. Old and young said privately to one another, "Is this a punishment for the burning of the Image of Buddha?"

Summer, 6th month. Mŭmako no Sukune addressed the (XX. 17.) Emperor, saying:—"Thy servant's disease has not yet been healed; nor is it possible for succour to be afforded me unless by the power of the three precious things."[56] Hereupon the Emperor commanded Mŭmako no Sukune, saying:—"Thou mayest practise the Buddhist religion alone, but discontinue it in so far as others are concerned." So the three nuns were given back to Mŭmako no Sukune, who received them with rejoicing, lamenting their unexampled misfortunes, and bowing down his head in their honour. He built them a Temple anew, into which he welcomed them, and provided them with sustenance.

One book says:—"Mononobe no Yugehi no Moriya no Ohomuraji, Oho-miwa no Sakahe no Kimi and Nakatomi no Ihare no Muraji conspired together to destroy the Buddhist religion. They wanted to burn the Temple and pagoda, and also to throw away the Buddhist images. Mŭmako no Sukune opposed this project, and would not agree to it."

Autumn, 8th month, 15th day. The Emperor's disease having become more and more inveterate, he died in the Great Hall. At this time a Palace of temporary interment was erected at Hirose. Mŭmako no Sukune delivered a funeral (XX. 18.) oration with his sword girded on. Mononobe no Yugehi no Moriya no Ohomuraji burst out laughing, and said:—"He is like a sparrow pierced by a hunting-shaft." Next Yugehi no Moriya no Ohomuraji, with trembling hands and legs, delivered his funeral oration. The Oho-omi, Mŭmako no Sukune, laughed and said:—"He ought to have bells hung upon him." From this small beginning the two Ministers conceived a hatred of each other. Sakahe, Miwa no Kimi sent Hayato for the protection of the Courtyard of the temporary tomb. The Imperial Prince Anahobe,[57] who wished to possess himself of the empire, flew into a rage, and declared, saying:—"Why do ye serve the Court of a dead King, and do no service where the living King is?"

  1. Nunakura is the name of a place; the rest is literally big-jewel-spread.
  2. Clever.
  3. i.e. Chinese.
  4. Written with the Chinese characters for Pèkché, viz. 百濟. It is here the name of a place in Kahachi.
  5. i.e. recorders of ships. His name shows that he was of Chinese or Corean origin.
  6. East means here Yamato; West, Kahachi.
  7. Kimmei Tennō, so called from his place of residence.
  8. As a slave.
  9. Note the fiction of Koryö being a dependency of Japan.
  10. This must be taken as referring to the two men whom Naniha threw overboard.
  11. No doubt of death.
  12. Port-recorder.
  13. The ox.
  14. i.e. Shipping-recorder.
  15. This is the rendering of the Interlinear Kana version.
  16. Wosa means interpreter. Kishi was originally a Corean title.
  17. The Interpreter's field.
  18. Afterwards the reigning Empress Suiko Tennō.
  19. Her half-brother.
  20. Jomei Tennō.
  21. This is explained to mean "for the Empress's service."
  22. A later writer says that there were 200 vols., Buddhist Sutras being among them.
  23. Monks who practise vinaya. Vide Eitel, p. 202, 2nd edition.
  24. Yogi. Vide Eitel, p. 209.
  25. Buddhist magic spells.
  26. Here and below Nami may be a mistake for Nama, the Corean title of rank. The characters used for mi and ma closely resemble each other.
  27. It is to be remembered that all the northern part of the main island of Japan, including the province of Mutsu and Dewa, were at this time in Aino possession.
  28. A Japanese name.
  29. Keikō Tennō.
  30. As a purifying ceremony.
  31. Includes Higo and Hizen.
  32. 3rd rank.
  33. 4th rank.
  34. A general term for high officials.
  35. Leading to the Hall of Audience.
  36. Senkwa Tennō.
  37. Archer.
  38. The executioners.
  39. All this seems great nonsense. It has puzzled the native commentators.
  40. In Hizen.
  41. Il is , i.e. sun.
  42. Illa's history resembles somewhat that of Kim Ok-kiun in our own day.
  43. i.e. Pèkché. In Kahachi.
  44. Illa was of the Ashigita family. See above, p. 97.
  45. In Sanskrit Maitrêya, the expected Messiah of the Buddhists. Vide Eitel, p. 92.
  46. A Chinese or Corean name.
  47. In Japanese Koma no Keibin.
  48. Ayabito is written 漢人, i.e. a man of Han (China). Here it is a proper name, though no doubt indicating a Chinese ancestry.
  49. The Chinese character for "maigre fare" is . This the Interlinear Kana renders here and below in many places by Ogami, i.e. prayer. That the meetings here referred to were practically for religious services is unquestionable, and we have seen above, Vol. I. p. 41, that this character when used in connection with Shintō, is equivalent to "worship," although primarily meaning "religious abstinence." Here the proper meaning is, I submit, "the vegetable diet of Buddhist priests." A few lines further down we have 齋食, "abstinence food," Lenten fare, as we should say, and Giles (p. 18) renders 齋僧 "to give meals to priests." This is a well-known duty of pious Buddhists. In the history of Corea there is frequent mention of large numbers of priests being entertained by the kings from time to time.
  50. i.e. the central pillar round which a pagoda is built.
  51. Urabe, or native augurs.
  52. The word for Buddha is 佛神, Buddha-Kami.
  53. Chair here and elsewhere is in the original represented by two Chinese characters which mean "Tartar couch." The Japanese word which the writer had in mind was no doubt agura, "leg-seat," which is the rendering of the Interlinear Kana.
  54. The meaning may be that he sat on a chair to superintend the workmen who were employed for this purpose.
  55. The three priestly garments, viz. the Sam̃ghâṭi, reaching from the shoulders to the knees, the Uttara Sam̃ghâṭi, a sort of overcoat, and the Kachâya (Kesa in Japanese), a coloured mantle. Vide Eitel, sub vocibus.
  56. The Triratna, i.e. Buddha, the Law and the Priesthood. Vide Eitel, sub voce.
  57. Younger brother of the Emperor by a different mother.