Oregon: Her history, her great men, her literature

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OREGON


CAPITOL OF OREGON

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Coprighted in 1919

By J. B. HORNER

 

WAR EDITION.

Engravings made by Hicks-Chatten, Portland;
Cover designed by W. M. Ball, Corvallis;
Bound by The Enterprise, Oregon City.






TO

THE HEROES AND HEROINES OF OREGON

 


PATRIOTISM IS INCREASED

BY

KNOWLEDGE OF THE STATE

This volume was written largely from first sources, the author having been personally familiar with the Oregon Country for more than a half century. His gratitude is due, however, to the following members of the Oregon Historical Society: Curator George H. Himes, Hon. Binger Herman, Hon. John Gill, Mr. Leslie M. Scott, Mr. Frederick V. Holman, Mr. T. C. Elliott, and Capt. O. C. Applegate, for valuable suggestions, and to other authorities freely consulted in the preparation of this book. These are mentioned later with more data than can appear in the preface. All have wisely interpreted their observations and have commendably performed their part in preserving and exalting the history of Oregon and the Pacific Northwest. Hence with the encouragement and aid offered by these and others, the task of preparing this publication has been hopefully pursued with one advantage over its predecessors — the opportunity of gleaning the choicest from all of them.

The reader will observe that the volume is offered essentially as a history of Oregon with only such reference to the story of the Pacific Northwest as may be indispensable in the introductory chapters.

Approximately five hundred events relative to the historical importance of Oregon have occurred since she avowed her purpose to "fly with her own wings" in a glorious ascent to American statehood. This volume, therefore, is designed to give such a condensed, authentic account of these activities as will instruct the reader, create a love for Oregon, and arouse patriotic respect for her laws and institutions.

OREGON

The Oregon Country was the first territory the United States acquired on the Pacific Coast of America. It comprised the region bordering the Pacific Ocean from California on the south to British America on the north, and extending as far east as the summit of the Rocky Mountains — an area equal to all the first thirteen states, Georgia excepted.

From this vast domain were carved the states of Oregon, Washington and Idaho with a part of Wyoming and Montana. There are 96,699 square miles in the State of Oregon, which is more territory than the combined area of

AREA OF OREGON—96,699 Square Miles

New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Ver- mont, New Hampshire, Delaware, Maryland, with several other states each of which would be the size of Rhode Island. So great are the distances and so wide the area of Oregon that Massachusetts could easily nestle in the Willamette Valley. Massachusetts and Rhode Island together have less area than either Harney County or Malheur County. Any one of sixteen Oregon counties is larger than the state of Delaware, and any one of twenty-four countiei is larger than Rhode Island.

England, with about thirty-five million people, comprises only three-fifths as much area as Oregon, Were England as large as Oregon, she could support more than half

OREGON COMPARED IN AREA WITH GREAT BRITAIN

the present population of the United States. Yet the total population of the State of Oregon is less than one million.

The white settlers who came, when Oregon statehood was a mere Utopian dream, were strong of intellect and heroic of heart. Many of them were the descendants of the Pilgrims and the Cavaliers; and the others were like them. True to their traditions, they took up the westward journey of their ancestors, and traveled 3,000 miles, which is one of the longest pilgrimages mentioned in history. Their hardships were so severe that every mile of the long journey could have been marked with graves of those who fell along the way. Truly the Oregon emigrants[1] were no less Pilgrims

OREGON COUNTieS COMPARED IN AREA WITH

MASSACHUSETTS AND RHODE ISLAND Harney County, 9»933 aq. m,

Malheur County^ 9«883 aq. m.

and Cavaliers than were the coloniats of Plymouth and Jamestown. Upon their arrival in Oregon, they found themselves among Indians whose language was strange and whose habits were devilish. But despite the atrocities committed by the natives, the forests were converted into homes, school houses, churches and cities; the prairies, unscathed by plow since creation's morn, were transformed into fields, gardens and orchards; and the treacherous Indian was taught to worship the God of our fathers. Under the white man's touch the hunting ground became the scene of a harvest home, the tepee a college, and the battlefield a sanctuary.

As the result of changes ordained by the sterling men and women who had come on the serious business of home making. Oregon produced more standard literature in fifty years than the original Thirteen Colonies produced in the same length of time; and according to area and population there can scarce be found in the Union, more universities, colleges, academies, high schools, churches and other refining forces than there are withm the 1 30 miles lying between Eugene and Portland.

As Massachusetts is the mother of New England, so is Oregon the mother of the Pacific Northwest. But while Massachusetts requires her historic achievements thoroughly taught in schools, Oregon has not yet made a similar demand regarding her own. It has, therefore, become the patriotic duty of the schools, the press, the pulpit, and social and literary clubs insistently to encourage and actively to promote historical research concerning Oregon until the long neglected story of her development is taught with the same enthusiasm, skill and interest as is the history of Massachusetts or that of any other State in the Union.

EPOCHS OF OREGON HISTORY

The History of Oregon is divided into five epochs:

First Epoch. Early Explorations. This epoch treats of the explorations that led to the discovery of Oregon, first from the sea, (1792), then by land, (1805). It begins in 1502, with the effort of Columbus to find a passage through Panama to India, and ends in 1805, when Lewis and Clark completed their overland expedition to Astoria. Also under Epoch I are selections from Indian folk-lore as told to the earliest white explorers and settlers.

Second Epoch. The Settlement of Oreqon. This epoch extends from 1805 to 1843. It treats of the settlement of the Oregon Country by the British and Canadians, who came as trappers and traders; and by the American emigrants, who settled the country in true colonial fashion.

Third Epoch. Oregon Under the Provisional Government. This epoch begins in 1843, at which time the settlers provided for themselves a govenment independent of the Hudson's Bay Company; it ends March 3, 1849, when Governor Joseph Lane proclaimed the territorial government in Oregon. It is the story of Oregon under the Provisional Government.

Fourth Epoch. Oregon Under the Territorial Government. This epoch extends from 1849 to 1859. It is the history of Oregon from Governor Lane's proclamation of April 3, 1849, to February 14, 1839, when Oregon was admitted to statehood.

Fifth Epoch. The State of Oregon. This epoch extending from 1859 to the present, is the history of Oregon as a state, in the union of states under the federal constitution. Also under this epoch appears Section XIV which treats of the Literature of Oregon, the most of which was written during her statehood.

THE CASCADE RANGE EMERGING FROM THE OCEAN

THE EARLIEST ACCOUNT OF OREGON

The earliest account of Oregon was recorded in the great Book of Stone which lay buried under mountain and valley, prairie and seashore, to be opened and read, with the aid of pick-axe, microscope and retort. The stories in the book are full of meaning. They are illustrated with pictures printed, life size; and pressed between the flinty leaves are the perfectly-preserved evidences of life in earth and sea and air.

Thomas Condon from Horner's Oregon history.png

DR. THOMAS CONDON

Among the first to open that part of the book which gives an account of Oregon, was the late Doctor Thomas Condon, professor of geology in three universities and at one time state geologist of Oregon. The stories he read from its pages were so interesting and instructive that he published them in a volume entitled "The Two Islands," later republished under the title of "Oregon Geology." In one of the stories Doctor Condon describes the first appearance of our greatest mountains as they might have been viewed from some elevation—possibly that ancient sea-bank, which we now call the Oregon Coast Range. He says:

"A colossal sea-dyke was slowly rising from the bed of the ocean, extending from what we call Lower California, through what is now Oregon and Washington, to the Aleutian Islands—a mere sea-dyke for a long time, only a barrier between continuous waters; then through other ages a ridge of elevated hills; then later one of the world's mountain wonders, the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Range."

THE NAME "OREGON"

Jonathan Carver applied the name "Oregon" to the "River of the West" as early as 1 778^two years after the Declaration of Independence. He said he had heard the river called that name in 1 766, by Indians living near the east slope of the Rocky Mountains.

At least six explanations have been offered regarding the meaning and derivation of the word, "Oregon":

  1. Various authors ascribe the word Oregon to the "Origanum," a wild plant said to have been found growing in abundance along the Pacific Coast.
  2. Hall J. Kelley, who wrote pamphlets concerning the Oregon country as early as 1829, claimed to have traced "'Oregon,' the name of this river to a large river called 'Orjon,' in Chinese Tartary."
  3. William G. Steel, who published a booklet on Oregon names, and who was the first president of the Oregon Geographic Board, says it is claimed that "Oregon" came from "Oyerun-gon," a Shoshone word, meaning "a place of plenty."
  4. Bishop Blanchet, connected with the Catholic Missionary movement in Washington and Oregon, decided that "Oregon" is a form of "Orejon," (plural Orejones) meaning "big ears" — a term applied by the Spaniards to Indian tribes whose .ears were enlarged by loads of ornaments.
  5. The poet, Joaquin Miller, who affectionately called Oregon the Elmerald State, referred to the derivation of its name as "from the Spanish words* *aiira agua,* meaning gently falling waters, a poetic reference to the rains foi which the sea coast of Oregon is famed."
  6. "The Popular History of Oregon" tells us that "Oregon" is a form of the name "Aragon," which in Spain is pronounced very much like "Oregon," with the accent strongly on the last syllable as most Americans pronounced the word fifty years ago. In support of this theory it may be suggested that the name might have been given to the new country by Spanish missionaries as a mark of courtesy to Ferdinand of Aragon, Prince Consort of Isabella, who offered to pledge her jewels to make possible the voyage which resulted in the discovery of America.
Although "Oregon" probably came from one or more of these words, it could have other derivation. But while we are not certain as to its derivation we do know that it is a peculiar name introduced by Jonathan Carver and made famous in literature by the poet Bryant, in his poem, Thanatopsis; that it was applied to the river now called tlxe Columbia, then to the entire region drained by that river, then restricted to the territory which later became the thirtythird state of the Union.

Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/22 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/23 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/24 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/25 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/26 to Cedros Island. Only one of his ships returned to Mexico, the two others having been lost on the voyage.

Coronado Marches to Kansas. After a time Cortez was succeeded by Mendoza as Viceroy of Mexico. Soon the new viceroy became ambitious to outdo his predecessor in the search for new lands and seas. Accordingly he made provision for two explorations; one by land, under Coronado, the other by sea, under Alarcon.

Coronado Started from Mexico in 1550 with a large force of horsemen and native allies on an expedition to conquer "The Seven Cities of Cibola," which were said to be in a northerly direction. The Golden Cities were as famous in fable as was the spring of eternal youth which Ponce de Leon had already sought in vain. Coronado sought them in Mexico and Arizona. He then marched to the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, thence to Arkansas. Having been misled by a native guide, he pushed northward into what are now Kansas and Nebraska, where the agricultural possibilities of the country favorably impressed him. Upon failing to reach the mystic cities for which his expedition had been equipped, Coronado returned to Mexico, where he was received coldly by Mendoza, the disappointed viceroy. Reports of Coronado's expedition, however, created intense interest in the western coast, and led to many subsequent explorations.

Alarcon Approaches Upper California. To assist Coronado, Mendoza organized an expedition under Alarcon, who ascended the Colorado in small boats to the Gila, which is near the Southern boundary of what is California. About this time appeared a popular Spanish novel which described a mystic island near paradise. The name of the island was "California."[2] Because of some fancied resemblance between the island described in the novel and the peninsula now called Lower California, the name of the fabled island was applied to the latter. California came to include the territory along the coast north to the 42nd parallel. The peninsula, or southern division, was then called Lower California; the northern, Upper California. Later "Upper" was dropped from the latter name.

Cabrillo Discovers San Diego and Monterey. Being much, encouraged by the discoveries made by Coronado and Alarcon, Mendoza equipped Cabrillo for a northeriy expedition* following tfie general outline of the coast The navigator soon passed Cedros Island, and* on the 28th day of September 1 542, discovered what we call San Diego, but uriiich he named San MigueL From San Miguel Cabrillo sailed to Monterery. He vrais very meth<Mlieal in preparing charts and maps of his explorations; hence was enabled to give valuable detaOed information concerning the country and people discovered by hhn.

Ferelo Sails Near Oregon. Cabrillo died at San Miguel Island, January 3, 1543, and Ferelo, his pilot, assumed charge of the expedition. Thirty yctars after Balboa's first effort to explore the coast, Ferelo may have sailed to the parallel of 42°, which is the southern boundary of Oregon. Tliere is a possibility, therefore, that Oregon was seen by this navigator more than sixty years before tlie first aeLtle- ment was made in Virginia.

Juan Perez Sails to San Margarita. Juan Perez, a Spanish navigator, sailed from California, June 1 1, 1774, and within a month, anchored at San Margarita near the southern coast of Alaska. Later he found in latitude 49° north a crescent-shaped harbor, which he named LorenzOt since called Nootka Sound.

Heceta Nearly Entered the Columbia. In the year following (1775), while Washington was taking command of the continental troops on the eastern coast, the "Santiago** and "Sonora, ' under the command of Captain Bruno Heceta were sailing northward along the wertem coast. He landed at Point Grenville near the straits of Fuca, and there planted the Spanish flag. "Soon afterward his crew was so thinned by scurvy that the 'Santiago' turned homeward." On the 17th day of August while Heceta[3] was on his return voyage, he saw the mouth of the "River of the West," which he mistook for a bay or inlet. But for this mistake Heceta probably would have crossed the bar at die mouth of die river, in which case die Spanish flag would have been the first to float over the river now called the Columbia.

Cuadra Explores Northward to Russian Territory. Although the "Santiago" commanded by Heceta sailed southward, the "Sonora" commanded by Cuadra, sailed to the north, whereupon the Captain discovered Mt. San Jacinto (Mt. Edgecombe), a snow peak in latitude 57°. He continued his voyage northward to latitude 58°, but decided to proceed no further, inasmuch as the Russians claimed the coast north of latitude 60° by right of discovery.

Monacht Ape'. It will be borne in mind that some of the explorations along the Pacific Coast were stimulated by stories recited by Indians who had visited various parts of the country, then unknown to white people. There were Indians in the Mississippi valley who had visited the Pacific coast and related their adventures to seamen, missionaries and others who published accounts of these adventures in Europe and America. H. H. Bancroft quotes the French explorer M. le Page du Pratz concerning Monacht Ape' an intelligent Yazoo Indian who traveled from the Mississippi to the Atlantic and thence to the Pacific Ocean. The French Savant regarded this Indian as a philosopher, and quoted many of his utterances. The following, which was inspired by the sight of the Atlantic Ocean, is one of them: "When I first saw it I was so delighted that I could not speak; my eyes were too small for my soul's ease. The wind so disturbed the great water that I thought it would beat the land to pieces." Ape' narrated his experiences with the Indian tribes along the River of the West, and described an encounter which the natives under his temporary leadership had with thirty pirates who landed at the mouth of the river. This Indian traveler was away from home five years, and the story of his travels was published in Paris in 1 758 by du Pratz.

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE

Drake Calls California "New Albion." Thus far only Spanish ships had participated in the explorations. But England was growing ambitious to become a sea power. Furthermore Spain and England were unfriendly to each other as the result of a quarrel between the King of Spain and the English ruler, who was none other than Queen Elizabeth. She had given her consent permitting Sir Francis Drake to seize, rob and destroy Spanish ships in American waters. On this voyage, though his flagship, the "Golden Hind," became separated from four of his fleet, Drake attacked Spanish ships in harbors and on the high seas, robbing them of silver, gold, and rich cargoes. Upon landing at Drake's Bay, which is believed to be the inlet a few miles northwest of Golden Gate, he took possession of the adjacent land for England, calling it New Albion. Fearing to return by the route he came, Drake boldly sailed across the ocean, rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and won the distinction of being the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe. When he arrived at London with his treasure-laden ship, "the Queen, declaring her approbation of all that he had done," confeired upon him the honor of knighthood.

Cook Sails Through Bering's Strait. In 1778, two years after the declaration of American Independence Captain James Cook, sailing under the British flag, discovered the Sandwich Islands* Then he sailed north, in search of the legendary strait connecting the Pacific with the Atlantic Ocean. According to Dr. John Fiske, "Captain Cook first saw a point which he called Cape Foulweather, and sailing south from there he named Capes Perpetua and Gregory. Thence he turned about to the northward and in the struggle with adverse winds was carried well out to sea, so that the next land he saw was Cape Flattery." He then entered Nootka Sound which he also named. Following the coast line northward, Captain Cook penetrated into the bay afterwards known as Cook's Inlet. Upon failtng to find a passage in this direction, he sailed for Bering Strait. On August 9 he named the north-eastermost point of the Asiatic continent, East Cape; and to the northwestern extremity of America he gave the name Cape Prince of Wales—both of which he visited. Finding the passage interrupted by an impenetrable wall of ice, Captain Cook returned to Hawaii, vhere he was killed by a native August 14, 1779.

Cook's Expedition Resulted in Fur Trade. When the ships of which Cook had been captain touched at Canton on their return to England, the furs purchased of the Indians at Nootka Sound were readily sold at many times the cost price. Such was the profit, and so intense was the consequent excitement on board ship, that the crews threatened to mutiny when the officers refused to return to the Pacific Northwest for more furs. As soon as the news of the fur trade spread throughout Europe, trading ships were sent to the northwest coast by England, France and Portugal; and in the course of time ships from Spain and the United States visited harbors in the fur bearing region.

Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/32 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/33 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/34 north-east between the breakers, having from five to seven fathoms of water. When we were over the bar we found this to be a large river of fresh water, up which we steered.'

THE "COLUMBIA" — (Courtesy Oregon Journal)

At one o'clock that afternoon he anchored one-half mile from the north bank just west of Point Ellice, northwest of Astoria, and close to a large village of Chinook Indians. Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/36 Station opposite Astoria, October 24th and ascended the river with most of the crew in two boats, the "Pinnace" and "Cutter," to a point above Washougal, making observations and soundings, and bestowing names upon islands and tribu- tary streams along the way.

Mount Hood Named and Explored. On October 30, 1792, Lieutenant Broughton, while on this expedition up the Columbia, named Mount Hood, which is 11,225 feet in elevation, being the highest Oregon peak. It is in the Cascade

MOUNT HOOD Copyright by Griffith.

Range, and its summit is about 20 miles from the Columbia River as the crow flies. It was named for Alexander Arthur Hood, afterwards Lord Brinport, of England, a personal friend of Vancouver. For a time it was known among Americans as Mount Washington. The mountain was explored by General Joel Palmer, soon after arriving upon his first visit to Oregon in 1845. The ascent of Mount Hood was made (1854) by Judge Cyrus Olney, Major Granville O. Haller, U. S. A., Thomas J. Dryer, Wells Lake, Captain T. O. Travailot, Samuel K. Barlow, and an Indian guide. In August, 1867, the first white women ascended the mountain. They were the Misses Fannie Case, Mary Robinson, and Lucy Hay. Although prior to 1845 it was regarded an impossibility to ascend Mount Hood, the summit has come to be the annual playground of the Oregon Mazamas and other mountain climbers.

Naming the Columbia River. The Columbia River has been known by various names. It was called "Wauna" by the Indians." The Spaniards called it "La Roque" (or La Roc), from the cape near the entrance of the river into the ocean. It was then known as "Thegayo" and later as "Rio de Aguilar." But the Americans first thought of it as the "River of the West." Jonathan Carver, as early as 1778; referred to it as the "Oregon," a name which it is believed he heard while among the Indians near the Great Lakes.Afterwards it was called the "Columbia" by Captain Gray, in honor of the good ship that first sailed upon its waters.

CHAPTER II

THE DISCOVERY OF OREGON BY LAND

"Never did a single event excite more Joy throughout the United States."—Thomas Jefferson.

Importance of the Mississippi to the Americans. The most important navigable river in the Louisiana territory was the Mississippi. Horses and cattle that the American settlers raised were annually driven east to Atlantic markets, but grain and other produce were put on barges, which floated down the Mississippi to ports that were visited by merchant ships of Spain and France. So important was the Mississippi river to the farmers along its banks that there arose a fear that the river would eventually be used by subjects of Spain only, and many American settlers threatened to sever their allegiance to their country. This feeling of insecurity among the Americans along the Mississippi River was intensified in 1600 when Napoleon, by a secret treaty, obtained Louisiana from Spain. The treaty was so very secret that Americans were naturally alarmed lest Napoleon's plan of a world empire might include the Mississippi Valley and thereby prove a menace to the United States. No one understood the situation better than did President Thomas Jefferson.

Jefferson's Designs. To avert the danger of war and preserve the Union, President Jefferson designed two measures of far-reaching statesmanship. The first was a proposal to purchase from Napoleon the City of New Orleans and the adjacent land on the east bank of the Mississippi, known as West Florida. This would insure commercial freedom to the West and soothe the irritation of the settlers. Jefferson's second design was to dispatch an overland exploring expedition up the Missouri River to the Pacific. By this he hoped to accomplish several desirable objects, to-wit: to build up friendly trade with the Indians along the Missouri

and westward to the mountains; to attract the fur trade of

PRESIDENT THOMAS JEFFERSON

the Northwest Coast eastward by the overland route; to hasten the settlement of the Mississippi Valley by American pioneei;s and thus forestall the intrigues of the English and the French; to balk the advance of the Northwest Com^ pany in the region of the Upper Missouri and Columbia Rivers; to establish intimate commercial relations between the East and the developing West; and last, but by no means least, among the motives which actuated Jefferson, to satisfy his keen scientific curiosity and promote the science of geography." (Story of Oregon.)

'Purchase of Louisiana,At the beginning of the year 1803, Jefferson began the execution of both these designs. He dispatched Monroe to France to negotiate with Napoleon for the purchase of New Orleans and West Florida, and he sent Congress the famous message which outlined the plan of the expedition to the Pacific. Congress received the mefwage on January 18, 1803, and promptly voted the necessary funds. The negotiations with Napoleon succeeded beyond expectations. Busied with new combinations in European affairs, the great leader of France offered to sell the whole of Louisiana to the United States, hoping thus to upbuild a formidable military and commercial rival to England, his implacable foe. Jefferson leaped at the amazing opportunity, and with one stroke of his pen made America an imperial nation, and insured to democratic institutions the scepter of the world."—(The Story of Oregon.) Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/41 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/42 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/43 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/44 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/45 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/46 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/47 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/48 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/49 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/50 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/51 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/52 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/53 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/54 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/55 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/56 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/57 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/58 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/59 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/60 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/61 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/62 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/63 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/64 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/65 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/66 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/67 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/68 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/69 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/70 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/71 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/72 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/73 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/74 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/75
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by Nature long before the advent of the white man in America. Pulpit Rock, which is about twelve feet high, overlooks an open air audi- torium of sloping ground where the Indians assembled to hear the missionaries preach, much after the man- ner of the Greeks who gath- ered about the Pnyx to hear Demosthenes deliver his ora- tions. This ancient pulpit was, therefore, very sacred to the more devout Indians. Seated on Pulpit Rock, as shown in the accompanying view, is Joseph Luxillo, an Indian who was baptized by the missionaries with water from Wascopam Spring and who later became an influential preacher on the Simcoe Reservation. He was one of the many Indians who made pilgrimages to this shrine to renew their vows long after Wascopam Mission had been abandoned by the whites. Marriage Rite First Observed in Willamette Valley. On Sunday, July 16, 1837, religious service was held in the beautiful grove near the Lee Mission. Jason Lee delivered a sermon on "The Propriety of Marriage, and Duties De- volving upon the Married." In conclusion he added, "What I urged by precept, I am about to enforce by exam- ple;" then he offered his arm to Miss Anna Marie Pittman; and Rev. Daniel Lee read the service for two couples instead of one, as Cyrus Shepard and Miss Susan Downing were also joined then in wedlock. Yet another wedding occurred the same day of two people living on French Prairie; thus the marriage rite was first observed in the Willamette Valley. PULPIT BOCK Gifford. Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/77 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/78 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/79 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/80 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/81 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/82 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/83 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/84 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/85 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/86 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/87 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/88 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/89 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/90 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/91 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/92 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/93 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/94 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/95 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/96 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/97 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/98 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/99 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/100 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/101 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/102 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/103 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/104 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/105 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/106 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/107 106

HISTORY OF OREGON

Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu

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on the night of the 1 8th of August last, the work, I have no doubt, of an incendiary. A reward of $ 1 00 was immedi- ately offered, but, as yet, the offender has not been dis- covered. Should you think best to erect another jail I would suggest the propriety of building it of large stones clamped together. We have but little use for a jail, and a small building would answer all purposes, for many years, no doubt, if we should be successful in keeping ardent spirits out of the territory." First Wagons to Cross the Cascade Range. The first emigrants reached the Willamette Valley by coming down the Columbia in boats and barges, driving their stock over the mountains. But late in Oc- tober, 1845, Samuel K. Bar- low, who said, "God never made a mountain without some place to go over it," left The Dalles with a train of thirteen wagons upon the hazardous undertaking of crossing the Cascade Moun- tains. With the advice of Joel Palmer and others in the train a route lying along the south side of Mt. Hood was chosen. Upon reach- ing the top of the divide the emigrants were compelled to abandon their wagons. They succeeded in reaching the samuel k. BARLOW settlement December 2 3. As soon as the snows sufficiently melted in 1 846, the wagons were safely taken into the valley, despite the fact that at different times it was necessary to chain them to trees so that they could be let down over cliffs to other cliffs below, and so on until they were drawn by the teams again. In July these wagons, which were the first to cross the Cascade Range and to come over an all-wagon route from the states to the Willamette Valley, arrived in Oregon City.[4] Upon learning that the emigrants had taken their teams and wagons across the mountains the surprised Doctor McLoughlin said, "These Yankees can do anything." The important route along which the new road lay was afterward named Barlow Pass in honor of its principal discoverer and promoter.

HOME OF DOCTOR JOHN McLOUOHLIN

Erected in 1846; now preserved as a memorial in McLoughlin Park in Oregon City, and annually visited by hundreds of admirers of the benevolent old fur trader.

Southern Oregon Emigrant Road Opened in 1846. For more than two decades the Hudson's Bay Company trail was the only traversed route through Southern Oregon. But in the meantime it came to be believed that this trail lay along a more practical route to the Willamette Valley than the newly discovered route by the way of Barlow Pass; and a plan was devised for a new emigrant road into Oregon. This road was to leave the old Oregon road at Fort Hall, then to follow the Truckee and the Humboldt River, to cross the Modoc and the Klamath country and the mountains into the Rogue River Valley, then pass through the Umpqua Canyon onward into the Willamette Valley. By incredible effort with ax and saw, ropes and chains in 1846, emigrants with their wagons and teams came over the Southern Oregon route which they developed into a widened trail; but which later was made into a practical wagon road.

Settlement of the Oregon Question. Americans had come to Oregon in such numbers that they began to dominate die country, north as well as south of the Columbia — a condition which the British fur traders did not overlook. Also the agitation of the Oregon question throughout the United States so interested the American people that many became unwilling to accept the 49th paralld as the north boundary of Oregon. When James K. Polk, in 1844, was chosen President, it was believed that the national campaign shibboleth — "Fifty-four forty or Fight," had much to do in electing him. Also the Oregon question was given prominence in the President's inaugural address. However, the United States exhibited willingness to compromise on the 49th parallel, an offer which the British minister courteously refused. Congress then voted to put an end to joint occupation in Oregon; but to avert war, the President, upon the advice of John C. Calhoun, opened the question with Great Britain again, and that nation, in June 1646, agreed to accept the 49th parallel as the boundary. Upon the advice of the Senate, the President signed the treaty, June 15, 1846, by which Oregon was distinguished as d&e fnst and only American territory that the United States of America has acquired on this continent without either bloodshed or cash purchase.

First Newspaper West of the Missouri. The "Oregon Spectator," a semi-monthly publication issued at Oregon

City, February 5, 1846, was the first newspaper published west of the Missouri River. Its first editor was Colonel W. G. T'Vault. The "Spectator," which was non-political, became chiefly useful in disseminating the laws and acts of the Provisional Government.


HENDERSON LUELLING

First Oregon Fruit Nursery. The first fruit nursery of Oregon was known as the Traveling Nursery because it was brought to Oregon on wheels. Henderson Luelling, a prosperous nurseryman of Henry County, Iowa, conceived the idea of conveying trees by wagons to Oregon. Thereupon in the early spring of 1847, with his son Alfred, he started westward driving two four yoke ox team hauling about 800 vigorous young trees. Thej arrived at the present site of Milwaukie, November 27th. Their trees[5] consisted of different varieties of apple, pear, peach, plum, and cheny* and were in immediate demand; hence the nufseiy was permanently established in that locality, and gave to Oregon the name of the *'Land of die Big Red Apples.'* So important* therefore, was die Traveling Nuiseiy that Ralph C. Geer, who took much interest in the first fruit culture of Oregon, remarked: 'Those two loads of trees brought more wealth to Oregon than any ship that ever entered the Columbia River.** Such was the beginning of the first nursery on the Pacific Coast of America.

Territorial Courts. When die territorial government of Oregon was established by Act of Congress, August 1 4, 1648, it was provided by the same Act that the judicial power of the Territory shall be vested in a Supreme Court, District Courts, Probate Courts, and in Justices of the Peace; the Supreme Court to consist of a Chief Justice and two Associate Justices. The Chief Justice and Associate Justices were authorized to hold the district court. In its largest sense, this Territorial Court was a Federal Court; it was national in its significance, and it had jurisdiction not only of matters which would be cognizable in the courts were the Territory a state, but of all matters which were made cognizable in the Federal or United States courts.

The Oregon Coast Range Ablaze. Before white men lived at Coos Bay a great fire swept along the Coast Range, leaving black stumps and trunks of trees along the hills and mountains that had been templed with beauUtul groves for ages. These iiiute reminders of the conflagration can be seen to this day. There have been tiiany fires in the Coast Range, hence the date of the Great Fire has been somewhat in question. There is evidence that a conflagration in 1776 and another in 1836 swept over the same region. However, Indians, whose methods of calculation are somewhat uncertain, have fixed the time of the Great Fire in the Oregon Coast Range at about 1846, in which year it is known from other sources that a fire devastated the country south of Tillamook. Indians connect the Great Fire with the coming of the first trading ship into Coos Bay. To know the year when the first trading ship appeared in Coos Bay is to know, therefore, the date of the great Oregon Coast Range fire of which Nature and the Red Man tell us. Some information bearing on this date has been obtained.

In 1898 Chief Cutlip of the Coos Bay Indians related the following through an official interpreter to Major T. J. Buford, of die Siletz Agency When Chief Cutlip was a young man a sailing vessel came into Coos Bay to trade for furs. It was the first ship his people had ever seen. They stood on the shore and watched the ship until it came well into the Bay; and believing it to be the "Spirit boat," they all ran away. When the vessel anchored, the men aboard di^layed bright garments and glittering beads and other trinkets, and beckoned to the Indians to come to them. Cutlip, being the chief, took two of his men and ventured aboard. The. officers gave each a suit of clothes and many other presents among which was sugar — ^the first which the Indians had ever tasted — and then indicated by signs that they wished to trade with the Indians. Cutlip returned to his people; and after a parl^ the tribe decided to trade ¥rith the white men. This was the beginning of fur trade ¥nth the whites who came by ship to Coos Bay.

Destruction of Life. This being the year of the great fire along the Coast Range, the superstitious Indians attributed the fire to the presence of the white man's boat. There had been other forest fires in that locality, but this one was so terrible that much game and many Indians were burned to death and the Indians who survived lamented the coming of the "white sail." The heat was so intense at Coos Bay that the Indians were driven into the water for protection.

At die dose of the intwview. Chief Cutlip** account of the intolerable heat was confimed by Salmon River John another aged Indian vrho weighed his words carefully as he spoke. He said the fire was so great that the flames leaped across Yaquina Bay, that many of the Indians perished, and that only those were saved who took refuge in the water; and even they suffered much while their heads were exposed to the heat.[6]

The Great Forest Fire in Oregon. (1848). There have been so many destructive fires in the immense forests of Oregon 'since its first settlement that it is difficult to name the greatest. But there appears to be no doubt that the fire which swept over both the Cascade and the Coast Ranges late in the summer of 1848 covered a wider area and ruined more timber than any other before or since. Then, as now, it was often impossible to trace a forest fire to its actual beginning. But in those dajfs there were numerous bands of Indians roaming the mountains in quest of game: and, doubtless, the fire of 1848, originated through the carelessness of Indian hunters. It was also the practice of the Indians to fire the brush growth, that grass might become plentiful for the wild game. At any rate, the fire of that year was more destructive, in the opinion of those who saw it, than any that has followed. Men are yet living who remember that in eastern Malheur County in the region of Silver Creek Falls the atmosphere became so hot that it practically evaporated the water in that stream and many fish were killed. In many places the water stood in pools only, and was the color of lye.

The Forest Fire of 1867. Another tremendously destructive fire swept over the Coast mountains in the summer of ] 867» and laid waste to a vast area of the finest of timber. Many people who had gone to the beach for camping and who had started homeward were compelled to return to the beach and remain a week longer. A well known farmer of the Willamette Valley who had started home was compelled to drive his team into the small stream of Salmon River and remain there all night to avoid the immense heat of the fires. Schools of fish, frightened at the heat and confusion frequently scared his horses and the man was crippled in his effort to control his team. These three fires are perhaps the most destructive known to the history of Oregon and the thousands of acres of whitened stumps of former giants of the forests, to be seen now in all of our ranges of mountains, bear witness to their ravages in the days long before the national government had taken steps for the patrol of the mountains by Forest Rangers.

Growing Troubles at Whitman Mission. As has been stated, Doctor Whitman in October, 1836, established a mission that was named after him. Here the Indians were taught to read the Bible^ and to cultivate the soil, raise cattle, and perform other kinds of civilized labor. Here also Indian orphans and white children were given a home and educated. The Doctor generously and freely gave medical care. But the habits of the Indians were so different from those of the whites that the same kind of medical care could not be given successfully to both races. When the whites and Indians were stricken with measles, the Indians who were treated by the Doctor persisted in regularly taking cold plunges in the Walla Walla River, contrary to his advice; and necessarily this proved fatal to many of them Then the Indian- doctor, or Medicine Man, who beheld with envy Doctor man's growing influence with the Indians, charged that the whites were being cured, but that Doctor Whitman was exterminating the Indians by his treatment, in order that the whites might occupy Indian possessions. It was also pointed out by Thomas Hill, an educated Shawnee, that Doctor Whitman had a few years before made a mid-winter journey across the continent to persuade more whites to come west; and that in the following summer of 1843 he piloted the emigration train of 675 persons to the Oregon Country in order that the whites might overrun the territory and eventually drive the Indians away from the land of their fathers, as the whites had already driven the Shawnees from their land. At this time Joe Lewis, a half-breed Indian who had been befriended by Doctor Whitman, was aided by other Indians in kindling the growing antagonism into a flame of wrath among the tribesmen. As a result of these and other forces that were at work it was decided by the Cayuses to exterminate the protestant missionaries in that country, and in order to make their destruction complete, they determined also to kill the whites of the other protestant missions east of the Cascade Mountains. To conduct successfully this general massacre of the whites, the Cayuses found it necessary to form alliances with all Indians affected by the missionary movement, and emissaries were sent to other tribes to urge their cooperation.

The Whitman Massacre. Hints from friendly Indians and the sulky manner of the hostiles convinced Doctor Whitman that treachery was intended. The sacrifice that Doctor and Mrs. Whitman had undergone in aiding the Indians was already so great that taken together with hostile threats, the Doctor and his wife at last realized that they had too long delayed their departure from the Waiilatpu Mission. On the afternoon of November 29, 1847, the Indians suddenly broke into the mission house and baroaioiisly and treacherously killed Doctor and Mrs. Whitman and even others. A few days later they massacred five more. They also took captive about fifty women and children of the

GRAVE OF THE WHITMAN MASSACRE VICTIMS

WHITMAN MONUMENT IN THE DISTANCE

mission, and others temporarily there to be held for ransom as hostages to guarantee immunity from punishment by the whites as they claimed — though some were not intended to be released.

After the Whitman Massacre. Following the Whitman Massacre three urgent requests were made for immediate relief and protection for the whites. The first came to Vancouver from William McBean, of Fort Walla Walla, asking that a party be sent to ransom the prisoners; the second was from Alanson Hinman asking that an armed force be provided to protect the station at The Dalles; the third was made by Governor Abernethy who asked the Legislature for enough troops to capture the murderers of the Whitman Mission victims, and to subdue the warlike tribes.

The Mission Captives Ransomed. News of the Whitman massacre was sent by Agent William McBean, of Fort Walla Walla, to James Douglas, chief factor at Fort Vancouver. The authorities at Vancouver promptly notified Governor Abernethy; and Peter Skeen Ogden of the Hudson's Bay Company immediately departed for |he scene of the tragedy, his object being to rescue the women and children taken captive. On December 19th, he addressed the Cayuse chiefs at Fort Walla Walla, censuring them for permitting the murderous deed. After reminding them of the probable vengeance that would be visted upon them Ogden told the chiefs that his whites were traders and neutrals, who wished to buy the captives and prevent further trouble and bloodshed. Ogden made liberal presents to the chiefs and upon his threats the captives were released. Nine days later they arrived at Oregon City amidst much rejoicing.

"Oregon Rifles" Sent to The Dalles. Upon learning of the Whitman Massacre, Governor Abernethy, on December 6, sent to the legislature a message concerning the seriousness of conditions and also issued a call for volunteers. The same day a company of forty-five volunteers was organized in Oregon City for the purpose of protecting The Dalles, which at that season of the year was the "Pass of Thermopylae," through which the Cayuse Indians and their allies were compelled to go before entering the Willamette Valley. This company, which was the first military force organized for the protection of Oregon, was called the **Oregon Rifles";[7] because the members of the company furnished their own rifles and equipment.

The Cayuse War. In addition to other troubles with Oregon Indians, there have been five wars with them. They were the Cayuse War (1848), The Rogue River Indian War (1851-1856). The Modoc War (1873), War with the Nez Perces ( 1877), and the Piute-Banock War (1878). The

WILLAMETTE FALLS

(Indians called the portion of the river above the Falls, "Wal-lam-et;" the portion below the Falls, "Mult-no-mah." Cayuse War was important chiefly for the reaaon that for a time it seemed as if the Indians might exteiminate all the white setders of Oregon. Ill feeling had existed among the Indians toward the white people but the war was precipitated by the Whitman massacre.

A Regiment of Volunteers Organized. In accordance with the Legislative Acts of Dec. 8, 1847, a regiment of fourteen companies volunteered for the purpose of suppressing the troubles with the Cayuse Indians and their allies. Colonel Cornelius Gilliam was placed in command, and with fifty men reached The Dalles on the 23d of January, 1846, followed three days later by the remainder of the regiment. On the 27th Colonel Gilliam moved eastward toward Walla Walla.

March to the Enemy's Country. "Colonel Gilliam desired to press forward as rapidly as possible; for it was plainly evident that if the war was not carried to the Umatilla, the Willamette Valley might soon be molested. Also it was equally evident that to permit the murd^ets to escape would give the Cayuses confidence to commit further crimes. On February 25, the Cayuses and their allies from die north side of the river, fdt strong enough to force a battle. Their position was on the elevated sage-brush plains west of the Umatilla River; and their boast was *that the whites should never drink of its waters',"—H. S. Lyman.

Cayuse Chiefs Profess Wizard Powers. But the Cayuse Indians, who seemed imbued with some kind of sorcery, were deluded into the belief that the white man's gun could not kill their Chief Five Crows; and War Eagle, another chief of that tribe, stated that he could swallow all the bullets the whites might shoot at him. To prove that they were invulnerable, the medicine chiefs rode into open view of the volunteers and shot a little dog that ran to meet them. A well-aimed bullet from the rifle of Captain Thomas McKay crashed through the brain of War Eagle, while a load of buckshot from the gun of Lieutenant Charies McKay dis- Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/121 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/122 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/123 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/124 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/125 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/126 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/127 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/128 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/129 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/130 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/131 Names of Two Counties Changed. On the third of September 1849, the Territorial Legislature changed the name of Twality County to Washington County, in honor o£ George Washington. Also on the same day Champooick County, (which had come to be spelled Champoeg) was changed to Marion County in honor of General Francis Marion, of the American Revolutionary War.

GOVERNORS PRITCHETT AND GAINES

June 18. 1850— May 16. 1853

To Kintzing Pritchett of Michigan, belongs the distinction of having been Governor of Oregon Territory for sixty days. He was appointed secretary of the Territory by President Polk upon its creation by Congress and served in that capacity until the resignation of Governor Joseph Lane on June 18, 1850. John P. Gaines had been appointed Governor but did not arrive in Oregon until August, taking the oath of office on the I 8th of that month. During this interim, Mr. Pritchett served as Governor.

Governor John P. Gaines Received His Appointment from the newly elected president. Zachary Taylor, and assumed the duties of his office August 18, 1850. He served as Governor of Oregon until May 16, 1853. In 1855 he was the whig nominee for Congress, but was defeated by Joseph Lane. He died at his home in Marion County, in 1857.

GOV. JOHN P. GAINES

In connection with the appointment of Mr. Gaines in 1 849, it is worthy of note that the position was first offered to Abraham Lincoln, whose term in Congress had just expired. Mr. Lincoln had taken an active part in the campaign which resulted in Taylor's election to the presidency, and made a special trip to Washington City to support his application for the appointment as Commissioner of the General Land Office; but that position had already been promised to another. President Taylor, however, offered to appoint him Governor of Oregon Territory, but Mrs. Lincoln, his wife, objected to going to such a far- distant section, and the offer was declined. It is interesting to surmise what the effect would have been on the history of the United States, if Lincoln had become Governor of Oregon Territory.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Capital Changed from Oregon City to Salem. A bitter contest was waged against the proposed removal of the Territorial Capital from Oregon City to some point further south. Governor Lane had by proclamation declared Oregon City to be the capital, but the session of 1630 passed an act locating the seat of government at Salem. Governor Gaines refused to recognize the constitutionality of the act, and was sustained by two of the supreme judges; and while the judges remained at Oregon City, the legislature met in Salem. On May 14, 1852, Congress settled the matter by confirming the act of the legislature.

Southern Oregon Military Road Built. With the settlement of Southern Oregon came the demand for wagon roads. Being at the head of tidewater navigation on the Umpqua River, Scottsburg was, in 1850, the starting point for commercial operations with the interior and especially with the gold mines of northern California. The original Indian trails were widened, temporary ferries were established at crossings over the Umpqua river, and abrupt declivities avoided, so that a pack horse could carry a load from the ship's side at Scottsburg into the northern edge of California. But public spirited promoters soon saw the necessity of a suitable wagon way. Through their influence, therefore, the Oregon territorial legislature, in 1852»3, was induced to memorialize congress, with the result that $120,000 was appropriated from the national treasury for a military wagon road from Scottsburg to Stewart Creek tn the Rogue River Valley. The route for die road was surveyed first by Lieutenant Withers, U. S. A., October, 1854; and after a further appropriation the survey was completed by Major Atwood, U. S. A., assisted by Jesse Applegate. The survey practically followed the old Southern Oregon Trail. The construction of the road was superintended by Colonel Joseph Hooker, detailed by the War Department for that purpose. The road was completed in 1858. The Southern Oregon Military Road answered* the purposes of the people of the Umpqua Valley until the completion of the railroad to Roseburg.—Binger Hermann.

First Steamboats Built in Willamette Valley. Steam propulsion having been established on the rivers of Oregon as early as 1836-1837, by the Hudson's Bay Company steamship "Beaver," Lot Whitcomb, a progressive settler, built the first steamboat in the Willamette Valley (1850). She was a side-wheeler, was named after the builder and owner, engined by Jacob Kam, and commanded by Captain J. C. Ainsworth. The Lot Whitcomb" was constructed almost entirely of Oregon wood, at a site where Milwaukie now stands. She was projected to run between the Milwaukie site and Astoria, touching all points along the route except Portland which already promised to be a strong competitor with Milwaukie as the chief townsite on the lower Willamette River. After a successful career of four years, the "Lot Whitcomb" was purchased by a Sacnmento firm that took her to California. The "Jennie Clark," built in 1854 on the ways where the "Lot Whitcomb" was built, was the first stern wheel steamer that ran on the rivers of Oregon. She was succeeded by the "Carrie Ladd" built in Portland in 1856. The company that owned the "Carrie Ladd" came to be the nucleus of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, whose boats as to efficiency and elegance in subsequent years became rivals of the "Mississippi River Palaces."

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Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu

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ing for water, they accidentally found placer gold in what was afterwards named Rich Gulch. Also they prospected in Jackson Creek, where they saw the glittering metal on all sides. Realizing they had made a rich discovery, they at once located the town of Jacksonville, and became wealthy and influential citizens. News of the gold discovery at Jacksonville rapidly spread, and miners came in vast num- ! bers from all directions; so that within fifteen years after the Jacksonville event nearly all the placer gold mines of Oregon were discovered. First Postoffice West of the Rocky Mountains. John M. Shively, having been appointed postmaster for Astoria, Oregon, March 9, 1847, soon afterward opened the postoffice of Astoria in the accompanying building, which had been occupied as a residence by Ezra Fisher, a missionary. This bears the distinction of being the first postoffice west of the Rocky Mountains.

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provided for

the circulation of 250,000 souvenir Lewis and Clark silver dollar coins, which had a far-reaching effect in giving pub- licity to the Exposition.

JEFFERSON MYERS, PRESIDENT OF THE LEWIS AND CLARK CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION COMMISSION BREAKING GROUND FOR THE FIRST "WESTERN WORLD'S FAIR"

Foreign Countries Participate. On May 3, 1 904, the first ground for the construction of the Exposition was broken amidst imposing ceremonies conducted by Jefferson Myers, president of the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition Commission. Twenty-three buildings were then erected — three of which were for the government, thirteen for the state of Oregon, and seven for tlie use of other states Sixteen foreign countries and seventeen states participated in tke expMtion, which was formally opened on the appointed day« May 1, 1905, by Vice-President Fairbanks.

There Were Approximately Three Million Admissions to the grounds. Such was the patronage that the Lewis and Clark exposition was the first national exposition in the United States to prove financially successful. But, best of all, the Lewis and Clark Exposition brought Americans as well as foreign nations into better acquaintance, and into closer touch with the people and the resources of Oregon, so that capital fmally responded to the long neglected call from the Northwest. A new impetus was given to public and private enterprises, and the throb of prosperity began to be felt SIS never before throughout the region explored by Lewis and Clark in their famous expedition to the Pacific Coast.

The State Institution for Feeble>Minded. The State Institution for feeble-minded was established by the Legislature of 1907, and was formally opened in November, 1 906, when 38 feeble-minded persons were admitted. The objects of the institution were first, prevention of mental defectives by segregation; second, care and attention to make them as nearly self-supporting as possible; third, custody of die idiotic and epileptic, seventy to eighty percent of which, according to statistics, are in the state institution for feeble-minded because of hereditary defects.

The institution Is located on a farm of 635 acres, about thiee miles southeast of Salem. Instruction is given in grade work, manual training, basketry and sewing. Various other branches in connection vrith these subjects are also taught Those yAiO are capable may advance in scholarship about equal to the f ourdi grade in the public schools. Addiliofial Federal Judge. By Act of Congress of March 2, 1909, an additional district judge was provided for the District of Oregon. By the same act Congress provided for two additional terms of court to be held each year; one at Pendleton on the first Tuesday of April, and one at Medford on the first Tuesday in October. The special reason for the appointment of an additional district judge, and the holding of court in Pendleton and Medford, was the large increase of business, requiring more dian one judge for its transaction. President Taft appointed Judge Robert S. Bean to be the additional judge.

Oregon Stete Tuberculosis Hospital. "The Oregon State Tuberculosis Hospital was established by an act of the legislative assembly of 1909. Its purposes are to provide treatment of tubercular patients; to act as an educational institution, where patients are taught the fundamental rules of right living and how to avoid spreading the disease among others; to segregate those in the advanced stage of the disease, thus eliminating the danger of infecting their families and others; to provide a home for those tubercular patients who are unable to secure a home or proper care elsewhere. Located about five miles southeast of Salem, the hospital occupies a commanding site which affords a beautiful view of the valley."— Oregon Blue Book.

Reed College. Reed College, which is located on a campus of eighty-six acres in the southeastern part of Portland, within three miles of the center of the City, was founded in 1904 as Reed Institute, but was established in 1910 as Reed College. It had in the beginning an endowment of $3,000,000 through the terms of the will of Mrs. Susan G. Reed, who, with her husband, both natives of Massachusetts, came to Oregon in 1854. Mr. Reed was one of the promoters and managers of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company; and he had amassed a fortune in that enterprise. He died in 1895, leaving a will which contained this significant provision: "Feeling, as I do, a deep interest in the welfare and prosperity of the City of Portland, where I have spent my business life and accumulated the property I possess, I would suggest to my wife that she devote some portion of my estate to benevolent objects of some suitable purpose which shall contribute to the beauty of the City and to the intelligence, prosperity and happiness of its inhabitants."

Mrs. Reed died in 1904 and bequeathed property of the value mentioned for "an institution of learning," leaving a large latitude to its directors as to the details of its general work and nature. Owing to the fact that Portland was rapidly

ARTS BUILDING — REED COLLEGE

growing, that city was a special field for the establishment of an institution of higher learning; hence the wisdom of the provision of her will.

Reed College is undenominational and non-sectarian, but the authorities regard religion as wholesome and essential to human life. Religious meetings are regularly held accordingly, under the direction of the institution. It is a college of arts and sciences. In its efforts to elevate college standards, it was the first institution in Oregon to announce its refusal to admit special students, preparatory students, or other students on condition. Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/292 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/293 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/294 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/295 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/296 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/297 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/298 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/299 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/300 in New Lebanon, Columbia County, New York, on March 26, 1823. He received an academic education at Pompey, New York, and at the age of 21 years was admitted to the

GEORGE H. WILLIAMS

Attorney-General of President Grant's Cabinet

bar of that state. Soon afterwards he removed to the then far western state of Iowa and began practicing law at the Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/302 public expression of the groundwork which was afterward adopted by Congress as a solution of a grave national crisis.

After returning to Oregon, Mr. Williams resumed the practice of law in Portland and for thirty years was known for his public spirited endeavors, his philosophic teachings and democratic bearing. When past 80 years of age he served the city of Portland as its Mayor, giving the position his active attention. He was affectionately known as "Oregon's Grand Old Man;" and in 1910, when well past 87 years of age and without any signs of mental decad«ice, passed peacefully away.

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MRS. ABIGAIL SCOTT DUNIWAY
Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/310 passing of more stringent laws, until the sentiment in favor of law enforcement was so strengthened that prohibition ultimately carried the state.

Copperfield Attracts Wide Attention. The case of a saloon in Copperfield, Baker County, where Governor West decided to declare martial law against the city authorities attracted attention throughout the Northwest. Governor West sent a squad of National Guardsmen to that place, and his private secretary[8] took possession of the municipal government, and held it for several weeks. His private secretary called a meeting of the citizens, read the Governor's proclamation declaring Copperfield under military government, saw to it that the civil authorities were deposed, and then she returned to Salem. This drastic measure was the first instance of martial law in Oregon since the Civil War, but it had the effect of noticeably lessening the extent of illegal operation of saloons throughout the state.

New Year's Reception to Ex-Governors of Oregon. Under the direction of Governor West a reception was given at the State House, on New Year's Eve, 1912, to all the ex-governors and ex-governors' wives who were then living. While the occasion was arranged to afford them an opportunity for an exchange of greetings, it was a special recognition of chief executives and their wives, which reminded the people of the valued services these men and women had rendered to the State. It was a most impressive social affair of unique prominence in the history of Oregon.

Eastern Oregon State Hospital. "The Eastern Oregon State Hospital had its origin in an initiative measure providing for the establishment of a state hospital for the insane east of the Cascade mountains, and appropriating $200,000 the purchase of a site and the erection of buildings, adopted by the people of the state in November, 1910. The Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/312 the housewife arts of cleaning and bedmaking; hand crafts of weaving, plaiting, crochet and basketry; chicken and rabbit rearing; physical culture; vocal and instrumental music ;child study, feeding, training and care of children; and the usual English courses through the eighth grade accredited by the Salem superintendent of schools. Only girls committed by the courts are received. The institution is under the state board of control, but has an advisory board of three women appointed by the governor." — Oregon Blue Book.

Cascade Locks. Cascade Locks required forty years for survey and construction. Work preparatory to the con- Ltruction of the canal and locks was begun by Major N. Michler in 1874, under an act of Congress passed that year; but construction was not actually begun until 1879. The canal, which is 90 feet wide and 3,000 feet long, was opened

CascadeLocks.jpg

CASCADE LOCKS I'hotc, by Weister

to river traffic in November, 1896. Until this time no boat had ascended the Cascades, although several passenger boats including the "R. R. Thompson," the "Gold Dust," and

the "D. S. Baker," had successfully ridden over them with Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/314 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/315 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/316 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/317 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/318 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/319 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/320 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/321 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/322 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/323 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/324 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/325 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/326 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/327 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, 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her great men, her literature.djvu/359 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/360 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/361 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/362 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/364 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/365 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/366 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/367 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/368 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/369 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/370 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/371 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/372 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/373 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/374 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/375 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/376 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/377 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/378 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/379 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/380 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/381 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/382 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/383 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/384 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/385 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/386 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/387 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/388 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/389 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/390 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/391 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/392 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/393 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/394 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/395 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/396 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/397 Authorities Consulted. Among the publications consulted in the preparation of the present volume are the following, the most of which are for sale by the J. K. Gill Co. and the Hyland Book Store in Portland:
Bancroft, H. H.— "Historical Works";
Chapman, C. H. — "The bioiy ol Oregon";
Clarke, S. A. — ^"Pioneer Days of Oregon History**;
Dye, Eva Emery—"McLoughlin and Old Oregon";
Franchere, Gabriel —"Narrative" ;
Gaston, Joseph "The Centennial History of Oregon";
Gill, John — "Dictionary or the Chinook Jargon";
Harper's "Encyclopedia oi' U. S. History";
Himes and Lang — "History of the Willamette Valley";
Irving, Washington— "Astoria";
Johnson and Winter^ "Description of Oregon and Califbmia**;
Lewis, Meriwether— "History of the Expedition of Capt. Lewis and Clark";
Lyman, Horace Sumner — "History of Oregon**;
North Pacific History Co.~"History of the Pacific Northwest";
Olcott, Ben W.— "Oregon Blue Book**;
"Oregon Historical Society Quarterly'*;
Parkman, Francis — "The Oregon Trail'*;
Saylor, Fred H. "Oregon Native Son";
Schafer, Joseph — "History ot the Pacific Northwest";
Steel, William G— "Oregon Place Names";
Walker, W. S.— "The. Schools of Oregon*';
Woodward, W. C— Political History of Oregon/*
"Fifty Years in Oregon," written and published by ex-Governor T. T. Geer, Portlnnd, Oregon. "It is a mine of good stories."— Knoxville (Tenn.) Sentinel. It contains 536 pages. Orders received and filled by Mr. Geer. Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/399 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/400 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/401 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/402 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/403 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/404 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/405 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/406 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/407 Page:Oregon, her history, her great men, her literature.djvu/408
  1. In the history of the Northwest the terma emigrants' and 'emigration' have commonly been used instead of 'immigrants' and immlgmttonV— History of the Pacific Northwest.
  2. Some writers believe that "California" came from the Latin words calida fornax—a hot furnace, being a reference to the unusual heat the Spaniards experienced upon their first arrival in that country.
  3. Heceta Head was named for Captain Heceta.
  4. The first wagon of this train to reach Oregon City was driven by Reuben Gant who died at Philomath, Oregon, in 1917 at the advanced age of 98 years.
  5. In 1851, a good crop of apples and cherries was harvested from tbese trees, and four bushels of :ipp^<^ were sold in San Francisco for loOO. — Chapman's "Story of Oregon."
  6. The Fire as Viewed from Sea by Night. Night is supreme, but darkness will not come. The world's on fire. The forests are ablaze. Flames leaping skyward from the tallest trees, burst and vanish. Sparks soar and fall upon the bosom of a blood red sea. They dampen and die. Gigantic pines, fir, spruce and hemlocks fall in the flaming path. The red among the higher branches fades into the vliite and blinding furnace belov. The roar and crackle carry far out to sea and warn the sailor. A hundred miles it runs along the Coast Range and the shore, the greatest fire chronicled in northwest history. — S. S. Harralson.
  7. Those without rifles and ammunition were supplied on their personal credit by Doctor McLoughlin, who hesitated to trust the Provisional Government bocause he lacked confidence in its financial stability. The "Oregon Rifles" went into camp at The Dalles, Dec. 21, 1847. The "Oregon Rifles" will not be mistaken for the "Rifle Regiment," which came to Oregon in 1849.
  8. Miss Fern Hobbs.