Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697/Book XXII

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Pub. for the Society by K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, pages 121–156




The Empress Toyo-mike Kashiki-ya-hime was the second[4] daughter of the Emperor Ame-kuni oshi-hiraki hiro-niha[5] and a younger sister by the same mother of the Emperor Tachibana no toyo-hi.[6] In her childhood she was called the Princess Nukada-be. Her appearance was beautiful, and her conduct was marked by propriety. At the age of eighteen, she was appointed Empress-consort of the Emperor Nunakura futo-dama-shiki.[7] When she was thirty-four years of age, the Emperor Nunakura futo-dama-shiki died. When she was thirty-nine years of age, in the 5th year and the 11th month of the reign of the Emperor Hatsuse-be,[8] the Emperor was murdered by the Oho-omi Mŭmako no Sukune, and the succession to the Dignity being vacant, the Ministers besought the Empress-consort of the Emperor Nunakura futo-dama-shiki, viz. the Princess Nukada-be, to ascend the throne. The Empress refused, but the public functionaries urged her in memorials three times until she consented, and they accordingly delivered to her the Imperial Seal.

Winter, 12th month, 8th day. The Empress-consort assumed the Imperial Dignity in the Palace of Toyora.[9]

A.D. 593. 1st year, Spring, 1st month, 15th day. Relics of Buddha were deposited in the foundation-stone of the pillar of the pagoda[10] of the Temple of Hōkōji.

16th day. The Pagoda-pillar was erected.

Summer, 4th month, 10th day. The Imperial Prince Mŭmayado (XXII. 2.) no Toyotomimi was appointed Prince Imperial. He had general control of the Government, and was entrusted with all the details of administration. He was the second child of the Emperor Tachibana no Toyo-hi. The Empress-consort his mother's name was the Imperial Princess Anahobe no Hashibito. The Empress-consort, on the day of the dissolution of her pregnancy, went round the forbidden precinct, inspecting the different offices. When she came to the Horse Department, and had just reached the door of the stables,[11] she was suddenly delivered of him without effort. He was able to speak as soon as he was born, and was so wise when he grew up that he could attend to the suits of ten men at once and decide them all without error. He knew beforehand what was going to happen. Moreover he learnt the Inner Doctrine[12] from a Koryö Priest named Hyé-cha, and studied the Outer Classics[13] with a doctor called Hak-ka.[14] In both of these branches of study he became thoroughly proficient. The Emperor his father loved him, and made him occupy the Upper Hall South of the Palace. Therefore he was styled the Senior Prince Kamu-tsu-miya,[15] Muma-ya-do Toyotomimi.

Autumn, 9th month. The remains of the Emperor Tachibana no Toyohi were removed and re-interred in the Misasagi of Shinaga in Kahachi.

In this year the building of the Temple of Shi-ten-ō-ji[16] at Arahaka in Naniha was begun.

This year was the year Midzunoto Ushi (50th) of the Cycle.

A.D. 594. 2nd year, Spring, 2nd month, 1st day. The Empress instructed the Prince Imperial and the Oho-omi to promote the prosperity of the Three Precious Things.[17] At this time, all the Omi and Muraji vied each with one another in erecting Buddhist shrines for the benefit of their Lords and parents. These were called Temples.[18]

A.D. 595. (XXII. 3.) 3rd year, Summer, 4th month. Lign-aloes[19] wood drifted ashore on the Island of Ahaji. It was a fathom round. The people of the island, being unacquainted with aloes wood, used it with other firewood to burn in their cooking range, when the smoky vapour spread a perfume far and wide. Wondering at this, they presented it to the Empress.

5th month, 10th day. A priest of Koryö, named Hyé-chă, emigrated to Japan, and was taken as teacher by the Prince Imperial. In the same year a Pèkché priest, named Hyé-chhong, arrived. These two priests preached the Buddhist religion widely, and were together the mainstay of the Three Precious Things.

Autumn, 7th month. The General and his followers arrived from Tsukushi.

A.D. 596. 4th year, Winter, 11th month. The building of the Temple of Hōkōji was finished. Accordingly Zentoku no Omi, son of the Oho-omi, was appointed Commissioner for the Temple. On this day the two priests Hyé-chă and Hyé-chhong took up their residence in Hōkōji.

A.D. 597. 5th year, Summer, 4th month, 1st day. The King of Pèkché sent Prince A-cha with tribute.

Winter, 11th month, 22nd day. Ihagane no Kishi was sent to Silla.

A.D. 598. 6th year, Summer, 4th month. Ihagane Naniha no Kishi arrived from Silla, and presented to the Empress a pair of (XXII. 4.) magpies. They were accordingly made to be kept in the wood of Naniha, where they built their nest on the branch of a tree, and had their young.[20]

Autumn, 8th month, 1st day. Silla sent tribute of a peacock.

Winter, 10th month, 10th day. The Land of Koshi presented a white deer to the Empress.

A.D. 599. 7th year, Summer, 4th month, 27th day. There was an earthquake which destroyed all the houses. So orders were given to all quarters to sacrifice to the God[21] of Earthquakes.

(XXII. 5.) Autumn, 9th month, 1st day. Pèkché sent tribute of one camel, two sheep, and one white pheasant.[22]

A.D. 600. 8th year, Spring, 2nd month. Silla and Imna made war against each other. The Empress wished to assist Imna,[23] and in this year appointed Sakahibe no Omi General-in-Chief, and Hodzumi no Omi Assistant General, in command of over 10,000 men to invade Silla on behalf of Imna. Hereupon they went straight to Silla, and on arriving there by sea, laid siege to five fortresses and captured them. Now the King of Silla was struck with fear, and raising a white flag, came to the General's standard and offered his submission, ceding the six fortified places of Tatara, Sonara, Pulchikwi, Witha, South Kara, and Ara.[24] Then the Generals took counsel together, saying:—"Silla, conscious of guilt, makes his submission; it would be wrong to insist on chastising him." Accordingly they reported to the Empress. Hereupon the Empress further sent Miwa, Naniha no Kishi, to Silla, and also Itahiko, Naniha no Kishi, to Imna. Both were to examine the state of affairs. Hereupon the Kings of the two countries of Silla and Imna sent Envoys with tribute, and delivered a memorial to the Empress, saying:—"In Heaven above there are Gods; on Earth there are Emperors. Besides these two classes of Gods, what else is there which we should fear? Henceforward we will refrain from making war on one another, and will every year attend the Court without fail, not allowing the helms of (XXII. 6.) our ships to become dry." Accordingly the Empress sent messengers to recall the Generals, but no sooner had they arrived from Silla than Silla again invaded Imna.

A.D. 601. 9th year, Spring, 2nd month. The building of a Palace in Ikaruga[25] was begun by the Prince Imperial.

3rd month, 5th day. Kurafu,[26] Ohotomo no Muraji, was sent on a mission to Koryö, and Nukade, Sakamoto no Omi, to Pèkché, ordering them to proceed instantly to the assistance of Imna.

Summer, 5th month. The Empress dwelt in the temporary Palace of Miminashi. At this time there were heavy rains, and the river overflowed its banks, filling the Court of the Palace.

Autumn, 9th month, 8th day. A spy from Silla named Kamata came to Tsushima. He was forthwith arrested, and delivered up[27] to the Government, who banished him to Kamitsukenu.[28]

Winter, 11th month, 5th day. The question of making war on Silla was considered.

A.D. 602. 10th year, Spring, 2nd month, 1st day. The Imperial Prince Kume[29] was appointed General for the invasion of Silla, and was granted the various Be of the service of the Gods,[30] together with the Kuni no Miyakko and the Tomo no Miyakko, and an army of 25,000 men.

Summer, 4th month, 1st day. General the Imperial Prince Kume arrived in Tsukushi, and proceeded to the district of Shima, where he encamped, and assembled ships for the transport of provisions for his army.

(XXII. 7.) 6th month, 3rd day. Kurafu, Ohotomo no Muraji, and Nukade, Sakamoto no Omi, arrived together from Pèkché. At this time the Imperial Prince Kume fell ill, and was unable to carry out the expedition.

Winter, 10th month. A Pèkché priest named Kwal-leuk arrived and presented by way of tribute books of Calendar-making, of Astronomy, and of Geography,[31] and also books of the art of invisibility and of magic. At this time three or four pupils were selected, and made to study under Kwal-leuk. Ōchin,[32] the ancestor of the Yako no Fumibito, studied the art of Calendar-making. Kōsō,[33] Otomo no Suguri, studied Astronomy and the art of invisibility. Hinamitatsu, Yamashiro no Omi, studied magic. They all studied so far as to perfect themselves in these arts.

Intercalary 10th month, 15th day. Two Buddhist priests of Koryö named Seung-nyung and Un-chhong emigrated here together.

A.D. 603. 11th year, Spring, 2nd month, 4th day. The Imperial Prince Kume died in Tsukushi. A mounted courier was despatched to report the news to the Empress. Now when the Empress heard it, she was greatly shocked, and straightway sending for the Prince Imperial and Soga no Oho-omi, spoke to them, saying:—"The Imperial Prince Kume, the General-in-Chief (XXII. 8.) for the chastisement of Silla, has died. On the point of undertaking a great project, he has failed to accomplish it. Is not this much to be lamented?" So he was temporarily interred at Saba in the Province of Suwo, and Wite, Hashi no Muraji,[34] was sent to superintend the temporary burial. Therefore the descendants of Wite no Muraji were called Saba no Muraji. This was the reason of it.

He (the Prince) was afterwards buried on the top of Mount Hanifu in Kahachi.

Summer, 4th month, 1st day. A new appointment was made of the Imperial Prince Tahema,[35] the elder brother of the Imperial Prince Kume, as General for the chastisement of Silla.

Autumn, 7th month, 3rd day. The Imperial Prince Tahema sailed from Naniha.

6th day. The Imperial Prince Tahema arrived at Harima. Now his wife, Princess Toneri, who accompanied him, died at Akashi, and was buried on the top of the Hill of Higasa. So Prince Tahema returned, and never accomplished his expedition of chastisement.

Winter, 10th month, 4th day. There was a removal (of the Imperial residence) to the Palace of Woharida.

11th month, 1st day. The Prince Imperial addressed all the high functionaries,[36] saying:—"I have an image of the venerable Buddha. Which of you will receive this image and worship it reverently?" Now Kahakatsu, Hada no Miyakko, came forward and said:—"Thy servant will worship it." So he received the image of Buddha, and built for it the Temple of Hachi-woka.[37]

In this month, the Prince Imperial having asked permission of the Empress, made great shields and quivers. Moreover he (XXII. 9.) painted banners.[38]

12th month, 5th day. Cap-ranks[39] were first instituted, viz.:—

Dai-toku[40] . . (greater virtue),
Shō-toku   . . (lesser virtue),
Dai-nin . . (greater benevolence),
Shō-nin . . (lesser benevolence),
Dai-rai . . (greater propriety),
Shō-rai . . (lesser propriety),
Dai-shin . . (greater faith),
Shō-shin . . (lesser faith),
Dai-gi . . (greater justice),
Shō-gi . . (lesser justice),
Dai-chi . . (greater knowledge),
Shō-chi . . (lesser knowledge),

—in all twelve grades.[41]

Each was made of sarcenet of a special colour.[42] They were gathered up on the crown in the shape of a bag, and had a border attached. Only on the first day of the year were hair-flowers[43] worn.

A.D. 604. (XXII. 10.) 12th year, Spring, 1st month, 1st day. Cap-ranks were for the first time granted to the various Ministers, there being a distinction for each.

Summer, 4th month, 3rd day. The Prince Imperial in person prepared for the first time laws.[44] There were seventeen clauses, as follows:—

I. Harmony is to be valued,[45] and an avoidance of wanton opposition to be honoured. All men are influenced by class-feelings, and there are few who are intelligent. Hence there are some who disobey their lords and fathers, or who maintain feuds with the neighboring villages. But when those above are harmonious and those below are friendly, and there is concord in the discussion of business, right views of things spontaneously gain acceptance. Then what is there which cannot be accomplished!

II. Sincerely reverence the three treasures. The three treasures, viz. Buddha, the Law and the Priesthood, are the final refuge of the four generated beings,[46] and are the supreme objects of faith in all countries. What man in what age can fail to reverence this law? Few men are utterly bad. They may be taught to follow it. But if they do not betake them to the three treasures, wherewithal shall their crookedness be made straight?

III. When you receive the Imperial commands, fail not scrupulously to obey them. The lord is Heaven, the vassal is Earth. Heaven overspreads, and Earth upbears. When this is so, the four seasons follow their due course, and the powers of Nature obtain their efficacy. If the Earth attempted to overspread, Heaven would simply fall in ruin. Therefore is it that when the lord speaks, the vassal listens; when the superior acts, the inferior yields compliance. Consequently when you receive the Imperial commands, fail not to carry them out scrupulously. Let there be a want of care in this matter, and ruin is the natural consequence.

IV. The Ministers and functionaries should make decorous (XXII. 11.) behavior their leading principle, for the leading principle of the government of the people consists in decorous behavior.[47] If the superiors do not behave with decorum, the inferiors are disorderly: if inferiors are wanting in proper behaviour, there must necessarily be offences. Therefore it is that when lord and vassal behave with propriety, the distinctions of rank are not confused: when the people behave with propriety, the Government of the Commonwealth proceeds of itself.

V. Ceasing from gluttony and abandoning covetous desires, deal impartially with the suits which are submitted to you. Of complaints brought by the people there are a thousand in one day. If in one day there are so many, how many will there be in a series of years? If the man who is to decide suits at law makes gain his ordinary motive, and hears causes with a view to receiving bribes, then will the suits of the rich man be like a stone flung into water,[48] while the plaints of the poor will resemble water cast upon a stone. Under these circumstances the poor man will not know whither to betake himself. Here too there is a deficiency in the duty of the Minister.

VI. Chastise that which is evil and encourage that which is good. This was the excellent rule of antiquity. Conceal not, therefore, the good qualities of others, and fail not to correct that which is wrong when you see it. Flatterers and deceivers are a sharp weapon for the overthrow of the State, and a pointed sword for the destruction of the people. Sycophants are also fond, when they meet, of dilating to their superiors on the errors of their inferiors; to their inferiors, they censure the faults of their superiors. Men of this kind are all wanting in fidelity to their lord, and in benevolence towards the people. From such an origin great civil disturbances arise.

VII. Let every man have his own charge, and let not the spheres of duty be confused. When wise men are entrusted with office, the sound of praise arises. If unprincipled men (XXII. 12.) hold office, disasters and tumults are multiplied. In this world, few are born with knowledge: wisdom is the product of earnest meditation. In all things, whether great or small, find the right man, and they will surely be well managed: on all occasions, be they urgent or the reverse, meet but with a wise man, and they will of themselves be amenable. In this way will the State be lasting and the Temples of the Earth and of Grain will be free from danger. Therefore did the wise sovereigns of antiquity seek the man to fill the office, and not the office for the sake of the man.

VIII. Let the Ministers and functionaries attend the Court early in the morning, and retire late. The business of the State does not admit of remissness, and the whole day is hardly enough for its accomplishment. If, therefore, the attendance at Court is late, emergencies cannot be met: if officials retire soon, the work cannot be completed.

IX. Good faith is the foundation of right. In everything let there be good faith, for in it there surely consists the good and the bad, success and failure. If the lord and the vassal observe good faith one with another, what is there which cannot be accomplished? If the lord and the vassal do not observe good faith towards one another, everything without exception ends in failure.

X. Let us cease from wrath, and refrain from angry looks. Nor let us be resentful when others differ from us. For all men have hearts, and each heart has its own leanings. Their right is our wrong, and our right is their wrong. We are not unquestionably sages, nor are they unquestionably fools. Both of us are simply ordinary men. How can any one lay down a rule by which to distinguish right from wrong? For we are (XXII. 13.) all, one with another, wise and foolish, like a ring which has no end. Therefore, although others give way to anger, let us on the contrary dread our own faults, and though we alone may be in the right, let us follow the multitude and act like them.

XI. Give clear appreciation to merit and demerit, and deal out to each its sure reward or punishment. In these days, reward does not attend upon merit, nor punishment upon crime. Ye high functionaries who have charge of public affairs, let it be your task to make clear rewards and punishments.

XII. Let not the provincial authorities[49] or the Kuni no Miyakko levy exactions on the people. In a country there are not two lords; the people have not two masters. The sovereign is the master of the people of the whole country. The officials to whom he gives charge are all his vassals. How can they, as well as the Government, presume to levy taxes on the people?

XIII. Let all persons entrusted with office attend equally to their functions. Owing to their illness or to their being sent on missions, their work may sometimes be neglected. But whenever they become able to attend to business, let them be as accommodating as if they had cognizance of it from before, and not hinder public affairs on the score of their not having had to do with them.

XIV. Ye ministers and functionaries! Be not envious. For if we envy others, they in turn will envy us. The evils of envy know no limit. If others excel us in intelligence, it gives us no pleasure; if they surpass us in ability, we are envious. Therefore it is not until after a lapse of five hundred years that we at last meet with a wise man, and even in a thousand years we hardly obtain one sage. But if we do not find wise men and sages, wherewithal shall the country be governed?

XV. To turn away from that which is private, and to set our faces towards that which is public—this is the path of a Minister. Now if a man is influenced by private motives, he will assuredly feel resentments, and if he is influenced by resentful feelings, he will surely fail to act harmoniously with others. If he fails to act harmoniously with others, he will assuredly sacrifice the public interests to his private feelings. When resentment arises, it interferes with order, and is subversive (XXII. 14.) of law. Therefore in the first clause it was said, that superiors and inferiors should agree together. The purport is the same as this.

XVI. Let the people be employed (in forced labor) at seasonable times. This is an ancient and excellent rule. Let them be employed, therefore, in the winter months, when they are at leisure. But from Spring to Autumn, when they are engaged in agriculture or with the mulberry trees, the people should not be so employed. For if they do not attend to agriculture, what will they have to eat? if they do not attend to the mulberry trees, what will they do for clothing?

XVII. Decisions on important matters[50] should not be made by one person alone. They should be discussed with many. But small matters are of less consequence. It is unnecessary to consult a number of people. It is only in the case of the discussion of weighty affairs, when there is a suspicion that they may miscarry, that one should arrange matters in concert with others, so as to arrive at the right conclusion.

Autumn, 9th month. The Court ceremonies were reformed. In connection with this measure, the following edict was issued:—

"On entering or leaving the Palace Gate, one must kneel on both knees, with both hands pressed on the ground, but it is permitted to stand up and walk when the threshold is passed."

In this month there were first established the Kibumi[51] painters and the Yamashiro painters.

A.D. 605. 13th year, Summer, 4th month, 1st day. The Empress commanded the Prince Imperial, the Oho-omi, and also the Princes and Ministers, all to make a vow together, and therewithal to begin to make copper[52] and embroidery images of Buddha, sixteen feet high, one of each. She also commanded Kuratsukuri no Tori[53] to be the engineer for the construction of the Buddhas. At this time King Tè-hung[54] of Koryö, hearing that the Empress was making images of Buddha, sent tribute of 300 riō of the yellow metal.

Intercalary 7th month, 1st day. The Prince Imperial (XXII. 15.) ordered all the Princes and Ministers to put on the outer garments called hirahi.

Winter, 10th month. The Prince Imperial took up his abode in the Palace of Ikaruga.

A.D. 606. 14th year, Summer, 4th month, 8th day. Both the sixteen-foot images of Buddha, viz. that of copper and that of embroidery, were finished, and on the same day the sixteen-foot copper image was enshrined in the Golden Hall[55] of Gangōji.

Now this image of Buddha was too high for the door of the Golden Hall, and it could not be got into it. Hereupon the workmen consulted together and proposed to break down the door of the Hall, and so bring in the image. By the skill, however, of Kuratsukuri no Tori they succeeded in bringing it into the Hall without breaking down the door. On the same day a maigre entertainment[56] was given, at which there assembled an innumerable multitude of people.

Beginning with this year, festivals were held in all the temples on the 8th day of the 4th month and on the 15th day of the 7th month.

5th month, 5th day. The Imperial commands were given to Kuratsukuri no Tori, saying:—"It being my desire to encourage the Inner doctrines, I was about to erect a Buddhist Temple, and for this purpose sought for relics. Then thy (XXII. 16.) grandfather, Shiba Tattō, offered me relics. Moreover, there were no monks or nuns in the land. Thereupon thy father, Tasuna, for the sake of the Emperor Tachibana no Toyohi, took priestly orders[57] and reverenced the Buddhist law. Also thine aunt Shimame was the first to leave her home and, becoming the forerunner of all nuns, to practise the religion of Shaka. Now, We desired to make a sixteen-foot Buddha, and to that end sought for a good image of Buddha. Thou didst provide a model which met Our wishes. Moreover, when the image of Buddha was completed, it could not be brought into the Hall, and none of the workmen could suggest a plan of doing so. They were, therefore, on the point of breaking down the doorway, when thou didst manage to admit it without breaking down the doorway. For all these services of thine, We grant thee the rank of Dainin, and We also bestow on thee twenty chō of water-fields[58] in the district of Sakata in the province of Afumi." With the revenue derived from this land, Tori built for the Empress the Temple of Kongō-ji,[59] now known as the nunnery of Sakata in Minabuchi.

Autumn, 7th month. The Empress requested the Prince Imperial to lecture on the Shō-man-giō.[60] He completed his explanation of it in three days.

In this year the Prince Imperial also lectured on the Hokke-kiō[61] (XXII. 17.) in the Palace of Okamoto. The Empress was greatly pleased, and bestowed on the Prince Imperial one hundred chō of water-fields in the Province of Harima. They were therefore added to the Temple of Ikaruga.

A.D. 607. 15th year, Spring, 2nd month, 1st day. A Mibu Be[62] was established.

9th day. The following edict was made:—"We hear that Our Imperial ancestors, in their government of the world, bending lowly under the sky and treading delicately on the ground, paid deep reverence to the Gods of Heaven and Earth. They everywhere dedicated temples to the mountains and rivers, and held mysterious communion with the powers of Nature. Hence the male and female elements became harmoniously developed, and civilizing influences blended together. And now in Our reign, shall there be any remissness in the worship of the Gods of Heaven and Earth? Therefore let Our Ministers with their whole hearts do reverence to the Gods of Heaven and Earth."[63]

15th day. The Prince Imperial and the Oho-omi, accompanied by all the functionaries, did worship to the Gods of Heaven and Earth.

Autumn, 7th month, 3rd day. The Dairai,[64] Imoko Wono no Omi, was sent to the Land of Great Thang.[65] Kuratsukuri no Fukuri was appointed his interpreter.

In the winter of this year, the pond of Takechi, the pond of (XXII. 18.) Fujihara, the pond of Katawoka, and the pond of Sugahara were constructed in the province of Yamato, and a great canal was dug at Kurikuma in the province of Yamashiro. Moreover, in the province of Kahachi, the ponds of Tokari and Yosami were made. Miyake were also erected in all the provinces.

A.D. 608. 16th year, Summer, 4th month. Imoko, Wono no Omi, came back from the Land of Great Thang. The Thang country called him So In-ko.[66]

An envoy from Great Thang named P'ei Shih-ch‘ing, with a suite of twelve persons, arrived at Tsukushi in company with Imoko no Omi. Wonari, Naniha no Kishi, was sent to bring the guests of Great Thang, P'ei Shih-ch‘ing and the others, and a new official residence was erected for them over the Koryö official residence at Naniha.

6th month, 15th day. The guests anchored in the harbour of Naniha. Thirty gaily decked boats were sent to meet them at Yeguchi (river-mouth), and they were lodged in the new official residence. Hereupon Torimaro, Nakatomi no Miyatoko no Muraji, Nukade, Ohoshi Kahachi no Atahe and Ō-hei, Fune no Fumibito, were appointed their official entertainers.

Now Imoko no Omi represented to the Empress, saying:—"When I was leaving, the Thang Emperor gave me a letter. But while passing through the Land of Pèkché, the men of Pèkché searched me and took it from me. Therefore I am unable to present it." Hereupon the Ministers advised, (XXII. 19.) saying:—"An Envoy, though he lose his life, should not lose his message. Such is (the duty of) an Envoy! How can any one be so remiss in it as to lose the letter of the Great Country?" And they accordingly condemned him to banishment. Now the Empress made an order, saying:—"Although Imoko is guilty of losing the letter, We cannot easily punish him, for in that case the guest of the Great Country would hear of it, and this is undesirable." So he was pardoned and left unpunished.

Autumn, 8th month, 3rd day. The Thang guests entered the capital. On this day seventy-five caparisoned horses were sent to meet the Thang guests on the Tsubaki no ichi highway, where Hirafu, Nukada be no Muraji, delivered a message of welcome to them.

12th day. The Thang guests were summoned to Court, and caused to state the object of their mission. Abe no Tori no Omi and Idaku, Mononobe no Yosami no Muraji, acted as introducers of the guests.

Now the presents from the Land of Great Thang were placed in the courtyard. Then the Chief Envoy, P'ei-Shih-ch‘ing, bearing in his own hands the letter (of credence), made obeisance twice, and declared the purport of his mission. He then stood up.

This letter was as follows:—"The Emperor greets the Sovereign of Wa.[67] Your Envoy, the provincial governor, the (XXII. 20.) Dairai, So In-ko, and his suite have arrived, and have given us full information.

We having reverently received the precious command[68] (of Heaven), rule over the universe. It is Our desire to diffuse abroad Our civilizing influences, so as to cover all living things, and Our sentiment of loving nurture knows no distinction of distance.

Now We learn that Your Majesty, dwelling separately beyond the sea, bestows the blessings of peace on your subjects, that there is tranquillity within your borders, and that the manners and customs are mild.

With the most profound loyalty, you have sent Us tribute from afar, and We are delighted at this admirable token of your sincerity.

Our health is as usual, notwithstanding the increasing warmth of the weather.

Therefore We have sent P'ei-Shih-ch‘ing, Official Entertainer of the Department charged with the Ceremonial for the reception of Foreign Ambassadors, and his suite, to notify to you the preceding. We also transmit to you the products of which a list is given separately."

Then Abe no Omi came forward, received the letter, and advanced with it. Ohotomo no Kurafu no Muraji came out to meet him, and received the letter, which he laid on a table before the Great Gate, and reported to the Empress. When the ceremony was over, they (the Chinese Ambassador and his suite) retired.[69]

On this occasion, the Imperial Princes, the other Princes, and the Ministers all wore golden hair ornaments on their heads, and their clothing was all of brocade, purple, and embroidery, with various-coloured figured thin silks.

In one writing it is stated that the colour of the garments corresponded in all cases with that of the official caps.

16th day. The Thang guests were entertained at Court.

9th month, 5th day. The guests were entertained at Oho-kohori in Naniha.

11th day. The Thang guest, P'ei Shih-ch‘ing, took his departure. Accordingly, Wono no Imoko no Omi was appointed Chief Envoy, Kishi no Wonari Second Envoy, and Fukuri Interpreter. They were despatched in company with the Thang guests. Now the Emperor addressed the Thang Emperor in the following terms:—

"The Emperor of the East respectfully addresses the (XXII. 21.) Emperor of the West.[70] Your Envoy, P'ei Shih-ch‘ing, Official Entertainer of the Department of foreign receptions, and his suite, having arrived here, my long-harboured cares were dissolved. This last month of autumn is somewhat chilly. How is Your Majesty? We trust well. We are in our usual health. We now send the Dairai, So In-ko, the Dairai, Wonari, and others to you. This is respectfully presented, but informal."

At this time there were sent to the Land of Thang the students Fukuin, Yamato no Aya no Atahe, Emyō, Nara no Wosa,[71] Kuromaro, Takamuku no Ayabito, and Ohokuni, Imaki no Ayabito, together with the student-priests Hifumi (or Nichibun), Imaki no Ayabito, Shōan, Minabuchi no Ayabito, Eon, Shiga no Ayabito, and Kōsai, Imaki no Ayabito, in all eight persons.

In this year many persons from Silla came to settle in Japan.

A.D. 609. 17th year, Summer, 4th month, 4th day. The Viceroy[72] of Tsukushi reported to the Empress that Buddhist priests from Pèkché, named To-heun and Hyé-mi,[73] at the head of ten others and seventy-five laymen, had anchored in the harbour of Ashigita in the province of Higo. Then Tokomaro, Naniha no Kishi, and Tatsu, Funa no Fumibito, were sent to ask them why they came. They answered and said:—"The (XXII. 22.) King of Pèkché commanded us to go on a mission to the Land of Wu.[74] In that country, however, there is civil war. We were not allowed to enter it, and were returning to our own land again when we suddenly met with a storm, and were tossed about upon the sea, until most fortunately we anchored on the Imperial coast. At this we were greatly rejoiced."

5th month, 16th day. Tokomaro and his companion returned, and made their report to the Empress. Tokomaro and Tatsu were straightway sent back to accompany the men of Pèkché, and to escort them to their own country. When they arrived at Tsushima, the ten priests all expressed a wish to remain (in Japan), and the matter having been laid before the Government, they were permitted to do so. Accordingly, they were caused to dwell in the Temple of Gangōji.

Autumn, 9th month. Imoko, Wono no Omi, came back from the Land of Great Thang. Only the Interpreter Fukuri did not return.

A.D. 610. 18th year, Spring, 3rd month. The King of Koryö sent tribute of Buddhist priests named Tam-chhi and Pöp-chöng. Tam-chhi knew the five (Chinese) classics.[75] He was moreover skilled in preparing painters' colours, paper, and ink. He also made mills. This was apparently the first time that mills were made.[76]

Autumn, 7th month. An Envoy from Silla named Chuk-syé-să, Nama[77] of Satök-pu, and an Imna Envoy named Syu (XXII. 23.) Chi-mè, Tè-sya[78] of Tök-pu, arrived in Tsukushi.

9th month. Messengers were sent to fetch the Envoys from Silla and Imna.

Winter, 10th month, 8th day. The Envoys from Silla and Imna arrived in the capital. On this day Hirafu, Nukadabe no Muraji, was made Chief Officer over the caparisoned horses sent to meet the Silla guests, and Ohotomo, Kashihade no Omi, Chief Officer over the caparisoned horses sent to meet the Imna guests. Accordingly they were lodged in the official building at Kahabe in Ato.

9th day. The Envoys paid their respects at Court. On this occasion Kahakatsu, Hada no Miyakko, and Usagi, Hashi no Muraji, were ordered to act as introducers for Silla, and Shiwo-futa, Hashibito no Muraji, and Ohoko, Abe no Omi, as introducers for Imna. They brought them in together by the South Gate, and made them stand in the middle of the Court. Now, Ohotomo no Kurafu[79] no Muraji, Soga no Toyora no Yemishi no Omi, Sakamoto no Nukade no Omi and Abe no Toriko no Omi got up together from their places, and going forward, prostrated themselves in the Court. Hereupon the guests of the two countries each made repeated obeisance, and declared the purport of their mission. Then the four Daibu stood up, and going forward, informed the Oho-omi. The Oho-omi got up from his place, and standing before the Hall, listened to their statement. When this was done, all the guests were given presents, each according to his rank.

17th day. The guests were entertained at Court. Nihe, Kahachi no Aya no Atahe was made table-companion for Silla, and Kusō, Nishikori no Obito, table-companion for Imna.

23rd day. The ceremonies of the reception of the guests having come to a close, they went away.

A.D. 611. 19th year, Summer, 5th month, 5th day. The Empress went to gather medicinal herbs on the plain of Uda.[80]

(XXII. 24.) At cockcrow they assembled by the pond of Fujihara, and at daybreak they set out. Ahata no Hosome no Omi was made to lead the van, while Nukadabe no Hirafu no Muraji brought up the rear. On this day the colour of the clothing of the various Ministers agreed with the colour of their official caps. They each wore hair ornaments, which in the case both of the Daitoko and Shōtoko were made of gold, of the Dainin and Shōnin of leopards' tails, and of the Dairai and lower ranks of birds' tails.[81]

Autumn, 8th month. Silla sent Peuk-cheul-chi,[82] Nama of Satök-pu, and Imna sent Chhin-chi and Chu-chi, the Tè-sya of Seup-pu together, with tribute.

A.D. 612. 20th year, Spring, 1st month, 7th day. A banquet, with sake, was given to all the high functionaries. On this day, the Oho-omi proposed the health of the Empress, and sang a song, saying:—

When I look on the august sky,[83]
Whence there stands forth,
From its manifold fence (of clouds)
Which conceals her,
The Great Sovereign
Who rules us tranquilly,
For myriads of ages (say we)
May it ever be thus!
For thousands of ages too
May it ever be thus!
With deep reverence
We would serve her;
With profound obeisance
(XXII. 25.) We would serve her;
And so ends my gong.

The Empress replied, saying:—

My good Soga!
The sons of Soga—
Were they horses,
They would be steeds of Hiuga:
Were they swords,
They would be good blades of Kure.[84]
Right indeed
Seems the Great Sovereign
To have in her service
The sons of Soga!

2nd month, 28th day. The body of the former Empress-consort Katashi-hime[85] was removed and re-interred in the Great Misasagi of Hinokuma.

On this day funeral orations were pronounced on the Karu[86] highway. First of all, Tori, Abe no Uchi no Omi, pronounced an eulogistic decree of the Empress, and made offerings to the spirit of the deceased of such things as sacred utensils and sacred garments,[87] fifteen thousand kinds in all.

Secondly, the Imperial Princes, each in the order of their rank, pronounced funeral orations. Thirdly, Womaro, Nakatomi no Miyatokoro no Muraji, pronounced the eulogistic address of the Oho-omi. Fourthly, the Oho-omi, at the head (XXII. 26.) of the Omi of the eight families,[88] caused Marise, Sakahibe no Omi, to read the written eulogiums of the nobility.[89] The people of that time said that Marise and Womaro delivered their eulogiums well, but that Tori no Omi delivered his badly.

5th month, 5th day. An excursion was made to gather medicinal herbs. They assembled at Hada and proceeded together to the Court. The dress was the same as for the Uda excursion.

This year a man emigrated from Pèkché whose face and body were all flecked with white, being perhaps affected with white ringworm. People disliking his extraordinary appearance, wished to cast him away on an island in the sea. But this man said:—"If you dislike my spotted skin, you should not breed horses or kine in this country which are spotted with white. Moreover, I have a small talent. I can make the figures of hills and mountains. If you kept me and made use of me, it would be to the advantage of the country. Why should you waste me by casting me away on an island of the sea?" Hereupon they gave ear to his words and did not cast him away. Accordingly he was made to draw the figures of Mount Sumi[90] and of the Bridge of Wu in the Southern Court. The people of that time called him by the name of Michiko no Takumi, and he was also called Shikomaro.[91]

Another man of Pèkché named Mimachi emigrated to Japan. He said that he had learned from Wu their style of music and dancing. He was accordingly lodged at Sakurawi, and young people collected who were made to learn from him these arts. Hereupon Deshi,[92] Manu no Obito, and Seibun, (XXII. 27.) Imaki no Ayabito, learned dancing from him, and handed it down (to their pupils).

A.D. 613. 21st year, Winter, 11th month. The ponds of Waki no Kami, Unebi, and Wani were constructed, and a great highway laid from Naniha to the capital.[93]

12th month, 1st day. The Prince Imperial took a journey to Katawoka. Now a starving man was lying by the roadside. He asked his name, but there was no answer. The Prince Imperial, seeing this, gave him to eat and to drink, and taking off his own raiment, clothed with it the starving man, saying to him, "Lie in peace." Then he made a song, saying:—

Alas! for
The wayfarer lying
An hungered for rice
On the hill of Katawoka

(The sunshiny).
Art thou become
Hast thou no lord
Flourishing as a bamboo?
Alas! for
The wayfarer lying
An hungered for rice![94]

2nd day. The Prince Imperial sent a messenger to see the starving man. The messenger returned and said:—"The starving man is already dead." Hereupon the Prince Imperial was greatly grieved, and accordingly caused him to be buried at that place, a mound erected, and firmly closed.[95]

(XXII. 28.) Many days after, the Prince Imperial called for his personal attendants, and said to them:—"The starving man who was lying on a former day on the road was no ordinary man. He must have been an upright man." A messenger was sent to see. On his return he reported that when he went to the mound and made inspection, the heaped-up earth had not been disturbed, but on opening the tomb and looking in, there was no corpse. It was empty, and there was nothing but the garment folded up and laid on the coffin. Thereupon the Prince Imperial sent the messenger back a second time to fetch the garment, which he continued wearing as before.

The people of that time wondered much at this, and said:—"How true it is that a sage knoweth a sage." And they stood more and more in awe of him.

A.D. 614. 22nd year, Summer, 5th month, 5th day. An excursion for medicinal herbs was made.

6th month, 13th day. Mitasuki, Inugami no Kimi, and Yatabe no Miyakko were sent to the Land of Great Thang.

Autumn, 8th month. The Oho-omi fell ill. For his sake a thousand persons, men and women, entered religion.

A.D. 615. 23rd year, Autumn, 7th month. Mitasuki, Inugami no Kimi, and Yatabe no Miyakko arrived from the Land of Great Thang. An envoy from Pèkché accompanied Inugami no Kimi to our Court.

11th month, 2nd day. A banquet was given to the Pèkché guest.

11th day. The Koryö Buddhist priest Hyé-Chă returned to his country.

A.D. 616. 24th year, Spring, 1st month. Peach trees and plum trees bore fruit.[96]

3rd month. Three men from the Island of Yaku[97] came hither as emigrants.

(XXII. 29.) Summer, 5th month. Seven persons from Yaku arrived.

Autumn, 7th month. Twenty more persons arrived from Yaku. There were first and last in all thirty persons. They were all settled in Enowi. They never went away again, but all died there.

Autumn, 7th month. Silla sent the Nama, Chuk Syé-să, with tribute of an image of Buddha.[98]

A.D. 617. 25th year, Summer, 6th month. It was reported from the province of Idzumo that there was in the district of Kando a gourd of the size of an amphora.[99]

In this year there were good crops of the five kinds of grain.

A.D. 618. 26th year, Autumn, 8th month, 1st day. Koryö sent envoys with tribute of local productions, and reported that Yang-Ti[100] of the Sui dynasty had invaded that country with a force of 300,000 men, but had, on the contrary, been beaten by them.[101] (XXII. 30.) They therefore sent a present of two captives, named Chên-kung and P‘u-t‘ung, with such things as flutes, cross-bows, and catapults—ten in all. They also sent one camel, bred in their country.

This year Kahabe no Omi[102] was sent to the province of Aki with orders to build ships. On arriving at the mountain, he sought for ship timber. Having found good timber, he marked it and was about to cut it, when a man appeared, and said:—"This is a thunder-tree, and must not be cut." Kahabe no Omi said:—"Shall even the Thunder-god oppose the Imperial commands?" So having offered many mitegura,[103] he sent workmen to cut down the timber. Straightway a great rain fell, and it thundered and lightened. Hereupon Kahabe no Omi drew his sword, and said:—"O Thunder-god, harm not the workmen; it is my person that thou shouldst injure." So he looked up and waited. But although the God thundered more than ten times, he could not harm Kahabe no Omi. Then (XXII. 31.) he changed himself into a small fish, which stuck between the branches of the tree. Kahabe no Omi forthwith took the fish, and burnt it. So at last the ships were built.

A.D. 619. 27th year, Summer, 4th month, 4th day. It was reported from the province of Afumi that in the river Gamafu[104] there was a creature in the shape of a man.[105]

Autumn, 7th month. There was a fisherman of the province of Settsu, who cast his net in the Horiye.[106] Something entered his net formed like a child, which was neither a fish nor a man. Its name was unknown.

A.D. 620. 28th year, Autumn, 8th month. Two men of Yaku were cast away on the island of Idzu.[107]

Autumn, 10th month. The top of the Misasagi[108] of Hinokuma was covered with pebbles. Outside the boundary the earth was piled up into a hill, and each of the noble houses[109] was charged to erect a great pillar[110] on the top of the hill of earth. Now the pillar set up by Yamato no Aya no Saka no Uhe no Atahe was very much higher than the others, and the men of that time gave him the name of Ohohashira (great-pillar) no Atahe.

12th month, 1st day. There was a red appearance in the sky, over a rod in length, and resembling the tail of a fowl in shape.

(XXII. 32.) This year, the Prince Imperial, in concert with Shima no Oho-omi, drew up a history of the Emperors, a history of the country, and the original record of the Omi, the Muraji, the Tomo no Miyakko, the Kuni no Miyakko, the 180 Be, and the free subjects.[111]

A.D. 621. 29th year, Spring, 2nd month, 5th day. In the middle of the night the Imperial Prince Mŭmayado no Toyotomimi no Mikoto died in the Palace of Ikaruga. At this time all the Princes and Omi, as well as the people of the Empire, the old, as if they had lost a dear child, had no taste for salt and vinegar[112] in their mouths, the young, as if they had lost a beloved parent, filled the ways with the sound of their lamenting. The farmer ceased from his plough, and the pounding woman laid down her pestle. They all said:—"The sun and moon have lost their brightness; heaven and earth (XXII. 33.) have crumbled to ruin: henceforward, in whom shall we put our trust?"

In this month the Prince Imperial Kamitsumiya[113] was buried in the Shinaga Misasagi.

At this time Hyé-chă, the Buddhist priest of Koryö, heard of the death of the Prince Imperial Kamitsumiya, and was greatly grieved thereat. He invited the priests, and in honour of the Prince Imperial gave them a meal,[114] and explained the sacred books in person. On this day he prayed, saying:—"In the land of Nippon there is a sage, by name the Imperial Prince Kamitsumiya Toyotomimi. Certainly Heaven has freely endowed him with the virtues of a sage.[115] Born in the Land of Nippon,[116] he thoroughly possessed the three fundamental principles,[117] he continued the great plans of the former sages. He reverenced the Three Precious Things,[118] and assisted the people in their distress. He was truly a great sage. And now the Prince Imperial is dead. I, although a foreigner, was in heart closely united to him. Now what avails it that I alone should survive? I have determined to die on the 5th day of the 2nd month of next year.[119] So shall I meet the Prince Imperial Kamitsumiya in the Pure Land, and together with him pass through the metempsychosis of all living creatures." Now when the appointed day came, Hyé-chă (XXII. 34.) died, and all the people of that day said one to another:—"Prince Kamitsumiya is not the only sage, Hyé-chă is also a sage."[120]

This year Silla sent the Nama, Imimè, with tribute and a memorial, stating to the Empress the object of his mission. It was perhaps from this time that Silla began to present memorials.

A.D. 622. 30th year, Autumn, 7th month. Silla sent as ambassador the Nama, Chi-syön-i, and Imna sent the Talsol Nama, Chi. They came to Court together, and brought tribute of a golden image of Buddha, a golden pagoda, and relics, also a great baptismal flag,[121] with twelve smaller ones. Now the image of Buddha was placed in the Hada[122] Temple at Kadono. The other articles, namely the relics, the golden pagoda, and the baptismal flags, were all deposited in Shitenōji.[123] At this time, the Buddhist priests E-sai and E-kō, with the physicians E-jitsu and Fuku-in, students of the learning of Great Thang, arrived in company with Chi-syön-i and the others. Now E-jitsu and the rest made together a representation to the Empress, saying:—"Those who have resided in Thang for study[124] have all completed their courses, and ought to be sent for. Moreover, the Land of Great Thang is an admirable country, whose laws are complete and fixed. Constant communication should be kept up with it."

This year Silla invaded Imna,[125] and Imna became a dependency (XXII. 35.) of Silla. The Empress thought of invading Silla, and consulted with the Oho-omi. She also asked the opinion of all the Ministers. Then Tanaka no Omi answered and said:—"An invasion should not be too hastily undertaken. It will not be too late to attack when we have first learnt the condition of affairs and ascertained that they are (really) mutinous. I pray that the experiment be made of sending an envoy thither to view the state of things."

Kuni, Nakatomi no Muraji, said:—"Imna is originally an inner Miyake of ours. The Silla people have now attacked and taken possession of it. I pray that our troops be disciplined, that Silla be chastised, and Imna taken from it and given to Pèkché. Would not this be better than that it should be possessed by Silla?" Tanaka no Omi said:—"Not so! Pèkché is a very changeable country.[126] Even on the roads they lie. Everything they ask for is unjust. Therefore (Imna) should not be given over to Pèkché." So the expedition was not carried out. Hereupon Kishi no Ihakane was sent to Silla, and Kishi no Kuranoshita to Imna, to inquire into the Imna affairs.

Now the Lord of Silla sent eight Daibu to inform Ihakane of the affairs of Silla and Kuranoshita of the affairs of Imna. Therefore they promised as follows:—"Imna, though a small country, is a dependency of the Empress. Why should Silla unceremoniously take possession of it? Let it be once for all recognized to be, as always, an inner Miyake (of Japan), and we pray let there be no more trouble about it."

So the Nama, Chi-syön-i, was sent along with Kishi no Ihakane and an Imna man, the Talsol Nama named Chi, (XXII. 36.) along with Kishi no Kuranoshita to bring tribute from both countries. But that same year, before Ihakane and the other had returned, the Daitoko, Womaro, Sakahibe no Omi, and the Shōtoko, Kuni, Nakatomi no Muraji, were appointed generals of the first rank; the Shōtoko, Nedzu, Kahabe no Omi, the Shōtoko, Itto, Mononobe no Yosami no Muraji, the Shōtoko, Hironiha, Hada no Omi, the Shōtoko Ihifuta, Afumi no Ashimi no Omi, the Shōtoko, Ushi, Heguri no Omi, the Shōtoko, Ohotomo no Muraji, and the Shōtoko, Ikusa, Ohoyake no Omi, were made assistant-generals.

They invaded Silla with an army of several tens of thousands of men. Now Ihakane and the others had assembled at the port, and were waiting for a fair wind and smooth sea in order to embark. Hereupon a numerous naval force arrived, filling the sea. The Envoys of the two countries, gazing upon it, were struck with alarm, and returned home.

In their stead, Kamchi Tè-chhang[127] was made tribute-bearer for Imna, and came with an offering of tribute. Hereupon Ihakane and his colleague said to one another:—"The outbreak of this war is contrary to the previous agreement, therefore the Imna affairs cannot now be settled." So they put to sea, and crossed over to Japan. The generals, however, first went to Imna, and having held a consultation, were about to attack Silla. Hereupon the King of the Land of Silla, hearing that a large force had arrived, became apprehensive and tendered his submission. Then the generals consulted together, and forwarded a memorial, which was granted by the Empress.

Winter, 11th month. Ihakane, Kuranoshita, and the rest returned from Silla. Thereupon the Oho-omi inquired the state of affairs there. They answered and said:—"Silla received the Imperial commands with profound respect, and accordingly designated two special Envoys to deliver tribute from the two countries. But when they saw a naval force arrive, the Envoys with tribute for our Court went home again. The tribute, however, has been brought, notwithstanding this." Hereupon the Oho-omi said:—"What a pity that the army was despatched so soon!"

The men of that time said that this war was owing to (XXII. 37.) Sakahibe no Omi and Adzumi no Muraji having formerly[128] received many presents from Silla, and that they had again urged the Oho-omi, with the consequence that the expedition was despatched before receiving the Envoy's report.[129]

Before this time, when Ihakane and his colleague crossed over to Silla, a gaily-decorated boat came to meet them at a bay as they were approaching the harbour. Ihakane inquired:—"To what country does this boat sent to meet us belong?" They answered and said:—"It is a Silla boat." Ihakane again said:—"Why is there no boat to meet us from Imna?" A second boat was at once added on behalf of Imna. The practice of Silla sending two boats to meet our Envoys began from this time.

From spring till autumn there were heavy rains and floods, and the five grains did not reach maturity.

A.D. 623. 31st year, Spring, 4th month, 3rd day. There was a Buddhist priest who took an axe and smote therewith his paternal grandfather.[130] Now the Empress, hearing of this, sent for the Oho-omi, and gave command, saying:—"The man who has entered religion should be devoted to the Three Precious Things, and should cherish devoutly the prohibitions of the Buddhist law. How can he without compunction be readily guilty of crime? We now hear that there is a priest who has struck his grandfather. Therefore, let all the priests and nuns of the various temples be assembled, and investigation made. Let severe punishment be inflicted on any who are convicted of offences." Hereupon the priests and nuns were all assembled, and an examination held. The wicked priests and nuns were all about to be punished, when Kwal-leuk, a Buddhist priest of Pèkché, presented a memorial, as follows:—"The law of Buddha came from the Western Country to Han.[131] Three hundred years later it was handed on to Pèkché, since which time barely one hundred years had (XXII. 38.) elapsed, when Our King, hearing that the Emperor of Nippon was a wise man, sent him tribute of an image of Buddha and of Buddhist Sutras. Since that time, less than one hundred years have passed, and consequently the priests and nuns have not yet learned the Buddhist laws, and readily commit wickedness. On this account all the priests and nuns are afraid, and do not know what to do. I humbly pray that with the exception of the wicked (priest who struck his grandfather) all the other priests and nuns may be pardoned and not punished. That would be a work of great merit."

Accordingly the Empress granted (his petition).

13th day. A decree was made as follows:—"If even the priests continue to offend against the law, wherewithal shall the laymen be admonished? Therefore from this time forward we appoint a Sōjō and a Sōdzu for the superintendence of the priests and nuns."

17th day. The priest Kwal-leuk was appointed Sōjō, and Kurabe no Tokuseki was made Sōdzu. On the same day Adzumi no Muraji was made Hōto.[132]

Autumn, 9th month, 3rd day. There was an inspection of the temples, and of the priests and nuns, and an accurate record made of the circumstances of the building of the temples, and also of the circumstances under which the priests and nuns embraced religion, with the year, month and day of their taking orders. There were at this time 46 temples, 816 priests, and 569 nuns—in all, 1385 persons.

Winter, 10th month, 1st day. The Oho-omi sent the two Ministers, Adzumi no Muraji and Maro, Abe no Omi, to inform the Empress, saying:—"The district of Katsuraki is my (XXII. 39.) original residence, and I have therefore taken my name from it. I pray accordingly that I may have this district permanently, and I desire that it should be constituted nay fief." Hereupon the Empress made an order, saying:—

"We are sprung from the Soga family. Moreover the Oho-omi is Our uncle by the mother's side. Therefore the words of the Oho-omi, if spoken at night, (are carried into effect by us) before the night has given way to morning; if spoken in the daytime, (they are carried into effect) before the day has become dark. What speech of his have We not attended to? But if now in this Our reign, We were rashly to part with this district, future sovereigns would say, 'A foolish woman ruled the Empire, and rashly lost this district.' Not only should We be accounted unwise, but the Oho-omi would be thought disloyal. Such would be Our ill-fame in ages to come." So she refused.

A.D. 624. 32nd year, Spring, 1st month, 7th day. The King of Koryö sent tribute of a Buddhist priest, named Hyé-kwan. He was appointed Sōjō.

A.D. 625. 34th year, Spring, 1st month. Peach and plum trees blossomed.

3rd month. It was cold, and hoar-frost fell.

Summer, 5th month, 20th day. The Oho-omi died. He was buried in the tomb at Momohara. The Oho-omi was the son of Iname no Sukune. He had a talent for military tactics, and was also gifted with eloquence. He reverenced deeply the Three Precious Things. His house stood on the bank of the river Asuka. A small pond had been dug in the courtyard, and there was a little island in the middle of the pond. Therefore the men of that time called him Shima no Oho-omi.[133]

(XXII. 40.) 6th month. Snow fell. This year from the 3rd to the 7th month there were continual rains, and great famine in the Empire. The old ate the roots of herbs, and died by the road-side. Infants at the breast died with their mothers. Thieves and robbers sprang up in great numbers, and could not be put down.

A.D. 627. 35th year, Spring, 2nd month. In the province of Michinoku there was a mujina[134] which changed into a man and sang.

Summer, 5th month. Flies gathered together in great numbers. They clustered together for ten rods, and floated away in the air across the Shinano pass[135] with a sound like thunder. They reached as far east as the province of Kamitsuke, and then spontaneously dispersed.

A.D. 628. 36th year, Spring, 2nd month, 27th day. The Empress took to her sick bed.

3rd month, 2nd day. There was a total eclipse of the sun.

(XXII. 41.) 6th day. The Empress's illness became very grave, and (death) was unmistakably near. So she sent for the Imperial Prince Tamura, and addressed him, saying:—"To ascend to the Celestial Dignity, and therewith to regulate the vast foundation, to direct the manifold machinery of government, and thereby to nourish the people—this is not a matter to be lightly spoken of, but one which demands constant and serious attention. Do thou therefore be careful and observant, and let no hasty words escape thee." On the same day she summoned to her Tamashiro no Ohoye, and instructed him, saying:—"Thy heart is young. Whatever thou mayst wish in thy bosom, do not utter it in speech, but be sure to await the expression of general opinion, and act accordingly."

7th day. The Empress died at the age of seventy-five.[136] She was temporarily interred in the Southern Court (of the Palace).

Summer, 4th month, 15th day. Hail fell, of the size of peaches.

16th day. Hail fell, of the size of plums. There was a drought, which lasted from spring till summer.

Autumn, 9th month, 20th day. The rites of mourning for the Empress began. At this time all the Ministers each pronounced a funeral eulogy at the shrine of the temporary burial-place.

Before this time the Empress had given her dying injunctions to the Ministers, saying:—"Of late years the five grains have not produced well, and there is great famine among the people. Let there be therefore no costly interment[137] by raising (XXII. 42.) for me a misasagi, but let me be buried in the misasagi of the Imperial Prince Takeda.

24th day. The Empress was buried in the misasagi of Prince Takeda.

  1. From this point to the end of the work I have had the great advantage of consulting Dr. Florenz's German translation.
  2. Toyo, abundant; mi, august; ke, food; Kashikiya, cook-house; hime, princess.
  3. Suiko means "to reason from antiquity."
  4. Literally middle.
  5. Kimmei.
  6. Yōmei.
  7. Bidatsu.
  8. Sujun.
  9. In Yamato.
  10. The Chinese character here translated "pagoda" is , pronounced setsu in Japanese. This words means (with the pronunciation chöl) in Corean Buddhist temples generally, and it is the same word which we have in the Japanese tera, temple. But in the present passage it would seem that one of the subsidiary buildings of a Buddhist temple is intended, no doubt something in the form of a pagoda, corresponding to either 6 or 14 in the drawing in "Murray's Handbook of Japan" (Introduction, p. 26). A pagoda in Japan is built round a solid central pillar (referred to in the text) which runs up to the topmost story. Shari, relics, is the Japanese form of the Sanskrit śarîra, body. The shari at Ikegami near Tokio is said to be part of the shoulder-blade of Saint Nichiren.

    The Pagoda is the Chinese and Japanese counterpart of the Indian stupa and an essentially sepulchral monument. The stories, of which there is always an odd number, represent umbrellas of honour. Vide an instructive article by Miss Gordon Cumming in the "English Illustrated Magazine."

  11. Hence his name, Mŭma-ya-do, which means stable door.
  12. i.e. Buddhism.
  13. i.e. the Chinese Classics. Inner and Outer have here something of the force of our words sacred and secular.
  14. The Corean pronunciation.
  15. Kamu-tsu-miya means upper palace.
  16. Shi-ten-ō-ji means the Temple of the Four (Dêva) Kings. This Temple is still in existence—not the original building, however. Arahaka is the name of the place where it stands. It means ruined tomb.
  17. See above, p. 104.
  18. The Chinese character used here is , but whether the author refers to the use of this character (with the sound ji) at the end of names of Buddhist temples, or whether he was thinking of the Japanese word tera, temple, is not very clear. Tera, though always written , is really, as already pointed out, derived from the Chinese through the Corean chöl.
  19. Aquilaria agallochum.
  20. Magpies are very plentiful in Corea. In Japan they are a somewhat rare bird. I have seen them near Kurume in the province of Higo.
  21. From a notice in the "Shoku-Nihongi" it appears that in the reign of Shōmu (724–748) there were shrines to this God in all the seven home provinces.
  22. See below, XXV. 46.
  23. Imna was incorporated with Silla A.D. 532, and is not mentioned in the "Tongkam" after that date. The "Nihongi" narrative may have reference to some rebellion of the Imna people.
  24. These places are in Imna.
  25. Near where the Temple of Hōriuji now stands.
  26. Or Kuhi.
  27. Literally sent as tribute.
  28. Kōdzuke.
  29. If Kume is , war, as is probable, there is an obvious propriety in this appointment.
  30. Such as the Nakatomi, the Imbe, etc.
  31. The term used would include Geomancy.
  32. Ōchin is a name of Chinese or Corean origin, but as it is borne by a Japanese, I give it the Japanese pronunciation. Fumibito or fubito means scribes.
  33. Or Takatoshi.
  34. See Vol. I. p. 181. It would appear from this that Hashi no Muraji was still an office with specific duties, and not a mere title.
  35. Or Taima.
  36. Daibu.
  37. The present Temple of Kwō-riu-ji in Yamashiro, district of Kadono. The Temple tradition says that this image was of Miroku, i.e. Māitreya, Buddha, the merciful one, expected to appear and open a new era about 3000 years hence. Miroku is probably identical with the Corean miryök, the general term in that country for Buddhist images.
  38. As offerings to temples. The banners were for display at Court ceremonies. See a paper on the "Hi no Maru," "T.A.S.J.," Vol. XXII. 1893, for some account of these banners. See also Dr. Florenz's note on this passage.
  39. The Chinese custom of distinguishing rank by the form and materials of the official cap. In modern times a button on the top of the cap serves this purpose.
  40. Or Daitoko.
  41. The last five are the names of the Chinese five cardinal virtues. Vide "Mayers' Manual," p. 311. The "Shiki" informs us that these ranks corresponded, the first two to the fourth rank of that day, the next two to the fifth and so on, there being nothing, however, to correspond to the last two (Daichi and Shōchi) above mentioned. It is noticeable that the highest ranks, which comprised but a small number of persons, are not included in this table.

    These cap-ranks did not remain long in use. They were subsequently modified, and ultimately abandoned altogether.

  42. In imitation of the contemporary Sui dynasty of China, purple was for officials of the fifth rank and upwards. Nin was green, rai red, shin yellow, gi white, and chi black. Princes and chief Ministers wore the cap of the highest rank, viz. toku.
  43. Hair ornaments of gold or silver in the shape of flowers. Specimens are preserved in the Nara Museum. They are called Uzu in Japanese.
  44. These so-called laws are evidently rather of the nature of moral maxims. Dr. Florenz has a highly instructive note on this passage, to which I would refer the reader.
  45. From the "Lunyu," or "Analects" of Confucius.
  46. That is, the beings produced in transmigration by the four processes of being born from eggs, from a womb, moisture-bred, or formed by metamorphosis (as butterflies from caterpillars). Some editions omit the phrase Buddha, the Law and the Priesthood.
  47. The Chinese , li, decorum, courtesy, proper behaviour, ceremony, gentlemanly conduct as we should say.
  48. i.e. they meet with no resistance.
  49. The Interlinear Kana has Mikoto mochi. The Kuni no Miyakko were the old local nobles, whose power was at this time giving way to that of the Central Government, represented in the provinces by the 國司, or local Governors.
  50. I venture to substitute , great, for , the reading of the printed editions.
  51. The "Daishiden" ("History of Shōtoku Daishi") states that the Kibumi, Yamashiro and other painters were instituted for the painting of Buddhist pictures. They were relieved from certain taxes and allowed to make this their profession. There is some doubt whether Kibumi is the name of a place or not. It means literally yellow writing, and some think this is a description of the Buddhist Sutras which were written on tinted paper. Kibumi is also applied to Chinese books.

    The Shukai quotes here a passage from a Chinese History of the Liang dynasty to the following effect:—"In A.D. 541 Pèkché sent frequent Envoys with offerings of their national products. They also asked for a treatise on the Nirvana Sutra, doctors of (ancient) Chinese poetry, and also artizans and painters. These were granted by Imperial command." This is not the only evidence of the fact that simultaneously with the stream of Chinese civilizing influences which flowed from Corea to Japan at this period, there was a corresponding current from China to Corea. The frequency of Chinese names among the Corean emigrants to Japan is a proof of this. The "Seishiroku," a sort of peerage of Japan, compiled A.D. 814, shows that at that time nearly a third of the Japanese nobility traced their descent to Corean or Chinese ancestors in something like equal proportions. The members are: China (Han), 162 families; Pèkché, 104; Koryö, 50; Imna, 9, and Silla, 9; doubtful, 47. Total, 381 foreign families out of a grand total of 1177. Many of these were descended from teachers of various kinds, and all must have contributed to the spread of Chinese civilization in the country of their adoption.

  52. From the "Daishiden" we learn that the "copper" was an amalgam of copper and gold in the proportion of 23,000 kin (pounds) of the former to 759 riō (ounces) of the latter.
  53. i.e. Tori of the Saddlers' Be.
  54. This was not the name of the Koryö king who reigned at this time.
  55. The Great Hall of the Temple where the chief image is installed.
  56. This means practically a religious service. See above, XX. 14.
  57. Lit. left his house.
  58. i.e. rice-land.
  59. Diamond-temple.
  60. A Sutra or Buddhist Scripture called in Sanskrit the Çrīmālādevī-simhanāda.
  61. The Saddharma-pundarika-sūtra.
  62. See Vol. I. p. 280. Also Florenz, Part III. p. 24.
  63. This edict is pure Chinese, and sounds very strangely from an Empress who was devoted to Buddhism.
  64. 5th rank. See above, p. 128.
  65. Thang, , is the Chinese dynasty of that name. China is here called Thang retrospectively, as that dynasty did not come into power until 618. The epithet "great" is found in all the older editions, but the "Shukai" editor strikes it out. "Great" is prefixed in China to the name of the reigning dynasty only. Subsequent writers omit it.

    Thang is in Japan pronounced Tō, as in Tōjin, which in our own day is (or perhaps I should say, was) a popular word for foreigners of all nationalities.

  66. So In-ko is 蘓因高. The two last characters are meant as a phonetic representation of Imoko. The first is taken, according to Dr. Florenz, from Soga, to which house Dr. Florenz says (on what authority I do not know) that Wono belonged. The Japanese commentators suggest that is merely a phonetic equivalent of , the first character of Wono (little moor). But this is open to the objection that these two characters are not pronounced alike in China, though they are in Japan.
  67. There is here a distinction made. Emperor is written 皇帝. But the latter of these characters is omitted in describing the Sovereign of Japan. Wa was the ordinary name for Japan, both in China and Corea, and in the latter country it is in use to this day. The Japanese object to it, and have never called their country by this name. The "Shaku-nihongi" says:—"Wono no Imoko, the Envoy who visited China, (proposed to) alter this term into Nippon, but the Sui Emperor ignored his reasons and would not allow it. The term Nippon was first used in the period Wu-Tēh, under the Thang Dynasty (618–626)." Another Chinese authority gives 670 as the date when Nippon began to be officially used in China. The "Tongkam" gives the same date as that in which the Japanese officially notified this term to the Corean Government as the proper appellation of their country.
  68. The Dei gratiâ of European Sovereigns.
  69. It appears from this and other passages that at this period the Court was literally the courtyard in front of the Emperor's Hall of Audience. None but the principal Ministers entered the Hall itself.
  70. Emperor is here in the first case 天皇 (Tennō); in the second 皇帝 (Kō-tei).

    A Chinese History of the Thang dynasty gives a different version of the opening words of this letter. It says: "The Emperor (天子) of the place where the sun comes forth addresses a letter to the Emperor (天子) of the place where the sun sets." The Chinese Emperor complained of the rudeness of this barbarian letter. It is pretty clear from this incident that the word Nippon (sun-origin) for Japan was not yet in use officially. Cf. "Ishōnihonden," I. 22.

  71. Wosa means interpreter. No doubt the name and office here coincided.
  72. From very early times Kiushiu, or such part of it as submitted to the Tennō's rule, was governed by a viceroy, as I have ventured to translate Dazai 大宰. Vide "Early Japanese History," p. 56. Hereditary kings of Ito are mentioned in the Chinese annals as ruling in the north of Kiushiu under the sovereign of Yamato in the 3rd century. The Interlinear Kana gives Oho-mikoto-mochi, Great-august-thing-holder, as the Japanese equivalent for Dazai. But I am disposed to think that this is a mere translation, like many of the Kana renderings of Chinese titles, and that this word was not a real title of the viceroy.
  73. In Japanese Dōkin and Emi.
  74. Wu is of course here a mere geographical term. The Honan country is intended.
  75. Vide "Mayers' Chinese Manual," p. 315.
  76. It is not quite clear what sort of mills is intended. Probably hand-mills.
  77. Nama is a Silla official title—the 13th rank. The original has Nami, wrongly, I think. Satök-pu is the name of a place.
  78. Tè-sya was the 12th official rank in Silla.
  79. Or Kuhi.
  80. This was the day fixed for this purpose by the Calendar. The custom is frequently mentioned by later writers. The herbs gathered were mushrooms, fungus for moxa or scented flag for making the perfumed and gaily-ornamented balls called Kusu-dama, hung up by the Japanese in their temples and houses. Also various other herbs.
  81. In Loochoo at the present day rank is indicated by the material of the hair-pin. See Chamberlain in "J.A.S.T."
  82. The traditional transliteration is Horinchi.
  83. The Empress's appearance among her courtiers is compared to the sun (from whom she is descended) issuing from among the clouds. The metre is regular naga-uta.
  84. Kure is Wu in China. See above, XXII. 22. The "Shiki" says this is the name of a good sword.
  85. Wife of Kimmei Tennō and mother of Yōmei Tenno and Suiko Tennō. The Misasagi named was that of her husband. This is a case of double interment. Two stone coffins have been found in some misasagi.
  86. Or Karo.
  87. The "Shukai" gives what appears to me a violent and unnecessary emendation of this passage.
  88. Lit. bellies. Eight is here used loosely for a great number, all.
  89. 氏姓. In Japanese Uji and Kabane, i.e. noble houses and titles or surnames.
  90. In Sanskrit, Sumêru. The central mountain or axis of every universe, the support of the tiers of heaven, according to the Buddhist system.
  91. Shiko means ugly.
  92. Deshi means pupil.
  93. Which was then at Tachibana in Yamato.
  94. Metre, irregular naga-uta.
  95. There was a passage leading to the interior of burial mounds of persons of some rank, which was closed with earth and stones after the interment. It is possibly this process which is intended by the term , which means both to seal and to pile up earth. In the case of the burial of a vagrant, however, it is more probable that there was no vault, but simply a heap of earth raised over the grave.
  96. In a similar notice below, XXII. 39, the author is satisfied with the more probable statement that they blossomed.
  97. Off the south coast of Satsuma.
  98. A later work informs us that this image was of gold, two feet high. It was set up in Hōkōji. It sent forth rays of light, and worked miracles from time to time.
  99. Some understand here a musical instrument, the body of which was of earthenware.
  100. Reigned 605–617.
  101. This statement is corroborated both by Chinese and Corean history. The events referred to took place in A.D. 612.
  102. I have omitted here and in several other places a frivolous note of the "Original Commentary," to the effect that "the personal name is wanting."
  103. Offerings of cloth.
  104. Gamō.
  105. A bad omen.
  106. Hori-ye is literally an artificial canal. Here it is the name of a branch of the river at Osaka, no doubt originally artificially excavated.
  107. Probably Vries Island, or one of the adjacent islands. Or Shima may here mean promontory.
  108. At this day several of the misasagi are thickly covered with a layer of paving-stones, loosely put down, probably in order to prevent the earth from being washed away by rains. An example may be seen at Tarumi, near Kobe, and another on the hill above Nara.
  109. Uji.
  110. These pillars were probably of wood. No trace of them now remains. Dr. Florenz says the custom of erecting pillars was introduced by the Buddhists. This is the first mention of it.
  111. This is the work afterwards known as the "Kiujihonki," "Kiujiki," or "Kujiki." See below, XXIV. 26.
  112. To be understood generally of well-flavoured food.
  113. Prince Mŭmayado.
  114. Of vegetarian food only.
  115. See Legge's "Confucian Analects," p. 82.
  116. Whether or not the previous examples of the use of the characters 日本 (Nippon) for Japan are authentic, or merely introduced retrospectively by later compilers, the present instance is probably a genuine case of its use. It is natural to suppose that it was used in an informal way for some time before it was used officially.

    There is here, no doubt, an allusion to the meaning of Nippon, viz. "Origin of the sun."

  117. Viz. Heaven, Earth, and Man. The meaning is that he was a philosopher.
  118. Buddha, Dharma, and Samgha.
  119. The anniversary of the Prince's death.
  120. The "Kiujiki" ends here.
  121. The Buddhist baptism consists in washing the top of the head with perfumed water. The baptismal flags were so called because they had the same efficacy, raising those who passed under them first to the status of a Tchakra Râdja (vide Eitel), and ultimately of a Buddha. Fishes were benefited by such flags being floated down a river.

    There is at the present day a survival of this practice in the Nagare-kanjō (kanjō means baptism, or head-sprinkling), described in Yamada's Dictionary as follows:—"Four posts are set up near water, on which white cloth is hung. To this are attached leaves of lign-aloes, etc., as offerings for the benefit of the souls of the friendless dead, of drowned persons, or of still-born children." There is an interesting account of the nagare-kanjō in a little book called "Our Neighbourhood," by T. A. P. (the late Dr. Purcell, of Tokio).

  122. Called the Hachiwoka Temple above.
  123. At Osaka. See above, 1st year of reign.
  124. See above, XXII 21.
  125. The "Tongkam" says nothing of this. Pèkché and Silla were on hostile terms about this time. Besides, the downfall of Imna is already mentioned above.
  126. Pèkché is so described in the "Tongkam."
  127. Tè-chhang, as the "Shukai" suggests, is probably a mistake for Tè-sya, a Silla official title.
  128. i.e. in the 8th year of this reign.
  129. So that they might have again an opportunity of levying blackmail on Silla.
  130. The interlinear Kana gives here oya, parent. This may serve as an example of the inaccuracy of these glosses.
  131. The Chinese dynasty of that name.
  132. Lit. head of the law (of Buddha). This was the chief official of the Department of the Buddhist religion.
  133. The Island Premier.
  134. A kind of badger.
  135. The present Usui Tōge.
  136. The "Kojiki" ends here.
  137. Buddhist influence is traceable in the avoidance of costly forms of burial. It led subsequently to the abolition of misasagi.