Oregon Historical Quarterly/Volume 24/Number 4

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THE QUARTERLY of the Oregon Historical Society Volume XXIV DECEMBER, 1923 Number 4 Copyright, 1923, by the Oregon Historical Society The Quarterly disavows responsibility for the positions taken by contributors to its pages. MORE ABOUT ASTORIANS* By Stella M. Drumm, Librarian, Missouri Historical Society On April 30, 1813, there arrived in St. Louis seven exhausted men returning from a journey of which more than 1500 miles was on foot. Included in this party were Ramsay Crooks, Robert McClellan and Benjamin Jones. They had left Astoria June 29, 1812, with im- portant dispatches for John Jacob Astor. The little expedition was commanded by Robert Stuart. 1 John Day had also started with them, but because of a mental breakdown was sent back to the Fort. Ramsay Crooks and Robert McClellan had been partners in the Pacific Fur Company, but being dissatisfied gave up their part- nership interest and withdrew. 2

  • Address before the annual meeting of the members of the Oregon

Historical Society, Portland, Oregon, October 28, 1923. iln the Pacific Fur Company Minute Book is this resolution: Resolved that it being necessary to send an express to New York and all the papers and other things being prepared, Mr. Robert Stuart is hereby instructed to have and to take charge of them, with which lie is to go as directly to N. Y. as circumstances will admit, and there to be governed by the directions of Mr. Astor as to the time of his returning to the Northwest coast. It is also resolved that John Day, Benjamin Jones, Francois LeClerc and Andree Vallee accompany Mr. Stuart as far as St. Louis where he is to pay them the balance due each by means of drafts drawn by our W. P. Hunt on John Jacob Astor. June 27, 1812. (Missouri Hist. Soc. MSS.) * 2 Ibid. "Resolved that Robert McClellan having expressed his intention 336 Stella M. Drumm Upon their arrival at St. Louis the men were hailed with great joy. Much anxiety had been felt for the safety of the Astorians, for news of the fate of the ship Tonquin had reached St. Louis in May, 1812. 3 Starvation, and most every other peril had faced this little band of brave men on their return journey over- land, but all their hardships were soon forgotten and great was their enthusiasm over the finding of a new route. The local newspaper in publishing the news of their return said : "The narrative of this event will evince to the world that a journey to the Western Sea will not be considered (within a few years) of much greater im- portance than a trip to New York." This paper further said that "By information received from these gentlemen a journey across the continent of North America might be performed with a waggon, there being no obstruction in the whole route that any person would dare to call a mountain in addition to its being the most direct route to go from this place to the mouth of the Columbia." 4 Not until the spring of 1830, however, were wagons used on the Oregon Trail. When the party reached the Walla Walla river on this return journey they secured horses from the Indians and started off southward and across the Blue Mountains. After leaving the Snake river country they became con- fused and were lost. They suffered almost every hard- ship imaginable. They were followed by a party of hos- tile Crows who stampeded their horses and thus forced of withdrawing from the concern should he not have an augmentation of shares be permitted so to withdraw, and that he be no longer considered a partner of the Pacific Fur Co., nor in any way entitled to any right, etc. arising from his having been a partner. Astoria, March 1, 1812. Ramsay Crooks relinquished all right to the interest he held in the Pacific Fur Co.— to-wit five shares. Also relinquished all profits and emoluments or privileges arising from having been a partner thereof. Binds himself not to engage or be concerned in the Indian trade or in any business whatever which may effect the interest of said Company. May 14, 1812." (Missouri Hist. Soc. MSS.) - 3Letter from Charles Gratiot, St. Louis, May 31, 1812, to John Jacob Astor. (Gratiot Letter Book — Mo. Hist. Soc. MSS.) ^Missouri Gazette, May 8th and 15th, 1813. More About Astorians 337 them to proceed on foot. Being without food for five days, LeClerc suggested that lots be cast to decide which one of the party should be killed and devoured, as the only alternative to death for all. Fortunately this sug- gestion was not adopted. Because of the dangers en- countered on the outward journey they chose a more southerly route, leading to the Platte and thence to the Missouri river, where canoes were secured for the last lap of the arduous journey. The route taken by them, in its greater extent, became later the Oregon Trail. Ramsay Crooks claimed they went through the celebrated South Pass, 5 the discovery of which in later years, has been credited to Fitzpatrick and other, and claimed also by Fremont. How short-lived is popular enthusiasm and hero-wor- ship! During the campaign for Governor of the new State of Missouri, in 1820, the followers of Gen. William Clark urged his election because "he had been to the Pacific Ocean and had seen and faced many hostile In- dians." An opposition paper scornfully printed an edit- orial to the effect that having seen the Pacific Ocean was not a sufficient qualification; that Wilson P. Hunt had also been there, but was considered unfit for a seat in the Constitutional Convention and was actually de- feated. The editor further stated "we doubt very much if Russell Farnham, who has been to the Pacific Ocean, and who is the only man who has circumnavigated the globe overland in northern latitudes, would be thought to be entitled to the office of Governor of Missouri." A few years later when George Shannon was a candidate for United States Senator from Missouri an enthusiastic campaigner boasted of the part he had taken, when a mere youth, in the famous expedition of Lewis and Clark. He was likewise ridiculed and defeated. You all know the story of the struggle, hardships and 5 Letter from Ramsay Crooks to Anthony Dudgeon, New York, Tune 26, 1856. 338 Stella M. Drumm failure of the Pacific Fur Company. Something of the lives of the leaders and a few of the men has been pub- lished, but there is much of interest left to be told. I have selected for comment four of these men, whose lives are of interest to most people. Two of them had unusually romantic and eventful lives. Another gave his name to two streams in the Oregon Country 6 and there, in the language of the old trappers "paid the debt of nature." Still another, though known simply as a guide and hunter, was evidently a man of substance and education. Russel Farnham An oil portrait of this Astorian is hanging in the museum of the Missouri Historical Society at St. Louis, and the label contains this legend : "Walked from Ore- gon to St. Petersburg, 1813-1814." Upon reading this statement one might well exclaim : "Remarkable, if true!" It has been questioned many times, of course, but any one referring to our local his- tories will find it verified. 7 They say that he walked from St. Louis to St. Petersburg. These accounts would be more nearly exact if they did not picture him as walk- ing across the frozen Straits. The truth about Farnham is stranger than fiction, and this fable detracts from, instead of adding to, his just fame. The occasion of this remarkable journey was the desire to avoid capture by the British and to convey im- portant dispatches, and possibly drafts, to Mr. Astor. 8 On November 12, 1813, the remaining partners at As- toria (Hunt being absent) sold out to the North West 6 John Day creek near the mouth of the Columbia, and the John Day river in Eastern Oregon. 7 Darby, John F. — Personal Recollections of Many Prominent People. St. Louis, 1880. . . Shepard, Elihu ft.— Early History of St. Louis and Missouri. St Louis, 1870. 8 Franchere, Gabriel— Narrative of a Voyage to the Northwest Coast of America. Redfield, 1854, pp. 369, 370. More About Astorians 339 Company. The sale brought $58,000. After deducting wages this balance, together with the records, had to be sent to New York. Accordingly, Mr. Hunt on March 18, 1814, together with Farnham, J. C. Halsey, Alfred Seton and Bernard Clapp, embarked on a brig known as the Pedlar. They were compelled to stay at anchor until April 3, 1814, on account of the winds. Farnham was landed at Kamchatka, in Siberia, Halsey at Sitka. Mr. Hunt and Seton remained on the boat, which was cap- tured off the coast of California, and held for two months, The brig Pedlar had been purchased by Mr. Hunt at the Sandwich Islands, after he had waited a long while for the arrival of a ship expected from Mr. Astor. He paid $10,550.00 9 for it, and expected to use it for trans- porting provisions to Astoria, and for carrying away the furs. From Kamchatka, Farnham started on his long jour- ney to New York, walking through Russia and much of Europe. Most accounts say that he sailed from Hamburg to New York, by way of the West Indies. His passport, however, shows that he sailed from the city of Copen- hagen. This passport, dated 10 A. M. October 16, 1816, from the Police Magistrate in the Royal Residence, City of Copenhagen, makes known that the "super-cargo Russel Farnham, 32 years old, born in America, speaks English, is tall of stature, and of medium build, with light curly hair and brown eyes, intends now to journey from this City to the port of Baltimore. My official request is to all and every one whom said Russel Farnham may meet, that they allow him to pass on his journey without hindrance. The pass applies only to this and no other journeys, and here in this City only for three times 24 hours." 9 Ross, Alexander — Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River. Thwaites ed. vol. 7, p. 261. Coues, Elliott — New Light on Early History of the Greater Northwest. 340 Stella M. Drumm John F. Darby, who served as the final administrator of the estate of Russel Farnham, says that Farnham had been intrusted with sterling bills on London for about forty thousand dollars, together with various dispatches, that Mr. Hunt had directed him to proceed by way of St. Petersburg, so that the bills might be collected for the benefit of Mr. Astor. "Mr. Farnham, with a small stock of provisions in a pack on his back, started on foot, across the Russian dominions, through that inhospitable country and severe climate to St. Petersburg. On this perilous journey he endured incredible sufferings, from hunger, exposure and want. From dire necessity he was forced to cut and eat the tops off his boots to sustain life. But having been blest with a robust and powerful constitu- tion, which enabled him to meet and endure hardships, and an indomitable will and determination, whereby he was armed to overcome difficulties and dangers, he per- formed a feat which, for personal bravery, danger and daring, has never been equalled by any one man in ancient or modern times. He did that which Ledyard, the great American traveller, acting under instructions from Thomas Jefferson, had failed in twice, viz: to come east (that is, find a passage) from St. Petersburg to the American continent." 10 After Farnham returned to the United States he con- tinued in the employ of Mr. Astor. When the American Fur Company resumed operations after the War of 1812, Farnham bore the brunt of battle during the company's struggle to establish itself on the Missouri. To him be- longs the credit of being the first trader in the employ of the American Fur Company to carry the business of that company into the valley of the Missouri. The American Fur Company's force was largely re- cruited from Montreal, and when Farnham was assigned, in 1817, to manage the business on the Mississippi river and its dependencies, his outfit was composed mainly of 10 Darby, John F. — Personal Recollections. St. Louis, 1880, p. 165. More About Astorians 341 Canadians. The Missouri Fur Company, and more es- pecially Manuel Lisa, made strenuous efforts to keep Mr. Astor and the American Fur Company out of the Missouri country. This jealousy of the St. Louis traders towards Mr. Astor's company seemed to have affected in some degree the officials in the United States Indian Department. An act was passed in 1816 excluding Brit- ish traders, although it did not prevent the engagement of foreigners in the service of American traders. Most of Mr. Astor's engages were Canadians and the author- ities near St. Louis seized upon this circumstance as proof of a violation of the law. Col. Talbot Chambers, of the Rifle Regiment, stationed at Fort Crawford, in Septem- ber, 1817, thought proper to deny foreigners permission to accompany American traders down the Mississippi, and refused to recognize any authority to trade in that country other than the licenses emanating from the Governors of the Missouri and Illinois Territories. He therefore seized upon two boats belonging to the Amer- ican Fur Company in command of Russel Farnham and Daniel Darling. These men and their boats were or- dered to proceed to Fort Bellefontaine (not far from St. Louis) and report to Gen. Clark. Unfortunately Farn- ham had on board two notorious characters, one, a man named St. John, who had boasted of having hoisted on his boat, during the War of 1812, the scalps of three Americans. Farnham and Darling were en route to the DesMoines river to trade, and Col. Chambers insisted that in order to do so they must first obtain a license from Gen. Clark. Chambers permitted the boats to pro- ceed, and gave them a letter to present to the military posts between Fort Crawford and St. Louis. During this passage they were positively prohibited from holding any intercourse with the Indians, save when absolutely necessary to satisfy immediate wants, or to land. Col. Chambers wrote Maj. Morgan that Farnham and Darling "appeared to be hardened rascals." When Farnham and Darling reached Fort Armstrong it was reported that Farnham had declared his intention to commence trading with the Indians three miles below that place. When Maj. Morgan, in command at Fort Armstrong, heard this he put Farnham and his crew under arrest and sent them to St. Louis accompanied by a guard of soldiers under the command of W. S. Blair.

The matter of the arrest of Farnham and Darling, together with other unjust treatment given the American Fur Company, was presented to the President of the United States, and suit was promptly brought by the company against Col. Chambers. A verdict for $5000.00 damages was recovered.[1]

In March, 1819, Farnham started up the Missouri river to trade, at which time Ramsay Crooks wrote him "There is nothing to prevent your going into the Missouri country now with your Canadians."

Apparently he was relieved from the trade on the upper Missouri for in 1821 and 1822 he was again assigned to the trade on the Mississippi. The next year he was with the Sac Outfit with headquarters at Fort Armstrong, in partnership with Col. George Davenport, under the firm name of Farnham and Davenport. They had a store on Rock Island and were, of course, agents for the American Fur Company. They built the first house on the mainland in the vicinity of Fort Armstrong, which became the nucleus of a settlement that later sprung up and was named Farnhamsburg. Unfortunately the place has ceased to bear his name, being now called Rock Island.

Farnham made many visits to St. Louis, in the interest of the American Fur Company, and served as witness to the treaty between the United States and the Kansas Indians in 1825. On one of these visits he met pretty Susan Bosseron, daughter of Charles Bosseron, an early French settler of wealth and respectibility. Their marriage took place at the old Cathedral in St. Louis, October 27, 1829. The Church Register contains an entry that he was born in Massachusetts, and also gives the names of his parents.

At this time he held himself out as a resident of St. Louis. In 1821, and the years following, he acquired considerable land in the village of Portage des Sioux, a place in St. Charles County, Missouri, where most of the treaties with the Mississippi and Missouri valley Indians were signed. Farnham maintained a well stocked farm at Portage des Sioux, and a beautiful home, which contained, among other luxuries, a piano. He also owned a number of slaves.

In the early part of 1832 Farnham went East, possibly New York. Upon his return he remained at his home for a time, and then proceeded by boat to Forts Armstrong and Edwards to look after the trade with the Sacs and Foxes and to supply provisions and guns to the military posts.

He returned to St. Louis in October of that year, and, on the 23rd of the month, was there stricken with cholera and died within two hours. He was buried in the Catholic cemetery in St. Louis. When Ramsay Crooks heard of his death he wrote to Pierre Chouteau, Jr., as follows: "Poor Farnham! he has paid the debt of nature after a life of uncommon activity and endless exposure. Peace to his remains. He underwent greater privations than any half dozen of us. He was one of the best meaning, but the most sanguine, man I almost ever met with. During all the ravages of the pestilence here (New York) and the unexpected rapidity with which some of my friends were hurried to their long account, I never felt anything like the sensation I experienced upon hearing of my honest friend's death, for I did not know he was at St. Louis and thought him safe in some part of the wilderness."

Russel Farnham was born in Massachusetts in 1784, 344 Stella M. Drumm and was the son of John Farnham and Susan Chapin. He was a typical frontiersman of the better class, ener- getic and resourceful, and was respected alike by his employers, comrades and opponents. A companionable and sociable fellow, and fond of playing jokes. He had joined the sea expedition of the Pacific Fur Company in the capacity of a clerk and sailed on the Tonquin. While in the Oregon country he had many thrilling adventures. He was one of a party who pursued and captured a number of deserters in November, 1811 ; was in the Indian fight at The Dalles, when Reed's tin box was stolen ; was the executioner of the Indian whom John Clarke ordered hanged for the theft of a gold goblet, June 1, 1813; assisted in building a post near Spokane. In 1812-1813, he wintered among the Flatheads, crossing the Rocky Mountains with this tribe to the headwaters of the Missouri. 12 Only one child was born to Russel Farnham and Ssan Bosseron, Charles Russel Farnham, who died when eighteen years old. Mrs. Farnham survived her husband only one year. In the treaty between the United States and the Sacs and Foxes made September 21, 1832, it was provided that, at the "earnest request" of the Indians, Farnham and Davenport should be paid $40,000.00 in satisfaction of their claims against the tribe for articles of necessity furnished them during the seven preceding years. Missouri Historical Society has a number of letters written by Farnham, one of them being in French. They indicate that he was a man of education and that he had a good knowledge of the French language. 12 Ross, Alex.— Adventures of First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River. Thwaites edition, vol. 7, p. 211. More About Astorians 345 Robert McClellan This romantic character of the West was one of the seven Astorians who returned overland to St. Louis. He was the son of Robert McClellan and was born in Pennsylvania near Mercersburg, in 1770. Here he was schooled in all the arts of woodcraft and inured to the hardships of frontier life. His first employment was as "pack-horseman." McClellan was an expert shot, steady of hand, keen of eye, robust, enterprising, and absolutely fearless. He was of slight physique, but muscular, displaying strength, activity and firmness. His eyes were dark, deep-set and piercing. He was reckless and impetuous, with a temper that was sometimes ungovernable. McClellan was a great athlete and stories are related about his marvelous feats. On one occasion he beat a horse in a race on a stretch of ground between Mercersburg and Fort Loudon, which was afterwards known as the "race track." We are told that while he was at Fort Hamilton he would frequently leap over the tallest horse, without apparent exertion; that while walking in the town of Lexington, Kentucky, he came upon a yoke of large oxen obstructing the narrow sidewalk, and instead of walking around them he, with- out hesitating, jumped over them. When with the Army at Greenville, at a trial of feats of strength among the soldiers, he leaped over a wagon with a covered top, a height of eight and one-half feet. 13 In 1790 McClellan's restless disposition led him to seek adventure in the West. His personal prowess and daring nature suggested the Army, which he entered in the capacity of spy, or ranger, at Fort Gower, a stockade fort just above the mouth of the Hocking at the Ohio river. He served as a spy under General Wayne, and rendered valuable service in the Indian campaigns; re- maining in the Army until after General Wayne's treaty 13 McBride, James — Pioneer Biographical Sketches of Some of the Early Settlers of Butler County, Ohio. Cincinnati, 1871, vol. 2, pp. 1-98. 346 Stella M. Drumm with the Indians in August, 1794, which terminated the Indian War. He attained the rank of Lieutenant while in the service. After the disbanding of Wayne's Army McClellan made his home with his brother at Hamilton, Ohio, spend- ing most of his time hunting and often remaining in the woods days at a time. In the the Summer of 1799 he went to New Orleans, where he endured a long illness from yellow fever. Being in poor health and suffering from the wounds received in the Indian campaigns, he decided to go East and ob- tain, if possible, a pension for his services and wounds. One of the wounds he suffered was from a shot under the shoulder blade, the ball coming out at the top of his shoulder. He went first to Philadelphia, and later to New York in search of Gen. Wilkinson, from whom he obtained the necessary certificates, which he presented to the Secretary of War at Philadelphia. The latter sent him to the examining surgeon, who reported that Mc- Clellan was entitled to only one-third pension, which for his rank, Lieutenant, was only twenty-six pounds Penn- sylvania currency per year. McClellan was greatly offended at this and declined to accept the pension. The Quartermaster General of the Army having some knowledge of McClellan and his services, induced him to accept the pension and also a position in his Department. In 1801 McClellan was sent on business connected with the Commissary Department to St. Louis, when, after completing his mission, he re- tired from the service. His next venture was trading with the Indians, and his first returns amounted to one thousand dollars. This success gave him a taste for trading and for some years he made trading trips up the Missouri river. On one of these trips (September 12, 1806) he met Captains Lewis More About Astorians 347 and Clark, former comrades and friends, returning from their famous expedition. 14 The following year (1807) he entered into partner- ship with Ramsay Crooks, an adventurous Scotchman, and in the fall of that year they set out on an expedition to the upper Missouri. On the way they met Ensign Nathaniel Pryor returning, after his defeat by the Arikaras, to St. Louis with the Mandan Chief. The re- port which Pryor gave them of the hostile attitude of the Sioux and Arikaras, made them decide to turn back. When they got back nearly to Council Bluffs they set up an establishment and remained there until the Spring of 1809. Then, following the expedition of the Missouri Fur Company, they again tried to ascend the river, but before proceeding very far were stopped by six hundred Sioux, who forced them to land and erect a fort in their country. 15 McClellan always accused Manuel Lisa of inciting the Sioux against him and Crooks, and threatened that if ever he fell in with Lisa in the Indian country he would shoot him. If it had not been for the interference of Mr. Hunt, on several occasions, he would have carried out his threat. 16 In 1810 Crooks and McClellan dissolved partnership and McClellan continued the business alone. He estab- lished a trading post on the Missouri two hundred miles above the Nodaway, erecting a cabin and store room for his goods and furs. Again his old enemies, the Sioux, frustrated his plans. They surrounded his cabin one day, disarmed his men, and plundered his store room of its contents, amounting to about three thousand dollars. McClellan was absent from his cabin at the time, and when he returned and learned what had happened he i^Thwaites' edition Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expe- dition, vol. 5, p. 373. . . , 010 ^Bradbury, John— Travels in the Interior of America. London, my. isBrackenridge, H. M. — Journal of a Voyage Up the River Missouri. Pittsburgh, 1814. 348 Stella M. Drumm went boldly to the Indians and demanded restoration. He succeeded in recovering only about five hundred dol- lars worth of his goods. Completely dispirited, he di- vided what he had among his men, in compensation for their services, and shortly afterwards the whole party started back to St. Louis. When they reached the mouth of the Nodaway they found encamped the overland ex- pedition of the Pacific Fur Company, in charge of Wilson P. Hunt. McClellan was happy to find in the party his old friend and partner Ramsay Crooks, who had joined the enterprise in Canada. It needed but little persuasion to induce McClellan to accept a few shares and become a partner in expedition. About this time McClellan wrote to his brother William the following letter : "Six days ago I arrived at this place from my settlement, which is two hundred miles above on the Missouri. My mare is with you at Hamilton, having two colts. I wish you to give one to brother John, the other to your son James, and the mare to your wife. If I possessed anything more except my gun at present, I would throw it into the river, or give it away, as I intend to begin the world anew tomorrow." When McClellan and party reached Astoria, in Janu- ary, 1812, he was haggard, emaciated and in rags. While he had proven a very valuable man to the enterprise, he soon became dissatisfied with his position in the company and resigned his interest. Although in Astoria only a short time he decided to return with Reed and party, whom Mr. Hunt sent with dispatches to Mr. Astor on March 22, 1812. When Reed and his party reached The Dalles they were robbed and attacked by the Indians. Reed was badly wounded and the tin box containing the dispatches was captured by the Indians. The bright, shiny tin box, coveted by the Indians, was the cause of the trouble. The important dispatches being lost the object of the journey More About Astorians 349 was defeated, so Reed, McClellan and the others in the party returned to Astoria. McClellan, however, was persistent in his determina- tion to go back to St. Louis and when Robert Stuart was sent by Mr. Hunt with another set of dispatches McClellan joined the party. As Mr. Stuart had gone to Astoria by ship it was necessary to send with him well tried men as hunters and guides. Benjamin Jones, John Day, Andre Vallee and Francois LeClerc were chosen for this pur- pose, all of these men having been in Mr. Hunt's overland party. The party left Astoria, as before stated, on June 29, 1812, on their perilous overland journey to St. Louis. On one occasion when danger from the Blackfeet was threatened, the party for greater safety, wanted to make a detour through rugged and difficult country. Mr. McClellan, greatly fatigued, and therefore somewhat more stubborn and irascible than usual, swore he would rather face all the Blackfeet in the country than encounter the difficulties of the mountains. He refused to stay with the others and left in a huff. All alone he trudged along through the wilderness. Such a desperate course must have required considerable courage. Ten days later, the rest of the party found him encamped, without fire or food, and reduced through hunger and fatigue to a mere skeleton. He could not help showing his joy at see- ing his friends again, and cheerfully rejoined them. Being too feeble to walk, the party encamped for several days in order that he might recover a little. When they started off he was not able to carry anything, his pistols and rifle being carried by his comrades, most of whom were not much better off. They wandered about for five days and nights without a mouthful to eat, and were reduced to the last extremity. Now and then some deer were seen but they had not sufficient strength to use their rifles. It was at this period that one of the party sug- gested "it were better that one should die than that all 350 Stella M. Drumm should perish." The next day, Providence directed their forlorn steps to a solitary old buffalo bull, which they managed to kill, thus saving their lives. They arrived in St. Louis on April 30, 1813, and while happy to be back to civilization, McClellan was no more enriched in health or purse than when he wrote to his brother on December 20, 1810, that with nothing more than his gun he was beginning the world anew. On May 18, 1813, he was committed to prison for debt and was forced to take advantage of the bankruptcy act. 17 Here it was necessary to make another start, for he had accumulated nothing but debts, suffering and hardships for his several years in the Astorian expedition. The following January, Risdon H. Price of St. Louis furnished him with a stock of goods with which to open up a store at Cape Girardeau, Missouri, but ill health forced him to close out and return to St. Louis within six months' time. Then his friend, Abraham Gallatin, placed him on his farm called Marino, in St. Louis Coun- ty, and he recovered sufficiently to go back and forth to St. Louis. Later records show McClellan again in battle with the Indians, not as a soldier, but as a citizen, in the famous Missouri battle of the War of 1812 known as the "Fight at the Sink Hole." On May 24, 1815, the Indians made an attack on a detachment of soldiers from Fort Howard, killing the Captain, Lieutenant, five privates and one citizen, besides wounding a number of soldiers and two of the citizens who came to the aid of the soldiers. The report of this affair says that Robert McClellan and other citizens deserved credit for their spirited exer- tions. 18 About this time he seems to have been conducting horse races, at least he had two race horses, the more famous one being called "Plough Boy." At the time of 17 Missouri Gazetete, May 29, 1813. ^Missouri Gazette, May 27, 1815. More About Astorians 351 his death he owed his friend, Abraham Gallatin, $39.25, which was for thirty days' boarding of himself and two boys, for three bushels of oats, stabling for two horses, a quart of whiskey (twenty-five cents) and dinner for the judges on the first day's racing. Robert McClellan died November 22, 1815, having been seriously ill for five days. He was buried, presum- ably by his old friend and comrade of the early Indian campaigns, Gen. William Clark. In 1875 a tombstone was unearthed on the old Clark farm in St. Louis County, Missouri, which caused some newspaper comment. A copy of the inscription was published and old citizens were interviewed regarding "Capt. Robert McClellan." Mr. John F. Darby stated that he thought McClellan was a friend of Clark's and was killed in a duel. If Capt. McClellan was killed in a duel there was no mention made of it in the newspaper at the time, and the doctor's bill does not indicate that he was treating a wound. The inscription on the tombstone was as follows: "To the memory of Capt. Robert McClellan. This stone is erected by a friend who knew him to be brave, honest and sincere; an intrepid warrior, whose services deserve perpetual remembrance. A. D. 1816." The sale of his horses brought $172.50, and his wear- ing apparel $145.50. His debts amounted to $196.00. The inventory and appraisement of his personal property- is rather interesting, considering he spent most of his life in the wilderness. You might like to hear some of the contents of his wardrobe : Black cloth coat $12.00 Great coat 18.00 Striped blue summer vest 75 Striped blue Toilinet vest, old 25 Pair blue cloth pantaloons 1.50 Pair white stockinet pantaloons 6.00 Pair Nankeen pantaloons, old 50 Pair of boots 5.50 352 Stella M. Drumm Pair of shoes Four long linen shirts One dickey Three colored cravats and 1 pad Three flannel shirts Five pocket handkerchiefs Pair dimity suspenders & silver buckles Two pairs black silk stockings Shaving apparatus, viz : 5 razors, 1 shaving box, 1 looking glass and strop, 1 coarse comb, 1 sealing wax, 1 clothes brush, shav- ing soap ------- Comfort, 2 pairs suspenders and 1/3 yd of cloth 1 trunk Pair Cassimere pantaloons, worn Satin vest Two towels Wampum and knife 1 skin pocketbook Small morocco pocketbook Small memorandum book 1 Sorrel horse said to be 6 years old 1 Horse Plough Boy Bridle, saddle and saddle-bags John Day If John Day left any descendants, they might easily establish their eligibility to that very exclusive organiz- ation, the "F. F. V.'s;" for a John Day, no doubt his ancestor, was living in Virginia at "Ye College Land" in 1623. 19 The Day family was rather conspicuous in the early history of Virginia, in Isle of Wight County, and a John Day was a member of the last House of Burgesses from that county. 20 There were at least two John Days in the Revolution, and I hope the Daughters of the American Revolution of Oregon will be able to prove that one of them was John Day of Astoria fame. One of these John Days was a 19 William and Mary Quarterly, vol. 24, p. 124. mbid. t vol. 5, p. 255. .50 9.50 .50 1.00 5.00 1.50 2.50 5.00 3.00 1.50 3.50 1.50 1.50 .371/2 1.00 .25 .50 .25 70.00 80.00 32.00 More About Astorians 353 corporal in the Minute Men from Northampton County; one served in the 5th Virginia Regiment from Culpepper County ; 21 and the same one, or possibly a third John Day, was a private in the Virginia Continental line, for which service he received two hundred acres of land in Ken- tucky. 22 His warrant was issued February 11, 1784, and was later assigned to Henry Banks. John Day was the son of Ambrose Day of Culpepper County, Virginia. He had a brother, Lewis, and there was a Lewis Day who had a plantation at Limestone (now Maysville), Kentucky, in 1797. 23 This town was a ren- dezvous for Daniel Boone and other famous frontiersmen. I like to think that the John Day, who received the military grant of land in Kentucky, was our John Day. It is very likely that he was considerably older than forty years when he joined the expedition at the Nodaway river, and was therefore probably old enough to serve in the Revolutionary War. It is quite possible that he met Daniel Boone in Kentucky, after the latter was plan- ning to go to Missouri, and decided to join him. On March 2, 1798, John Day was in St. Louis peti- tioning the Spanish Lieutenant Governor to grant him "two hundred and forty arpens of land on a river south of the Missouri." He stated that he wished to use this land for a habitation (plantation). 24 In passing I might say that just about this time the Spanish Governor had invited the immigration of Americans to Upper Louisi- ana, and had promised them concessions of land. In addition to this concession of two hundred and forty arpens Day apparently acquired another concession of seven hundred arpens from the Spanish Government on the "Waters of Point Labaddie Creek," County of St. 21 Virginia State Library. Ninth Report, p. 88. 22 Yearbook of the Society, Sons of Revolution, Kentucky. Lexington, 1913, p. 211. 2z William and Mary Quarterly, 2d ser., vol. 1, p. 153. ^Original petition of John Dey (Day) to Lieutenant-Governor Upper Louisiana. Mo. Hist. Soc. MSS. 354 Stella M. Drumm Louis. This concession was confirmed in 1812 to the legal representatives of John Day. 25 Day endeavored to cultivate this land from time to time until he joined the Hunt party. When he was away trapping, and not occupying his little cabin, he had it rented out. In 1802 he had a good sized corn field, but the following year the whole settlement around Point La- baddie was broken up by the invasion of hostile Indians. In 1804 Day engaged Asa Musick to cultivate the land and allowed him the use of his cabin. Musick planted peach trees, erected a new house and improved the place generally, making thus the first permanent improvements beyond the Bon Homme settlement. 26 This land is now included in Franklin County, the next county southwest of St. Louis County. The next year Day sold, or mortgaged, part of his plantation to Asa Musick, and started off to the Boone's Lick Country. From 1806 until he joined the Hunt expedition at the Nodaway, he was probably hunting and trapping on the Missouri and working his mines. In 1809 he formed a partnership with Benjamin Cooper and John Farrel to work the saltpeter mines he had discovered. In April, 1809, Day was in St. Louis, and for the small sum of $15.00 assigned to John Withinton "all my right, title, claim and interest in and to a tract of land that I hold or may hold, the same being and lying on Point Labaddie Creek and the improvements on the north side of the Creek and near the big slew that runs in the bottom." This instrument, for some reason or other, was not filed for record until April 28, 1840. 27 According to Irving, "John Day was a hunter from the backwoods of Virginia, who had been for several years on the Missouri in the service of Crooks and other 25 Amer. State Papers, Public Lands, vol. 3, p. 326. 26 Bates Minutes. 27 Franklin County Deed Records. More About Astorians 355 traders. He was about forty years of age, six feet two inches high, straight as an Indian, with an elastic step as if he trod on springs, and a handsome, open, manly countenance. It was his boast that in his younger days, nothing could hurt or daunt him, but he had 'lived too fast,' and injured his constitution by his excesses. Still he was strong of hand, bold of heart, a prime woodsman, and an almost unerring shot. He had the frank spirit of a Virginian and the thorough heroism of a pioneer of the West." In November, 1810, John Day met the Hunt overland party in winter quarters at the Nodaway, and was in- duced to join them in the enterprise. In the following December, while on the way to Astoria, he became so ill that Mr. Hunt was compelled to leave him behind, near Weiser, Idaho, on the banks of the Snake river. Ramsay Crooks remained with him, and to this kindness John Day owed his life. The following Spring the two men made their way across the Blue Mountains to the Co- lumbia river. They suffered many hardships, were rob- bed by the Indians of everything and left naked near the mouth of a river which has ever since been called the John Day river. They were finally rescued by Robert Stuart and his party and taken to Astoria, arriving there in May, 1812. Day started with the Stuart party returning to St. Louis, but before proceeding very far he became violently insane, and was left with some Indians who promised to take him back to Astoria. Irving said he died within a year, but in this was, of course, mistaken. For, after the sale of the Pacific Fur Company, Day entered the service of the North West Company and remained with that com- pany in the Upper Snake Country until his death in 1820. For a time there seemed to be some question about the identity of the John Day of the North West Company, but the finding of the will, which was probated in Chau- tauqua County, New York, October 29, 1836, settled the 356 Stella M. Drumm question beyond a doubt. A copy of the will was pub- lished in volume 17 of the Oregon Historical Quarterly, whereby he bequeathed to Donald MacKenzie land which he received from the Spanish Government in 1798, all his right and pretensions to the saltpeter lands about the Boone's Lick at the river Missouri, and all the profits arising therefrom after the commencement of his partner- ship with Cooper and Farrel. To Miss Rachel MacKenzie, daughter of Donald MacKenzie, he bequeathed all his ready cash and lawful interest arising therefrom and lying in the hand of his former master, Mr. John Jacob Astor. Donald MacKenzie, in proving the will, stated that John Day died February 16, 1820, "on the south side of the river Columbia in the Territory of Oregon." In the manuscript collection of the Missouri Historical Society I have found some correspondence from Alex- ander MacKenzie, a grandnephew of Donald MacKenzie, in which he stated that he had before him the original will of John Day and gives a copy of the text thereof. There are some minor differences between the will as published in your Quarterly and the copy made by Mr. MacKenzie. For instance, he gives one witness's name as William Kiteson, instead of William Rettson. But the most interesting part of our copy, lacking in your publication, is the note attached to the will, as follows: "On the 16th February about 2 P. M. he 'Departed this Life viewing Mr. MacKenzie as the Man at whose hands he had ever experienced the most kindness/ he therefore said he bequeathed to him all he possessed: Deeming it too inconsiderate to divide among his rela- tions, but requested Mr. MacKenzie to inform his brothers Lewis and Willis. He appeared to die the death of a good man. Signed February 17, 1820. William Kiteson James Birnie." 28 28 With the permission of Miss Drumm the following is added to her interesting sketch of John Day: In the Henry-Thompson Journals, edited by Dr. Elliott Coues and published in N. Y., 1897, vol. 2, p. 861, under date March 29, 1814, it is stated that "arrangements were made with J. Day, Carson and other More About Astorians 357 Mr. MacKenzie, in the letter referred to, states that the money in Astor's hands belonging to John Day was never paid over to the legatees until the Court compelled him to do so ; that Astor had acknowledged the debt from time to time, but his final objection was to the paying of two and a half per cent interest on the same. Final set- tlement was made of the estate June 25, 1838. Benjamin J ones This man was also a member of Robert Stuart's over- land party. He and Alexander Carson were returning from a two years' hunting trip on the upper Missouri when they met Hunt and his party near the Omaha vil- lages, in May, 1811. It has been suggested that Jones was one of the forty "Americans and expert riflemen" who escorted the Mandan chief to his nation. 29 Irving says Jones and Carson before they met the Hunt party had been leisurely floating down the turbulent Missouri, through regions infested by savage tribes, yet apparently frle^en, on halves for Spanish river." And on page 875 of the same volume, under date April 4, 1814, his name is listed among the passengers up the Columbia river in the large brigade of canoes departing from Fort George (Astoria) on that day. Spanish river would be the Green river of the present time, but the reference would be to the entire interior basin of Southern Idaho, Western Wyoming and Northern Utah, to which Donald MacKenzie returned in the Fall of 1818. We are to presume then that our John Day was engaged in trapping and hunting in that dangerous and extensive region until his death in February, 1820, as a free hunter for the NorthWest Company , . ... The name of one of the witnesses to his will should be spelled Kittson, who is very clearly identified as William Kittson, who came to the Co- lumbia river district in 1817-18, and who is described by Alex. Ross at page 207, vol. 2 of his Fur Hunters of the Far West In the probate records of the will the name appears as Rettson. William Kittson was prominent in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company until his death at Fort Vancouver, Cowlitz or Nesqually in 1840 or 1841. His brother, Norman Kittson, was an associate of James J. Hill in early real estate and railroad affairs at St. Paul, Minn. Contemporaneous with Kittson there came to the Columbia district James Birnie, afterward prominent at Astoria and Cathlamet on the Columbia. Descendants of these two men are connected with prominent families of Montana and British Columbia and Washington and Oregon. 29 Chittenden, Hiram M. — The Amer. Fur Trade of the Far West. Vol. 1, p. 187. 358 Stella M. Drumm as unconcerned as if navigating securely in the midst of civilization. The acquisition of two such hardy, experienced and dauntless hunters was peculiarly acceptable to Hunt. These two needed but little persuasion to join the outfit. The wilderness is the home of the trapper. Like the sailor, he cares but little to which point of the compass he steers. Jones and Carson willingly abandoned their voyage to St. Louis, and turned their faces towards the Kocky Mountains and the Pacific. Jones served in the capacity of guide as well as hunter, for he was well acquainted with the whole of the country between the Mandans and the Aricaras. Because of his skill and expertness as guide and hunter he was later assigned to the Stuart party on the return expedition. Jones was a Virginian by birth, his father having emigrated from England. The fascinating tales of the frontier induced him to leave his father's home, in Ka- nawha County, when he was about sixteen years of age. Jones was in St. Louis prior to 1802, although he seems to have gone first to Kentucky, for he was referred to by Irving as the "Kentuckian Benjamin Jones. His brother Lewis, when very young, also ran away from home and came to St. Louis in 1802. He married Delinda Hayes, a granddaughter of Daniel Boone. When Jones returned to St. Louis in 1813, after an absence of four or five years, he purchased a farm in St. Louis County on the Mississippi river, just below the mouth of the Missouri. It contained 240 arpens. There he pursued the vocation of farmer for a few years, but finally becoming restless, he longed for the freedom and excitement of a hunter's life. Starting off on another ex- pedition, this time to Santa Fe, he remained away for another four years. Returning to St. Louis, Jones removed his family to the neighboring town of Carondelet, and later to a tract of land on Gravois Creek, in the neighborhood of Wilson More About Astorians 359 P. Hunt; having in cultivation one hundred acres of it when he died. Jones died in June, 1835, from cholera, leaving his widow, Margaret, who died in May, 1837, and five child- ren : Elvira, Melinda, Ramsey Crooks, Wilson Hunt and William Arbuckle Jones. The three boys were minors and their father's intimate friend, Wilson Price Hunt, was appointed their guardian. The inventory of Jones' estate shows that he left a considerable fortune for that day, including fourteen slaves, a library of fifty-four books, a pleasure carriage and two well matched roan horses, live stock, farming implements and considerable real estate. He requested that the slaves bequeathed to his children should never be sold by them or their heirs "under any pretence what- ever." Jones made provision in his will for the education of his children. 30 30 In the name of God — Amen. I Benjamin Jones, of the county of St. Louis in the State of Missouri, being in feeble health of Body, but of sound and disposing mind and memory, do make, declare and publish, this to be my Last will and Testament, hereby revoking and declaring null and void, all former wills by me made. First — I give and bequeath, to my well beloved wife, Margaret Jones, all my Estate, real, personal and mixed, during her natural life, — excepting therefrom the Legacies to Rowena Robinson and Jane Kirker, hereinafter mentioned, and my Lot of ground in the Town of Carondelet, State aforesaid, which I give and be- queath to my wife, & to her Heirs and assigns forever. And it is especially my will and desire, that my wife shall take possession of all my estate, upon my decease, with as little delay and formality as possible, — and that she shall continue to reside upon my Home place, & conduct the farming, and other business, in which I am now engaged, with as little change as possible. Secondly — At the death of my wife, it is my will that the follow- ing distribution, or appointment, of my Estate shall be made — to wit: — To my sons Ramsey Crooks Jones and Wilson Hunt Jones, and to their heirs and assigns, I give and bequeath forever, my pre-emption right to a half quarter section of Land, which I bought of James Hutchinson & which is situate upon the matice, — also my half quarter section of Land near Wolf's, and my fractional quarter section of Land adjoining the Home tract, all of which Lands are in the county of St. Louis aforesaid, and shall be equally divided between my said two sons — To my son William Arbuckle Jones, & to his Heirs and assigns, I give and bequeath forever, my Home Tract, being one quarter section — Lastly — All my slaves and their future increase, (except a negro girl, for the use of Rowena, & the Boy Jerry), shall be equally divided amongst my surviving children, or the Heirs of their bodies, — provided nevertheless, that my Daughters shall be entitled to one slave each, more than my sons. — Thirdly — It is my will and pleasure that my step-daughter Rowena Robinson, shall have the use and benefit of one negro girl, during her life, and that the said 360 Stella M. Drumm These four men were part of those adventurers who forged their way through the wilderness, into the West and to the Pacific Coast. Their success encouraged others to travel there, gave the spur to civilization, and the west- ern boundary to the United States. They were of Anglo- Saxon origin, with that spirit of adventure and travel peculiar to the race. Whatever credit may be due to the employers and leaders, these men blazed the trail and made a story of human endurance worthy of any age. Coming from different states of the Union they joined a common enterprise, and were stimulated by an impulse common to all. The study of their lives calls to mind the homogeneous character of the American people in the early years of the Republic. negro girl, at the death of the said Rowena, if she shall so long live, become the absolute property of that member of my Family, with whom said Rowena may have resided.— Fourthly— It is my will and pleasure, that my step-daughter Maria Macky, shall have and possess, for her sole use and benefit, during her life, my slave Jerry, and after the death of the said Maria, that the said slave shall become the absolute property of Jane Kirker, (the daughter of the said Maria), and her Heirs, should she survive her mother. Fifthly — It is my will and pleasure, that none of the slaves bequeathed as hereinbefore mentioned, shall ever be sold, by my children or their Heirs, under any pretence whatever, — and that if any of my children (namely Elvira Jones, Melinda Jones, Ramsey Crooks Jones, Wilson Hunt Jones & William Arbuckle Jones), should die without issue, that, in that case their portion of slaves, shall be equally divided amongst the surviving children, or their Heirs. Finally — I do hereby nominate and appoint my wife, Margaret Jones, sole executrix of this my last will and Testament— and I further declare, that it is my will that my said executrix shall pay all my just debts, & perfect the titles to my Lands, and that she shall educate my minor children in a becoming manner, according to her best judgment — and, for the better enabling her to do these things, all my personal estate, other than my slaves, together with the entire proceeds and profits of my estate (after my decease), are hereby placed at her sole & absolute disposal, without any kind of account- ability therefor. — In testimony whereof, I the said Benjamin Jones, hereto set my hand & seal, at my residence, in the county of St. Louis aforesaid, this second day of June, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and thirty-five — 1835. (Signed) Benjamin Jones. Note — Rowena may reside with her sister, Maria, if she should choose to do so. The foregoing last will and Testament was read in the presence of the Testator Benjamin Jones and was subscribed & sealed by him in the presence of each of us — the attestation of each of us being also made in the presence of each other. Attest — Jeromo B. Greer Franz Rothenbucher

Wm. Carr Lane.

THE OCCASION OF THE UNVEILING OF THE MEMORIAL STONE ON THE GRAVE OF PETER SKENE OGDEN

On Sunday afternoon, October 28, the memory of Peter Skene Ogden, one of Oregon's most distinguished pioneers and Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Vancouver, was honored, when a memorial stone in his memory was unveiled with impressive ceremonies in Mountain View Cemetery at Oregon City.

For nearly seventy years the last resting place of this man who rescued the survivors of the Whitman massacre in November, 1847, was forgotten and almost unknown. On this bright day in October, three of the survivors of that massacre were present to do him honor. Mrs. O. N. Denny, 86 years of age, performed the act of unveiling and sitting near her were Mrs. N. A. Jacobs, formerly Nancy Osborn, and Mrs. E. M. Helm, formerly Elizabeth Sager, two other survivors. Mrs. Denny was formerly Gertrude Jane Hall and was 10 years old at the time of the massacre.

Frederick V. Holman, President of the Oregon State Historical Society, presided, and in an address presented the lineage and historic services of Chief Factor Ogden. Bishop Sumner of the Episcopal Diocese of Oregon offered a prayer for the repose of the pioneer and the perpetuation of the lesson of his life.

The dedicatory address was delivered by T. C. Elliott of Walla Walla, one of the Directors of the Oregon Historical Society.

J. T. Chitwood, President of the Oregon Pioneer Association and Mrs. Albert M. Brown, President of the Sons and Daughters of Oregon Pioneers, paid tribute to the dead in behalf of their societies.

Monsignor Hildebrand, Rector of the St. John Catholic church of Oregon City, in a brief address called attention to the fact that there is no public monument to the memory of that other distinguished pioneer, Dr. John McLoughlin, and urged that the monument now proposed to be erected by Dr. Coe, should be placed in Oregon City in front of the McLoughlin home, where he lived and died.

Miss Stella M. Drumm, Secretary of the Missouri Historical Society, was present and made a few remarks.

Among the large number of spectators and guests who were silent witnesses of the unveiling ceremony, special mention should be made of relatives of Peter Skene Ogden. Mrs. Thomas Draper, granddaughter, and her husband and Harry Draper, who is a great-grandson of Ogden; Mrs. Lulu D. Crandall of The Dalles and a group of D. A. R. ladies who came all the way to attend this unveiling. Mrs. Crandall is a prominent member of The Dalles Historical Society and has made a notable contribution to Oregon history in her "Old Oregon Pageant of Wascopam."

Mrs. Esther Allen Jobes of Portland placed a laurel wreath on Ogden's grave in behalf of the Society of 1812. Other floral tributes were a wreath of roses from the Oregon Historical Society, a laurel wreath from the Woman's Club of Oregon City, and a bouquet of roses from women of Portland.

Officers and members of the Portland D. A. R. were there, as well as members of the Oregon Historical Society: F. G. Young, Secretary; G. H. Himes, Assistant Secretary and Curator, who assisted in the unveiling; Mrs. Eva Emery Dye, whose story of Ogden in her "McLoughlin and Old Oregon" has done so much to give due honor to the pioneer; also many other visitors.

The marker was erected on the grave by three societies—the Oregon Historical Society, the Oregon Pioneer Association and the Sons and Daughters of Oregon Pioneers.

On the granite are these words: "Peter Skene Ogden. 1794-1854. Born at Quebec. Died at Oregon City. Fur trader and explorer in Old Oregon. Arrived Columbia river 1818. Clerk of NorthWest company. Chief Factor Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Vancouver. Rescued survivors of Whitman massacre, 1847."

Henry L. Bates.


ADDRESS BY FREDERICK V. HOLMAN
President, Oregon Historical Society

At the Unveiling of the Memorial Stone to Peter Skene Ogden, at Mountain View Cemetery, Oregon City, Oregon, October 28, 1923

Members of Oregon Historical Society, of Oregon Pioneer Association, of Sons and Daughters of Oregon Pioneers, and other Oregon pioneers and their descendants present, Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have gathered here today to honor the life and memory of a man, who is endeared to the early Oregon pioneers and their descendants—a British subject, who heeded the call of humanity and responded to the impulses of his heart, in rescuing American captive women, children, and men, not of his nation, held by murderous Indians after the Whitman massacre, begun November 29, 1847.

There are some persons living in Oregon, who are not familiar with the events of early Oregon history, and why Peter Skene Ogden and his memory are held in such high esteem by the Oregon pioneers and their descendants. All Oregonians should know the history of their state, and particularly the early, the heroic, part of Oregon's history.

While Astoria is the first place in Oregon of American occupation, for it was founded by John Jacob Astor's Pacific Fur Company in 1811, still Oregon City was the headquarters of the early Oregon immigrants, Oregon's earliest capital, and where Dr. John McLoughlin 364 Frederick V. Holman fered martyrdom, where he lived the last few years of his life, where he died, where he was buried, and where his body still lies at rest and at peace. Dr. John McLough- lin, the Father of Oregon, stands foremost in Oregon's pioneer era, in his humanity, and as its greatest citizen. Prior to the formation of the Oregon Provisional Gov- ernment, Dr. McLoughlin practically exercised control over all the Oregon Country. He did not interfere with the rights of white people and their families, not con- nected with the Hudson's Bay Company, but he assisted and protected them. Dr. McLoughlin was born October 19, 1784, in Parish LaRiviere du Loup, Canada, about one hundred twenty miles below Quebec, on the south side of the St. Lawrence River. He died at Oregon City, Oregon, September 3, 1857. His greatest acts and the exercise of his greatest humanity were while he was a British subject and a Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company in the Ore- gon Country. His headquarters were at Fort Vancouver, on the Columbia River. He resigned as Chief Factor in 1845. Under the rules of the company, his resignation became effective in 1846. He moved to Oregon City in the Spring of 1846, and he resided there until his death. The other great Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, for whom Oregon has great affection, was also a Canadian, and lived and died a British subject. He was Peter Skene Ogden, who also passed the last few months of his life at or near Oregon City, on the donation land claim of his son-in-law, Archibald McKinlay, at a dwelling house, erected by Peter Skene Ogden, called "The Cliffs." Here he died September 27, 1854. His body lies in Mountain View Cemetery, where we are now today to unveil and to dedicate this beautiful memorial stone of imperishable Winsboro gray granite, to him and to his memory, with the loving hearts and the strong affections of the members of the Oregon Historical So- ciety, the Pioneer Association of Oregon, the Sons and Peter Skene Ogden 365 Daughters of Oregon Pioneers, and of other Oregon pio- neers and their descendants. Oregon City is thus greatly favored and has become the Mecca of Oregon pioneers and their descendants, and this will continue until the end of time. Let me give you a brief summary of the life of Peter Skene Ogden. His father was Isaac Ogden, a distinguished lawyer, living in New Jersey at the beginning of the American Revolutionary War. He was a loyalist and a man of sterling integrity and honor and of great moral worth. It was his right to adhere to the doctrine that the English king should rule over the American Colonies. It was a question of conscience with him. But his position was unpleasant, surrounded as he was by those who upheld the American Revolutionary War. Isaac Ogden's father was Judge David Ogden, a grad- uate of Yale College of the class of 1728. David Ogden was a prominent lawyer, living at Newark, New Jersey. In 1783 Isaac Ogden abandoned his property in New Jersey and went to England. In 1788 he was appointed by King George III Judge of Admiralty at Quebec, and he went there to live. In 1794 he was appointed one of the Puisne Judges of the District of Montreal. He, at once, removed with his family to Montreal, Canada. Peter Skene Ogden was born in Quebec, in 1794, the exact date apparently cannot be ascertained. He died at Oregon City, Oregon, September 27, 1854. His mother's maiden name was Sarah Hanson. She was a sister of John Wilkinson Hanson, a captain in the British Army. The name "Ogden" is of Saxon, Anglo-Saxon, and Old English origin. It is derived from the Saxon or Old English word "Oke," meaning "Oak," and the Anglo- Saxon word "Denn," meaning a sunken or wooded vale, glen, or dale. It was sometimes written "dean" or "dene." Its English equivalent is the word "den." When sur- names were adopted in England, undoubtedly Peter Skene 366 Frederick V. Holman Ogden's ancestor took the name "Okeden" or "Okedean," meaning a man who lived in a sunken vale, glen, or dale in which oak trees grew. In course of time the spelling of the name was changed to "Ogden." One of Peter Skene Ogden's ancestors, John Ogden, settled in this country about the year 1642. The Ogden family is of high class in England, in Canada, and in the United States. So Peter Skene Ogden, by a long line of ancestors from Saxon times, inherited the Anglo-Saxon instincts and traditions and was guided by them. Among these instincts and traditions are the rights of life, of liberty, of property, and the pursuit of happiness. His was an heredity of the highest type, and he showed his quality at all times, especially in the rescue of the survivors of the Whitman massacre. He was aristocratic in his birth and breeding, but he was democratic in his feelings and actions. Undoubtedly Judge Isaac Ogden desired that his son, Peter Skene Ogden, should be a lawyer, as his grand- father and father had been not only distinguished law- yers but also judges. In fact, before he was seventeen years old, Peter Skene Ogden began the study of law. But a large part of Canada was then being exploited by the old, the original, Hudson's Bay Company, and by another fur trading company known as the NorthWest Company, organized in Montreal, which had its head- quarters at Fort Williams, on the north shore of Lake Superior. Prior to 1821 there was great rivalry between these two fur trading companies, resulting in practical warfare between them. In 1821, by an Act of the Brit- ish Parliament, these two companies merged and became known as the Hudson's Bay Company, and its jurisdic- tion extended from Hudson's Bay on the east to the Pacific Ocean on the west. The stirring events in the early part of the Nineteenth

Century, the lives of those engaged in the fur trade, with
Oregon Historical Quarterly vol. 24.djvu

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Oregon Historical Quarterly vol. 24.djvu

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Peter Skene Ogden

367 its adventures and romances, greatly impressed young Peter Skene Ogden. He felt the call of the wild, and in 1811, when he was about seventeen years of age, he en- tered the service of The NorthWest Company as a clerk. In 1818 he came to Oregon as an employe of the North- West Company, whose headquarters, in the Oregon Coun- try were at Fort George, now Astoria. After 1821, on the consolidation of the Hudson's Bay Company and the NorthWest Company, he cast his fortunes with the new Hudson's Bay Company, and in course of time he became a Chief Factor of that company. A Chief Factor is the highest position in that company, next to that of a Di- rector of the company. Dr. John McLoughlin came to Oregon in 1824, as Chief Factor of the new Hudson's Bay Company, and, in 1825, moved its headquarters from Fort George to Fort Vancouver, where Vancouver barracks now are. He had charge of all of the country west of the Rocky Mountains to the Arctic Ocean, over which the new Hudson's Bay Company exercised jurisdiction. Peter Skene Ogden was an intrepid explorer and fur trader. He had charge of parties of the Hudson's Bay Company who traded and trapped for furs along the Snake River, in Eastern Oregon, and parts of what are now the states of Washington, Idaho, California, Nevada, and Utah. He discovered and named Mount Shasta, in Northern California. He discovered and explored many rivers, streams, and places. The city of Ogden and Ogden River, in Utah, are named in his honor. He took a party to the shores of Great Salt Lake and to the Gulf of Cali- fornia. He and his parties suffered many hardships; they were frequently short of food ; and sometimes faced actual starvation. But Ogden was resourceful and saved his parties. He was accustomed to look danger in the eye and not be afraid. He was a manly man — and all that means — and he was a born leader. As his hair grew white, the 368 Frederick V. Holman Indians respectfully called him, in their languages, "Old Whitehead." In 1835 Peter Skene Ogden was made a Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, and was assigned to the command of New Caledonia, with headquarters at Fort St. James, on Stuart Lake. This post had jurisdiction over all streams drained by the Fraser River. New Caledonia is now a part of British Columbia. In the Spring of 1844 Ogden crossed the Rocky Mountains on his way to England to enjoy a well-deserved one year's leave of absence. In 1845 he made Fort Van- couver his headquarters as Chief Factor, with James Douglas (afterwards Sir James Douglas and Governor of British Columbia), also a Chief Factor at Fort Van- couver. It is said that Ogden and Douglas did not agree in some things. Be that as it may, Ogden spent a large part of his time as the head of fur-gathering parties of the Hudson's Bay Company until the transfer of Douglas to British Columbia in 1849. But Ogden was at Fort Van- couver in December, 1847, when the news of the Whitman massacre reached Fort Vancouver. At that time Ogden was known all over the original Oregon Country, by the Indians as well as by the white people, and had their re- spect and esteem. If Peter Skene Ogden was not a member of the Es- tablished Church of England, he was baptized in that church and he affiliated with that church, which is the English Episcopal Church. His parents were devout members of that church. His funeral and burial services were conducted by Rev. St. Michael Fackler, then Rector of the Episcopal Church at Oregon City. Rev. Mr. Fackler has long since gone to his reward. I have given only a brief summary of the life of Peter Skene Ogden prior to the events immediately succeeding the Whitman massacre in 1847. What I have told you of Peter Skene Ogden shows him to have been a man of Peter Skene Ogden 369 birth and breeding. He was straightforward, intrepid, untiring, and devoted to the performance of his duties and obligations. These facts entitle him to the respect of all Oregon pioneers and their descendants. But there is more, which I shall now tell you, that explains our pres- ence here today, and why the Oregon pioneers and their descendants wish to honor him and his memory, and why they have erected this memorial stone, so that his grave will be identified, and we will show, in a measure, our appreciation of his brave and humanitarian actions in rescuing, in December, 1847, the survivors of the Whit- man massacre. The Boundary Treaty between the United States and Great Britain, settling the boundary line of the Oregon Country west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, was made June 15, 1846. It was proclaimed as being in force by James K. Polk, President of the United States, August 5, 1846. By this Boundary Treaty the Hudson's Bay Company was given certain rights south of the boundary line, and the right to navigate the Columbia River south of the boundary line. But the effect was, that whereas, prior to the Boundary Treaty, the Hudson's Bay Company was not subject to import duties on its goods, it became liable to pay duties after the Treaty was made. The Hudson's Bay Company continued its posts in Oregon until some time after the Whitman massacre, in November, 1847. It should be borne in mind that many of the American settlers and immigrants in Oregon were somewhat hos- tile to the Hudson's Bay Company. It was a British cor- poration, whose chief business was collecting furs to be shipped to England. For many years it had had a prac- tical monopoly in the Oregon Country in buying furs, selling goods, buying wheat, making flour and lumber and largely controlling the activities of the country. It was this hostility which caused the Methodist mission- aries to bring, on the Lausanne, in 1840, machinery for 370 Frederick V. Holman flour mills and lumber mills and a stock of goods for sale. It was this hostility which helped to form the Oregon Provisional Government in 1843. The Hudson's Bay Company did not wish lands settled where it obtained its furs. It endeavored to induce the American immigrants to settle in the Willamette Valley, because it believed that the Willamette Valley would ultimately belong to the United States. The American immigrants were impa- tient, under such restraint. They tried to settle on the lands of the company near Fort Vancouver, and they made settlements on Puget Sound. The large number of American immigrants coming to Oregon from 1843 to 1847, inclusive, intensified this hostility to the Hudson's Bay Company. Under the circumstances, the actions of Peter Skene Ogden in rescuing the survivors of the Whit- man massacre in 1847, stand out in all the stronger light. His memory shall be ever dear to Oregon pioneers and their descendants. The Oregon Provisional Government continued until March 3, 1849, when, by proclamation, Governor Joseph Lane, the first Governor of Oregon Territory, declared the Oregon Territorial Government in force, south of the boundary line. The United States was slow in asserting its rights over Oregon. There were no United States troops in Oregon prior to the Spring of 1849. Two companies of United States artillery, from Honolulu, arrived at Fort Vancouver May 14, 1849. They came on the United States steam transport Massachusetts. A regiment of United States mounted riflemen arrived in Oregon in October, 1849. These troops arrived after the Cayuse War was over. The Cayuse War was fought by volun- teer American pioneers of the Willamette Valley. The Whitman massacre began November 29, 1847, and continued several days thereafter. Dr. Marcus Whitman had established his mission at Waiilatpu, near the present city of Walla Walla. He had Peter Skene Ogden 371 erected a crude flour mill, and he cultivated land near his mission. He was a brave man, who showed his quality by living at his mission after threats by the Indians, and after he was warned by Dr. McLoughlin of danger from the Indians. Dr. McLoughlin knew the Indians and their character better than any other man who ever lived in the Oregon Country. Dr. Whitman also showed his bravery by his long winter trip with Amos L. Lovejoy, in 1842, to prevent the discontinuance of the Whitman mission and other missions connected with it. He and his wife had taken under their care orphans and other children. He deserves great credit as a brave, pioneer missionary in Oregon's early days. His fame has been lessened by false declar- ations, made after his death, by some of his associates and by others who have sought notoriety and a kind of reflected glory by asserting that Whitman saved Oregon, and that his ride East in 1842 was for that purpose. But these assertions are false and made by foolish friends. Dr. Whitman made no such claim. His supposed friends have tarnished his reputation by these false assertions. It is not necessary to go into details as to the cause of the massacre. It came about through several causes. Early Oregon immigrants, including the immigration of 1847, brought with them certain diseases which became epidemic with the Indian tribes. Notably the measles was the cause of the death of a great many Indians, who sought to cure this disease by the use of sweat-holes and then plunging into cold water, which almost necessarily was the cause of their deaths. The Indians held their medicine men to strict accountability for failure to cure diseases, and they looked upon Dr. Whitman as a white medicine man. It was asserted that Dr. Whitman poi- soned these Indians who died from their own foolish actions. In addition, they were largely influenced by the lies and machinations of Joe Lewis, a half-breed Indian, and 372 Frederick V. Holman also of an Indian half-breed named Tom Hill. It was also feared by the Indians that their lands would be taken from them by the American immigrants, as a large num- ber of pioneers came as immigrants from 1843 to 1847. Also, there was the murder of Elijah, the son of Peo-Peo-Mox-Mox, a chief of the Walla Wallas. Elijah was murdered in California, where he went with a party of Indians. The old idea prevailed among the Indians of "An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth." Murder should be avenged by a killing, even if the victims of the killing were innocent. As this occasion is in honor of Peter Skene Ogden, I have mentioned only incidentally the causes of the Whit- man massacre. I shall not go into the gruesome details of the mas- sacre. It is sufficient to say that Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife, and eleven other white men, were killed. About forty-three white women and children and seven white men of sixteen years and over were taken captives by the Indians at the time of the massacre. As I have said, this massacre began November 29, 1847. Late in the evening, December 6, 1847, a French- Canadian messenger arrived at Fort Vancouver by canoe from Fort Walla Walla, on the Columbia River, bringing a letter from McBean, in charge of the Hudson's Bay post, Fort Walla Walla, telling of the massacre. Ogden was first informed, and immediately went into consul- tation with Douglas. A serious problem was presented. It might mean a general Indian uprising, which, of course, might be fatal to the Hudson's Bay Company's forts, posts, officers, and employes in Oregon. The Whitman mission was an American settlement. The pioneers of the Willamette Valley would doubtless seek revenge, as they did. If so, they would call on the Hudson's Bay Company for arms, ammunition, and supplies. There were no United States troops then in Oregon. The Government of the United Peter Skene Ogden 373 States had done nothing for Oregon after the Boundary Treaty went into effect. But it was a case where blood was thicker than water. It was a case where the humanity, exercised by Dr. Mc- Loughlin, prevailed. It did not matter that these cap- tives were Americans. There were men, but above all, there were women and children whose lives were in peril. The next morning, before the news reached Oregon City, Peter Skene Ogden was on his way to Fort Walla Walla with two bateaux, manned only by the usual num- ber of company voyageurs, and without any display of arms. It took Ogden a number of days to make the jour- ney to Fort Walla Walla. He proceeded as on ordinary business and paid the customary toll of powder and ball at The Dalles portage. On his arrival at Fort Walla Walla messengers were sent to chiefs of the Cayuses, Walla Wallas, and Nez Perces, that "Old Whitehead" wished to see them. It was an invitation which could not be declined. It was a command rather than an invi- tation. These chiefs doubtless recalled that Dr. McLough- lin had announced that any murder of an American or a British subject meant death to the perpetrator. Dr. McLoughlin hung several Indians for murders of white persons. It may be that he had no jurisdiction to do this. But he exercised it. There were no courts in Oregon to grant writs of habeas corpus in those days. Dr. Mc- Loughlin never forgot a promise nor a threat. He kept his word. So these Indian chiefs came. Ogden, the "Old White- head," went to the council alone. He was unafraid. He spoke to the chiefs in their own language. I cannot here give his exact words, but he said in effect: "The Hud- son's Bay Company has been with you for more than thirty years without bloodshed. We are traders, and of a different nation than the Americans. But we are of the same color, speak the same language, and worship the same God. Their cruel fate causes our hearts to 374 Frederick V. Holman bleed. Besides this massacre, you have robbed the Amer- icans passing through your country, and you have in- sulted their women. We have made you chiefs, but you say you cannot control your young men. They are cow- ards, and you are responsible for their deeds. If the Americans begin war you will have cause for regret, for you will be exterminated. I know that many Indians have died; so have white people. Dr. Whitman did not poison those Indians who died. You now have the oppor- tunity to make some reparation. I advise you, but I promise you nothing, should war be declared against you. The Hudson's Bay Company has nothing to do with your actions in this trouble. Deliver to me these captives and I will give you a ransom." Tiloukaikt, a Cayuse chief, replied : "Your words are weighty. Your hairs are gray. We have known you a long time. You have had an unpleasant journey to this place. I cannot therefore keep the captives back. I make them over to you, which I would not do to another younger than yourself." This reference to the advanced age and to the white hairs of Ogden may have been intended to be compliment- ary, but it was puerile. Ogden was a man of such force of character and of such intrepidity that if he had been younger he would probably have acted more in accordance with his well-known reputation, and not made so diplo- matic a speech to the Indians. He was not afraid; he was determined that these captives should be delivered to him without delay, before the Indians should harm or murder them or hold them as hostages to keep back the settlers from the Willamette Valley. These captives were enslaved, and many of them had been cruelly treated by their captors and threatened with death. Some of them had been insulted and outraged by the Indians. Several of the young white women, by force and by threats, were taken as wives by Indians. For many hours Ogden argued and reasoned with Peter Skene Ogden 375 these Indians before all of them would agree to deliver up these captives. But at last he was successful. His stern will, determination, and courage won out. The Indians understood the man who was opposing them, that he had come to rescue these captives, and that he would not be denied. Within a few days thereafter all the captives were surrendered to Ogden at Fort Walla Walla. He then delivered to the Indians blankets, guns, ammunition, to- bacco, and other articles as a ransom. The party, consist- ing of the captives and several white refugees from other Protestant missions, headed by Ogden, without delay left- Fort Walla Walla for Oregon City by water. It was none too soon, for information came to the Cayuses that some of the Oregon volunteers from the Willamette Valley had arrived at The Dalles, and the Cayuses War was prac- tically begun. These captives and refugees were speedily brought to Fort Vancouver and the next day were de- livered at Oregon City, amid great rejoicing. The cap- tives were speedily taken care of by pioneer families at Oregon City and in the Willamette Valley. Governor Abernethy wrote an official letter of thanks to Ogden for rescuing these captives. Three of these survivors are now present. They are : Mrs. 0. N. Denny (Gertrude Jane Hall), who unveiled this memorial stone today; Mrs. William F. Helm (Eliza- beth M. Sager) ; Mrs. William Wallace Jacobs (Nancy Annie Osborn). They were small children then. They are old ladies now. They are still hale and possessed of their mental and physical faculties. They have lived useful and noble lives. I know that in their heart of hearts they have not forgotten. They remember and they are duly grateful to Peter Skene Ogden. The other living survivors of those captives and their residences are as follows: Oscar Canfield, Lewiston, Idaho; Mrs. Copley (Mary Ann Saunders), Riverside, California; Mrs. Delany (Matilda J. Sager), Eugene* 376 Frederick V. Holman Oregon; Mrs. Hughes (Nancy J. Saunders), Oakland, California; Mrs. Megler (Nimee A. Kimball), Astoria, Oregon. For the information of those not familiar with early Oregon history, I shall say : That the Oregon volunteers did not capture the lead- ing participants in the Whitman massacre. Governor Joseph Lane, the first Governor of Oregon, March 3, 1849, proclaimed the establishment of Oregon Territory. Gov- ernor Lane began negotiations with the Cayuse Indians for the surrender of those guilty of the Whitman mas- sacre. Until such surrender, the United States Govern- ment would not treat with the Cayuses, nor permit them to occupy their lands. At length word was received that such of the Whitman murderers as were alive, would be surrendered at The Dalles. Governor Lane went there in person, escorted by Lieutenant Addison and ten sol- diers. Five of the murderers, with other Indians, were at The Dalles. They were Tiloukaikt, Tamahas, Klo- kamas, Isaiachalakis, and Kiamasumpkin. They con- sented to go to Oregon City to be tried. These five In- dians were taken to Oregon City, guarded by the soldiers. They were confined on Abernethy Island, a small island, which is surrounded by deep water. The bridge from the island to the mainland was closely guarded by United States soldiers. The trial of these murderers began at Oregon City May 22, 1850, before Judge 0. C. Pratt, an Associate Justice of the Oregon Territorial Supreme Court, and a jury. The prosecution was conducted by Amory Hol- brook, United States District Attorney. Judge Pratt appointed as counsel for the defense, Knitzing Pritchett, Secretary of the Territory, R. B. Reynolds, Paymaster of the United States rifle regiment, and Captain Claiborne, of the same regiment. The counsel for the defense raised all questions for the defense of the murderers. They raised and argued the question of the jurisdiction of the Court Peter Skene Ogden 377 to try the murderers, on the ground that the United States had not extended its laws over Oregon at the time of the Whitman massacre. But Judge Pratt decided that the Court had jurisdiction under the Act of Congress of June 30, 1834, regulating Indian tribes. If Judge Pratt had not ruled in favor of his jurisdiction, I fear that Judge Lynch would have exercised jurisdiction and these murderers would have paid the penalty, for about five hundred Oregon pioneers came to Oregon City to see that these Indians did not escape justice for the Whit- man massacre. These murderers had a fair and impar- tial trial. They were ably defended in court. The jury found them guilty. Judge Pratt sentenced them to be hung, at Oregon City, June 3, 1850. On that day they were hung by Joseph L. Meek, United States Marshal for Oregon Territory. Meek was a fearless man and was not afraid to perform what he thought was his duty. His daughter, Helen Marr Meek, was one of the captives taken by the Indians at Waiilatpu. She died soon after the Whitman massacre. I doubt not that Meek hung these murderers as a stern and disagreeable duty, but at the same time a kind of pleasurable duty. It was rumored that a rescue of the prisoners would be attempted by the Indians. But such an attempted rescue would have been unfortunate for the rescuers as well as for the prisoners, for several hundred pioneers came to Oregon City, with their rifles, hid at convenient places, to see that no rescue was made, and that these convicted Indians should die on the scaffold for their crimes. No rescue was attempted and justice was done to these murderers. This memorial stone, erected by Oregon's three pio- neer societies, shows that the Oregon pioneers and their descendants in seventy-six years have not forgotten, and that sixty-nine years after the death of Peter Skene Ogden, they have remembered and appreciate the bravery 378 Frederick V. Holman and humanity of Peter Skene Ogden. In honoring Peter Skene Ogden and his memory they honor themselves. It is to be greatly regretted that for many years the grave of this great benefactor has not been marked, even by a tombstone. Here will come Oregon pioneers and their descendants through all coming times, and with loving hearts tell their children and their children's children of Peter Skene Ogden, and of his rescue of the unfortunate captives of the Whitman massacre, although of another nation. Notwithstanding the American Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the threat of war over the division of the original Oregon Country, the trouble over the San Juan Archipeligo, and the Alaska boundary, the Alabama claims, and other irritating causes and troubles between the United States and Great Britain, and the differences in the forms of government of these two countries, we are in reality one great family, actuated by the same or similar instincts, traditions, and motives. Seventy-six years ago Peter Skene Ogden, a British subject and a high officer of a great British corporation, rescued these American captives because, not only of his duty as a humanitarian, but because these captives and the overwhelming majority of the pioneers then in Ore- gon were of the same color, spoke the same language and worshipped the same God. They were of his race, and therefore should be rescued and protected. Peter Skene Ogden was their savior. It is events, such as this, that have assisted to make the English-speaking peoples united in feelings and in hopes. This monument is a mile-stone on the road to Anglo-Saxon unity and to Anglo- Saxon world harmony and peace. May it ever be such a mile-stone! And now I have the honor to dedicate this memorial stone to Peter Skene Ogden and to his memory forever. Peter Skene Ogden 379 May his memory be cherished until time shall be no more.* DEDICATORY ADDRESS BY T. C. ELLIOTT Nearly seventy years have passed since the mortal remains of Peter Skene Ogden were laid away beneath the sod upon which we now stand. At the time of his death he was sixty years of age, and had been closely associated with the history of Oregon almost from the beginning of its actual occupation by English-speaking people. With humility of conscience and sadness of thought because of our long neglect, we are gathered today to dedicate a monument, which now has been of- ficially erected over his previously unmarked grave. The crowning glory of woman is motherhood. The crowning glory of man, in the finest analysis, is loyalty to country and respect for woman ; love to a mother, and love and protection to wife and children. It is known to many that Peter Skene Ogden was an indefatigable explorer of unknown parts of the Old Oregon Country, and an active trader for furs in all the wide expanse of territory from Great Salt Lake to the Fraser River, from the Sacramento to Southern Alaska, and on the head- waters of the Columbia and Missouri Rivers. It is known that he was a trusted official of the NorthWest Company, and then of the powerful Hudson's Bay Company in their business in all parts of the basin of the Columbia River, and that he had the widest acquaintance with the events and the people, both Indian and white, of this Pacific Northwest from 1818 to 1854. It is known that he was an intelligent observer and narrator, a linguist who con-

  • Those wishing to know more of the life of Peter Skene Ogden are

referred to an article written by Mr. T. C. Elliott, of Walla Walla Washington, one of the Directors of Oregon Historical Society, entitled "Peter Skene Ogden, Fur Trader," published in Volume XI, No. 3, September, 1910, of The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society.— Editor of the Quarterly. 380 T. C. Elliott versed with ease in three different languages and several Indian dialects, a delightful companion and reconteur, and the author of one item in our literature. It is known that he was a careful and honest administrator of affairs, the associate of Dr. John McLoughlin and James Douglas in their residence and management at Fort Vancouver on the Columbia, and the Chief Factor in control there during the important period of the arrival of the United States customs and army officers after the Treaty of 1846. It is more widely known that he was the one man in Oregon that last month of the year 1847 who was fitted to deal personally with the Cayuse Indians and rescue the forty or more women and children who were held in captivity after the massacre at the Whitman mis- sion near Walla Walla. But of that highest attribute, the intimate relationship of son, husband and father, of that it is more appropriate to briefly speak on this oc- casion. In 1852 Peter Skene Ogden was visiting in the East, on leave from duties at Fort Vancouver, and with a pos- sibility of permanent retirement. He was then a man of property, of the age of fifty-eight; but constant exposures during an active career in the field had whitened the hairs of his head and brought on some of the infirmities of years. Had he followed the inclinations of others, and the probable desires of relatives, he would have settled down to a life of ease in the society of congenial and well- to-do people in Montreal, or elsewhere in Lower Canada. For Peter Skene Ogden's mother was a patrician, from a family of wealth near New York City. His father was, at the time of marriage, a well known attorney in the present city of Newark, New Jersey. With the evac- uation of New York by General Howe during the Amer- ican Revolution the family departed to England, but later returned to Canada as Union Empire Loyalists, under appointment of Mr. Ogden as a Judge on the King's Bench. In Canada, both in Quebec and Montreal, the Peter Skene Ogden 381 Ogden family occupied an honored place in society and in church circles. One of his brothers was a prominent attorney, another an officer in the British Army, and a married sister resided in Montreal, where it was not un- common for retired officers of the Hudson's Bay Com- pany to reside. Not so, however, with Peter Skene Ogden, as is clear from the following letter, which has been copied from the original : LaChine (Canada), Oct'r 18th, 1852 My dear Daughter : — I was indeed truly glad to receive a letter from you, and dear little Janette's kiss which you must mean for me; the tidings you report of all being in health, the Old Lady and all the children, was indeed good news for me. At present I shall not write you a long letter but merely say I am truly anxious to see you all again and hope to be with you before next spring. * * * * * You say in your letter I will find warm hearts ready to receive me, in you particularly. My Dear Daughter, I never doubted it, and you are indeed often the subject of my thoughts. Now do not for a moment suppose that your father will ever forget you ; if it has entered banish such an idea from your mind; but I do not think you ever formed such an opinion of me. ***** Now, my dear daughter, may God bless you and all your children, and your mother and children. Ever your affectionate Father, Peter Skene Ogden. The daughter, to whom this letter was addressed, was Sarah Jane McKinlay, wife of Archibald McKinlay of Hudson's Bay Company employ, who owned a land claim on the outskirts of Oregon City. This daughter was named after Peter Skene Ogden's mother, Sarah Hanson, of Livingstone Manor, New York. The mother of this daughter was a native of the Flathead tribe of Montana, who had been a faithful wife to Peter Skene Ogden dur- ing more than thirty years, and had accompanied him on long and perilous expeditions into the Indian country, and had, on one occasion, rescued him from drowning. Mrs. Ogden was then residing in a house called "The 382 T. C. Elliott Cliffs," on the McKinlay homestead close to that of her daughter, and it was there Peter Skene Ogden spent the last few months of his life, an invalid, fondly cared for by his wife and daughter. Although the best of medical treatment and attention were open to him at Fort Van- couver, his preference was to die in the companionship of his family, and in this public manner give confirma- tion of his affection and loyalty to the wife of his active years, but for whom the doors of society in Montreal were not open. The burial of Peter Skene Ogden was attended with all the respect and honors due to one of his prominence. There was no hearse in Oregon City then, but a spring wagon was especially draped and served to carry his coffin to this spot, where the funeral service was read by Rev. St. Michael Fackler, the first resident Episcopal rector in Oregon. This gentle slope was not then the well kept cemetery of today, but the shining peak of Mt. Hood looked down upon it and served as a monument, and has continued to do so all these years. It is fitting and proper for us to recall the name of this man, and to place it on a granite stone to permanently perpetuate his memory. And beneath it might be inscribed the words FAITHFUL EVEN UNTO DEATH. ADDRESS OF J. D. CHITWOOD President, Oregon Pioneer Association President Holman, of the Oregon Historical Society, Pio- neers, Sons and Daughters of Pioneers and Friends: It has been sixty-nine years since the death of Peter Skene Ogden. Since then there has been a great change in this country. It has become a great state, with un- limited resources. The people have been so absorbed in a business way that they have neglected, in a large degree, to look after the history of the country. However, Peter Skene Ogden 383 through the three organizations represented here today, aided by the Daughters of the American Revolution and the Daughters of the War of 1812, a good deal has been accomplished along the lines suggested, and a number of markers and tablets have been properly placed. In looking ahead to the future, sixty-nine years is a long time; but in looking back that length of time it seems very short — simply the allotted duration of a man's life. We have assembled here in this beautiful cemetery on this pleasant day to dedicate a monument to perpet- uate the memory of the man who risked his life to rescue the survivors of the Whitman massacre, which occurred on November 29-30, 1847. Of the fifty-two who escaped being massacred, two children of the mission died very soon after the massacre. Of the remaining fifty, eight are yet alive, and three of them are here today to join with us in these dedicatory services in honor of the man who rescued them from a life worse than death. Nobody except the pioneer can fully realize the con- ditions existing in this country at the time Mr. Ogden lived here. He went after those pioneers without an army, and was practically alone among a nation of warring Indians to talk to them face to face, and he succeeded in his efforts. It is doubtful if there is any record in the history of any country that will show a greater example of bravery, courage and determination to win than was exhibited by Peter Skene Ogden in the heroism he put forth to rescue these survivors. Now a word about the history of this state. A young man, a native son of Oregon, who had passed the eighth grade, told me recently that he had never heard of the "Whitman Massacre." If the history of our state was taught in the public schools there would be no cause for such ignorance. What we say here today will soon be forgotten ; but the history written on this monument will last as long 384 C. D. Chitwood as the stone itself, and be read by future generations who will follow us. REMARKS OF HARVEY G. STARKWEATHER It is a significant fact that this splendid audience has gathered here today to honor the memory of a great Oregon pioneer, Peter Skene Ogden. Such an assemblage speaks of an awakening of in- terest in the work of the pioneer, of a more just apprec- iation of the sacrifices of such pioneer characters as Dr. McLoughlin and Peter Skene Ogden. Others have deplored the fact that the active interest in Oregon history has been confined to a comparatively few of our people, while the great mass of our citizens have gone their way oblivious of the fact that our state has a most interesting and romantic story. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should honor the memory of this great pioneer at this meeting here today, but, borrowing the words of the immortal Lincoln, I might say, the world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it should never forget what they did here. Through the efforts of the organization of which I at one time had the honor to be President (The Sons and Daughters of Oregon Pioneers), there has been placed in the public schools of this state a course in pioneer history of Oregon so that every boy and girl in our schools may know the thrilling story of our state's early settlement. Knowing it, they will become more loyal Oregonians, and in becoming better Oregonians they will become bet- ter Americans. Peter Skene Ogden 385 Mr. Holman read the following letter from Hon. John E. Bell, His British Majesty's Consul at Portland, Oregon : "BRITISH CONSULATE PORTLAND, OREGON Oct. 27th, 1923. My dear Mr. Holman, It is a matter of keen regret to me that I am unable to be present at the dedication of the monument to Peter Skene Ogden, but I greatly appreciate the compliment of having been invited to assist. In the hurry and bustle of modern civilization, one is apt to forget these early pioneers. Modern America has got very far away from the conditions under which they lived, yet it is a seemly thing that we should pause a moment to perpetuate their memory. One cannot but admire the admirable self- sufficiency of men who dared to live alone in the wilder- ness, and to die alone if necessary. Such men made the path easy for us. Few modern men and women have such pluck. Let us then humbly and reverently pay tribute to their memory. Yours very sincerely, John E. Bell, H. B. M. Consul. Mr. F. V. Holman, Pres. Oregon Historical Soc, 501, Cham. Com. Bid., Portland." DIARY OF REVEREND GEORGE GARY— IV (Concluded) Notes by Charles Henry Carey Friday, January 1, 1847. A dark gloomy rainy day. Thousands in our native state are in the midst of society; society adapted to their views and interest; but here we are, comparatively without friends ; without almost every- thing that constitutes the innocent gaities of life. No sleigh ride ; no rap at the door, by a smiling friend to wish us a Happy New Year, as he enters ; but while there are clouds, rain and mud without, we have within our habita- tion, quietude and are very busy in reading papers from one to two years old. This day I commence the holy bible in course. Saturday, 2. For a few minutes at a time the sun shines. Sunday, 3. Congregation rather less than usual, say about thirty hearers. The moral influence of our meet- ings for the time being seems favorable. Rain. Rain. Rain. Monday, 4. Raining very steadily. River rising. Saturday, 9. For two or three days, no rain, sun has shown a part of the time ; he shines today, with the bril- liancy and warmth of a New York May day. Mrs. Thornton has visited us for a few days ; we think she is a fine, religious lady; a member of the Presbyterian church; hope her influence in this community will be of use ; great use. Sunday, 10. Doctor Locey 1 and his wife join society; he has been a member before, but a profession of religion is new with her. She is baptized in the chapel at the four o'clock service. Monday, 11. Cold weather, cold for this climate, say ice in still, small pools of water a half an inch thick; the iDr. Alexander Robert Thompson Locey and Abigail (Howell) Locey came in 1846. Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 387 coldest weather we have seen for more than three years. Tuesday, 12. Very stormy, snow and rain. Wednesday, 13. Very variable weather, rain, snow and sun shine. The most of the day, however, very stormy. Thursday, 14. This morning, the surrounding scenery is rather beautiful; snow perhaps two inches deep; the ground is consequently covered with a white mantle ; the poor cattle are suffering and dying, many of them, espec- ially which came over the mountains last year, and as yet have not had time to recruit. The want of food and the cold storms are too much for them to endure. This morn- ing I think the coldest morning we have seen for three years. Ice a half inch thick. Friday, 15. Our snow continues; it is said a little back from this place (Oregon City) the snow is more than a foot deep. The cattle are suffering and dying rapidly, especially those that came over the mountains last year. The wild beasts (wolves and panthers) are hungry and are making considerable havoc among the cattle. Treasures on earth are not very safe, at any rate. Sunday, 17. A very cold day for this region. The mercury has fallen to about fifteen degrees above zero in the thermometer. Congregation smaller than usual. Two or three inches of snow upon the ground in this place; said to be from one to two feet deep upon the hills back. Monday, 18. Early this morning the quick silver in the thermometer is at zero. Cold, cold, cold for this land. Jack Frost who is such a stranger in this region, has crept down cellar and laid his stiffening fingers upon some of our potatoes ; had we been in the state of New York, we should have been on the look-out for him. Tuesday, 19. Still cold, snow rather increasing. We should enjoy this weather finely, very finely, were it not for the extreme sufferings of the cattle, and also were the community a little better prepared by warm houses and sufficient clothing for this temperature. This cold 388 Charles Henry Carey frosty weather suits my health very much indeed, and contributes in no small degree to buoyancy of spirit. Wednesday, 20. Our winter weather continues though the cold is abating considerably. Thursday, 21. A very cold rain this day; the poor cattle must suffer much ; the rain is so cold, the snow di- minishes slowly. We are comfortably provided for, hav- ing a warm ceiled room, sufficient fuel, food and clothing, and by the by, time enough to eat, read and sleep; and some how or other, sleep takes a great advantage of us these long, dull stormy nights. Friday, 22. Through the night, we have had just about as much added to the snow as was lessened by yes- terday's rain. I have just inquired of Mr. Vance 2 who lives about two or three miles out of the city about the depth of snow at his place; he says it is about fourteen inches ; alas for the poor cattle. Saturday, 23. It continues cold. Ther. 16 degrees above zero. Sunday, 24. Still cold. Ther. 14 above zero. Larger congregation, I believe, than usual ; quite attentive. Monday, 25. This morning I receive a confidential letter from Mr. T. stating his convictions of sin, and his purpose to lead a new life. If this is honest, a great sinner is powerfully awakened; we still pray and hope for the best. Tuesday, 26. Last evening, Mr. T'Vault made me a visit; he came for religious counsel and direction as an awakened sinner. Our interview was long and I trust not in vain. I believe he has formerly hoped universalism would prove true; on this point, he is essentially re- formed ; he says he has been a great sinner ; public opinion will sustain him in this position, as with but little or no doubt, he is, or has been an adulterer, gambler and somewhat of a hard drinker; in our interview, he made frequent allusions to the sermon last Sabbath morning, 2 Samuel Vance. Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 389 text : "Ye are the salt of the earth, but if the salt have lost his savor," &c. Perhaps it was a word in season, at least so far as he was concerned. If he should reform and be saved, "He will be as a brand plucked from the fire." Our weather is more moderate. Ther. 40. Wednesday, 27. Small drisseling rain; some of it freezes soon as it falls, so that almost everything out door is covered with sleet. We are enjoying excellent health; very good appetites and are somewhat sumptuously pro- vided for, having a plenty of good potatoes, not frozen, good bread stuffs, chickens of our own raising, and pig pork of our own fattening. While we are feasting and fattening on these good things (for which we should be thankful) we are fasting on the scarce of news, especially from the states. Oh, how long will this famine continue? Thursday, 28. Our weather continues moderate, so our snow is gradually wasting away. At prayer meeting this evening, Mr. T'Vault is with us, with the appearance of great seriousness. Friday, 29. Continues warm. Take tea at Governor Abernethy's with Mrs. Thornton; she has spent a few days with us very agreeably. Saturday, 30. Somewhat of a pleasant day. Sunday, 31. Rainy, small congregation, say twenty. [1847] Monday, February 1. Beautiful day; sun shines with considerable warmth; appearances of winter so far as snow is concerned, are gone. We have seen the snow in this place for nineteen or twenty days in succes- sion. It has not been more than three inches deep at any time in this place ; though but a short distance on the hills, it has been from one to three feet deep. From the best information I can get, hundreds of cattle have died. The most of those which came over the mountains in 1846 are dead. Tuesday, 2. Dark and rainy. Wednesday, 3. Mr. and Mrs. Thornton dine with us. The lady has been in the city a few weeks. The man 390 Charles Henry Carey reached this place last evening; he is a lawyer; appears as though he would be a good inhabitant in this distant land. He is a professor of religion. 3 Thursday, 4. Mr. and Mrs. Thornton attend prayer meeting this evening; they will, I think, own their pro- fession of religion in this dark land. Mr. T'Vault is also at prayer meeting; appears very much bowed down. I hope he may have beauty for ashes. Friday, 5. The most of the day I spend with Esq. Thornton; somewhat pleased with him. Their journey here (the southern route) was truly suffering and peril- ous. Saturday, 6. Dark and rainy. A very rainy week, Monday excepted. The river is high, though not as high as it was in the fall of 1844 by perhaps 20 feet. No fears of damage yet. Sunday, 7. Some encouragement at our meeting. Mr. Thornton, Esq., joined by letter. Mrs. Pomeroy joined on trial, she and her child were baptised. It does appear as though the influence of our meetings is good and fav- orable. Monday, 8. The sun shines again today. Tuesday, 9. Our weather is beautiful indeed. A little frost last night, fair shining sun today. This evening I joined in wedlock Mr. S. F. Hatch 4 and Miss Cornelia Locey. Wednesday, 10. Our weather continues fine; frosty nights, beautiful sunny days. Busy in examining Mr. Abernethy's account for the past year. Thursday, 11. Weather continues fine. 3 J. Quinn Thornton became Supreme Judge under the Provisional Government and October 18, 1847, he left Oregon on a special mission to Washington bearing letters from Governor Abernethy with instructions to urge legislation in the interest of Oregon and especially the creation of Oregon Territory. 4 Probably error; should be Peter H. Hatch, came by sea in 1843. His first wife was a Colcord. He married Sarah Cornelia Locey, as second wife, and they lived at Oregon City. Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 391 Friday, 12. Very beautiful weather. Reading the bible. Saturday, 13. Our clouds with their accompanying rain have returned. Sunday, 14. This is a favorable day. Congregation larger than usual ; they are very attentive ; it appears as though these Sabbaths will not be lost to this people. Pleasant day. Monday, 15. Clouds and rain have returned. Friday, 19. Bros. Leslie and Parrish are with us. Sunday, 21. Very rainy day. Bros. Leslie and Par- rish preach today. Monday, 22. Cloudy, rainy weather. The American flag is flying on the liberty pole in remembrance of the birthday of the great, immortal Washington. Paid D. Leslie as table expenses, Note against Trus- tees, $309.48. Order on G. Abernethy, $200. As salary pay him a lot of goods see bill $67.20. Paid as salary on his debt to H. B. Co. Fort V. C. $124.07. At different times heretofore, $32.73. Total $224. So that his table expenses and quarterage are paid up to May 1, 1847. Tuesday, 23. A day of some care in collecting two important debts against John Force; one $212 VanCouver money; another of specie, $303. Finally buy his house and lots in this city, and give a year for him to purchase the property back, by making the same amount and sim- ilar kinds of payment, amount $1200. By this arrange- ment, I avoid the evil of calling upon Bro. Abernethy as security for Mr. Force. Mr. Force is paid as follows for his premises : A note against Judson & Wilson, $244.34. A specie note against Force & Abernethy, $303.83 V2 ; a note payable at Fort VanCouver by J. Force, $212.32i/ 2 ; order on Mr. Abernethy, $400 ; order on Judson & Wilson, $39.49. Wednesday, 24. Bros. Leslie and Parrish are yet with us. Thursday, 25. Our brethren Leslie and Parrish leave. 392 Charles Henry Carey Friday, 26. Mr. Campbell, 5 clerk for Mr. McKinlay,* called on me this morning to cash the draft I gave Mr. Force on Mr. Abernethy. I tendered him payment in scrip ; he refused to take it ; I think he will be willing to take it out of Mr. Abernethy's store. Saturday, 27. For a few days, pleasant weather ; we begin to think about gardening. I have had a sore eye for a few days, and have read but little. Sunday, 28. Cold south wind. Congregation rather small, say twenty-five hearers. A large, attentive con- gregation such as I used to be familiar with in the state of New York, it would be an enchanting sight; Provi- dence permitting, I hope for such a sight within fifteen months. Providence will order all things right. Con- tentment is a blessing which may be enjoyed by those who confide in the wisdom and goodness of Divine Provi- dence. Paul learned a great lesson when he learned to be content in all of the allotments of Providence. [1847] Monday, March 1. Cloudy, dull day. Little effected with the high-poh or low-poh. Tuesday, 2. Receive a letter from Bro. Brewer, of the Dalls station; they have had a cold winter; Ther 8 below zero; they have trouble with the Indians; one of them has had his house burned; others had things de- posited in said house; and as the house burned while its owners were at meeting, they who had deposited here, demand payment for what they lost, or threaten to burn the mission buildings ; my hope concerning these Indians is faint and almost dying; and as Alcohol is now to be obtained in this land, it may be extremely perilous to be so far from the white settlements, among savages who at best are bad enough, but who, when excited with ardent spirits, may be terrible not only in threat, but in the ex- ecution of said threat. I am forced to the opinion it is 5 John G. Campbell, came with Fremont in 1843. He died Nov. 21, 1872, at Oregon City. See his advertisement in Oregon Spectator, Feb. 18, 1847. 6 Archibald McKinlay of Hudson's Bay Company. Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 393 of but little use to continue this appointment. Meridian. We have just heard that "Henry" is in Bakers Bay; she has lost both anchors in crossing the bar. Thursday, 4. We are visited by two passengers from the brig Henry. They left her while she was at Vic- toria, Vancouver Island; she sailed from Honolulu, Jan- uary 6, reached the mouth of Columbia River in seventeen days, but owing to rough weather and unfavorable winds, she ran up to Vancouver Island ; obtained additional sup- plies and returned and came over the bar with the loss of both anchors and great peril. Circumstances as fol- lows: — Was sailing in with a good breeze, passed the bar, got into six fathoms of water, strong ebb tide, cast anchors, chains failed; ebb tide taking them with great force into the breakers. Providentially the wind raised and they sailed into Baker's Bay. 7 We never think of the bar at the mouth of the Columbia river without a grateful emotion at the Providential favor shown us as we passed the fearful place. Saturday, 6. This morning, very unexpectedly, every- thing about us out doors appears as innocent and white as though covered with an inch or two of snow. Sunday, 7. Cold day for this climate. Thermometer early in the morning, 14 above zero. Very small congre- gation. A few have lately moved out of the city who were very regular attendants on Divine worship. Monday, 8. A colder night last night than the night before. The poor cattle in this land are suffering, many of them unto death. Paid the remainder of the bill for fencing the garden in a draft on G. Abernethy in favor of John Force, $88.79. Wednesday, 10. Bro. Waller is with us from the Dalls. He makes a long report in writing concerning 7 The brig Henry, Captain Kilbourne, from Newburyport, was after- ward operated for several years as a coaster. After being purchased by Francis A. Chenoweth, first Speaker of Washington Legislature, she was used between Portland and the Cascades on the Columbia 394 Charles Henry Carey the Indians at the Dalls. This report I think I shall send to the Board. Thursday, 11. Bro. Waller is with us. Snow this morning. Say, four inches deep, but the wind has turned about and comes from the south and it is warm ; it has been cold for five days, the thermometer at times down to ten degrees above zero. But it is now warmer and it appears as though the snow and Jack Frost will very soon take their leave of us. This cold weather suits us remarkably well so far as health is concerned; but we have had great sympathy for the poor animals unprovided for, many of which have died. And also our sympathy has been called forth in view of the destitute condition of most of the inhabitants of the land. This destitution refers to want of apparel, and to want of warm houses. Friday, 12. Our snow has disappeared. Sunday, 14. Bro. Waller preaches for us today, two excellent sermons. Monday, 15. This day I settle with Bro. Waller. Salary and table expenses from May 1, 1846 to May 1, 1847, salary, $296. He has received as reported in his bill, $84.36. Paid him in dresses, aprons and shoes, $9.55 ; in Dr. Long's bill for attention and medicine, to Lucy A. Lee, $2.09; due him at this date, $200. Table expenses, $557.79; balance last year, $42.09; total $591.88. Re- ceived as by his bill $165.59 ; by part of Dr. Long's bill, $14.16; dried apples from Pettigrove, $1.50; by order on G. Abernethy from Dr. Long's estate, $12.12. Subscrip- tion to missionary society to make Edmund James Wal- ler a life member of said society, $20.00 ; by draft on G. Abernethy, $387.10; Thursday, 16. About four p. m., Bro. Waller leaves us for the Dalls. Wednesday, 17. Cloudy, rainy, and I am almost ready to say weather rather gloomy. Thursday, 18. Cool, cloudy weather. This day I finished the first reading of the holy bible through in Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 395 course, since 1847 commenced its measurement of time as an event past. Sunday, 21. But little change in our Sabbath appear- ances. A few families have moved away which are missed in our congregation. Wednesday, 24. Though our weather is cool, we have started gardening. Planted potatoes, beans, peas, to- matoes, etc. Friday, 26. Clear beautiful day. The sun shines with a thousand charming beams upon us. Saturday, 27. The clouds and rain have returned so it is a dark and gloomy day. Sunday, 28. Mr. T'Vault tarried in class. Speaks as though he had made up his mind to lead a new life. The joy of the occasion is with fear and trembling. Monday, 29. Beautiful day. It is like spring. Bro. Brewer is with us. Tuesday, 30. Settled with Bro. Brewer. Claim as salary $282. Paid in sundry ways as recorded in the Dalls bill, $53.63. Cash from Dalls station, $215.17. Cash this date, $13.20. Total $282. Table expenses, claim $429.67. Paid as reported by the Dalls bill, $228.83. Order on G. Abernethy this date, $200.84. Total $429.67. Mr. Brewer comes in for a bill of more than $110 pre- sented on the ground of his having been charged with this amount in the VanCouver bill against the mission as gotten by him and as he says expected in some way or other for the mission. All this before I came or at least before I knew their loose way of doing business. It is not so now. I suppose I must pay this bill $110.7 6. Draw on Bro. Abernethy for it. Wednesday, 31. We are having beautiful weather. A little frost in the morning. Fine shining sun through the day. [1847] Saturday, April 3, 1847. Our quarterly meet- ing commences today. We have in quarterly conference fourteen members present, nine official members absent. 396 Charles Henry Carey The members of conference are not as much united as is desirable. Sunday, 4. A very good meeting. A number forward for prayers. Five joined society. In our public congre- gations, we have about eighty hearers, twenty of them females. At our communion, altar, official and lay com- municants, thirty three. Monday, 5. We are full of company. Bro. Brewer has a law suit in the circuit court now open. Tuesday, 6. A part of our company leaves today. Wednesday, 7. This day judgment is rendered against Brewer for $120. The suit was for a yoke of oxen left with him in 1843 by an emigrant ; these oxen disappeared and have not been heard of since. This is among the dif- ficulties and liabilities with having anything to do with the emigrants who come in over the mountains. Lent H. B. Brewer in specie to pay his bill of expenses in the law suit $27; bill 26.76; scrip $66.92. He has decided to appeal the case to the Supreme court, and consequent- ly has returned the money, $23 specie and $10 scrip. 8 Thursday, 8. Beautiful weather. Friday, 9. This day I receive a draft from A. Beers for $562.56. This is for specie and is to pay the heirs of the late C. Rogers. I received from the Judge of Pro- bate the following sums : a note of hand of Frances Bucie, 9 $62.50; account against the store at Fort Van- couver, $93; Capt. Couch's, $263.79; mission $487.04; total, $906.33. F. Bucia's note not collected, $62.50; balance $843.83 ; one third off for difference in currency $281.27 ; balance, amount of the draft on Z. Johnson, Esq., $562.56, ninety days after sight, Easton, Fairchild Co., Conn. This day I receive from the committee to estimate table expenses for those connected with the mis- sion, this report: H. B. Brewer, $277.35, A. F. Waller, 8 In a letter from Brewer to Waller dated March 15, 1847, in the pos- session of the Oregon Historical Society, Brewer outlines his defense in this suit. 9 Doubtless Etienne Lucier. Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 397 $376.03; D. Leslie, $339.02; total, $992.40. Time from May 1, 1847 to May 1, 1848. This is, in my opinion, rather too high. Sunday, 11. We have probably sixty persons in our meeting today. The congregation appears as though the quarterly meetings has left them in a serious state of mind. Monday, 12. Planted or sowed in our garden, onions, beets, carrots, and parsnips. Thursday, 15. Finished my letter to the board. This day I hand to Capt. Kilbourn a letter directed to G. Lane and C. B. Tippelt, to be forwarded via Sandwich Islands, Panama, &c. In this letter is Mr. Beers' draft for $562.56. Paid postage $1.00. Number 2 inset of ex- change is the amount sent. Tuesday, 20. This day we sealed up our letters for the states. They are three sheets for the Board, 2 for G. Lane, 1 Moses Adams, and 1 for George Gary, Jr. We find some relief when we get a set of letters finished. Thursday, 22. Busy reading some old papers, two years old and thereabouts. Saturday, 24. Received letters from Bro. Waller and Bro. Brewer. They conclude to abandon the station at the Balls. 10 10 This was in reply to the following letter from Gary to Waller, dated April 8, 1847, in the possession of Oregon Historical Society: April 8, 1847. Br. Waller., Br. Brewer will tell you all about the suit, quarterly meeting &c. &c. I shall write to the board recommending that they direct the Supt. to make good to Br. Brewer the judgment costs so that he may not suffer by this suit. If this is in accordance with your judgment, I hope you will convey your opinion to the board. It is my opinion you had better drive your cattle to this region, say in June, we have a camp- meeting appointed to commence the last Saturday in June at the Institute. Br. Helm is desirous to have some cows and heifers, he will send his son to you in June to help you down with them. You will send Br. Helm four one year old heifers, and four two year old heifers, one of them with a calf by her side if convenient. Send him also a good yoke of oxen. Send me the best cow, and a beef; also Br. Leslie two beeves. It is the opinion of Brs. Leslie, Helm and others (my own also) that the time has come for us to abandon your appointment with a proffer to the Missionaries above you to take it, if they please. We seriously think 398 Charles Henry Carey Sunday, 25. Beautiful day, congregation a little larger than usual, say from fifty to sixty hearers. Our Sabbath school commences again. Thursday, 29. Send an order to Fort Vancouver for $13.69 to the credit of the mission signed by P. P. Mud- gett. Friday, 30. Some frost this morning enough to in- jure tender vegetables, such as beans, etc. This evening, I gave to Col. Finley our letters for the states. He heads a party of returning emigrants over the mountains. They may not be able to proceed far in this journey as it is suposed there is snow yet on the Cascade mountains. that you families are in danger, and that property is also in great peril at your place. The threat to burn your buildings and sundry other inti- mations of like character referring to personal safety; and also to the safety of things about you, renders it proper for you to leave; if you concur and agree with this opinion I think you had better make the most precedent and expeditious arrangement to get your things and families into the Willamette Valley. I hate to take upon myself the responsibility of removing you without your concurring opinion; if you cannot agree in the sentiment you ought to leave the place, and thereupon conclude to remain until you are removed by special order, and evil should befall you or yours, do not lay it to me or to the board; for I say, I think you had better leave, but I do not wish you to leave against the convictions of duty and propriety. But if you despair of doing good there, and in the mean time are in jeopardy, in your own opinion, come into this portion of the work; here is labor enough. If you leave, Br. Brewer's claim on the Mission will be good untill there is a chance for his return to the states ; or if he chooses he may go up to the Institute and we will pay him for his time and expenses until he reaches the Institute; then he shall have no claim on the Mission until there is such an opportunity as he may choose to return to the states, then he shall be at the expense to get to this place. After that he shall have a claim on the board for his time and expense home to the States. I send an open letter to your care for Dr. Whitman; you will read it and if you conclude to break up, seal and direct it and send it to him; if you still hold on, destroy it. If you judge best, and conclude to break up, you may go on with the returning emigrants and see the Doctor; And make such arrangement with him to come to the Dalls as you judge proper; and sell him such things as belong to the Mission at such prices as you and he may agree upon ; taking specie payments in preference to all other. Mrs. Gary joins in regards to you all. With Esteem (Signed) George Gary. P. S. If Dr. Whitman concludes to take the Dalls, perhaps he ought to pay for the windows, door trimings and such things as can easily be brought away — otherwise bring away all that is worth bringing but I would not burn the buildings. G. G. Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 399 Possibly they may have to wait after twenty or thirty miles travel for two or three weeks for the snow to dis- appear off the mountains between this place and the Dalls. The Columbia, it is said, has risen so that the trail for animals on its banks in places is impassable. Our letters are 3 sheets to the Board, 1 to Lane and Tippelt. In this is Mr. Beers draft as see the 15th inst. One to G. Lane and secretary. In this is a request for the treasurer to pay Dr. Babcock $51.81 for money paid to me by M. Crawford on Dr. Babcock's account, for which I am to account to the board. One sheet to G. Lane and wife, one sheet to Moses Adams, and One to G. Gary, Jr. We hope our friends will get these letters in August. [1847] Saturday, May 1. The beautiful spring [days] are upon us but we feel more like autumn in view of our want of news. Say in what does exile consist? Sunday, 2. Just about our usual congregation. It sometimes appears as though Divine truth would prevail and that without delay. But alas, it appears but little is done. Tuesday, 4. This morning it is raining a little. We have had it every day for a few weeks. Thursday, 6. We have had a most seasonable and an abundant rain. Vegetation was suffering much for want of this rain. For a few days we have had the company of Mr. and Mrs. Little john with two children. Noise, tumult and trouble enough. They leave us and are bound for the states. I send by Mr. Little john a letter directed to the care of Prof. Smith in Middletown, for Delos Gary ; hope it will reach him in August or September. Sunday, 9. We have about 40 at meeting. A very good Sabbath school for this land. Say thirty scholars. Monday, 10. We are very desirous of some news from the states. Wednesday, 12. I read a little ; work in the garden a little, think of home and friends afar off a great deal. 400 Charles Henry Carey Thursday, 13. Mr. and Mrs. Thornton came to spend a few days with us while Mr. Abernethy moves, &c &c. Cool nights so that vegetation grows slowly. Friday, 14. Mr. Judson, who is a pretty good or rather long hang on is with us, and it is not certain when he will leave. Sunday, 16. Our weather is warm. Congregation a little larger than usual, though I try to preach as faith- fully as I can, I fear but little good is done. Monday, 17. Our weather is warm and vegetation is suffering for rain. Tuesday, 18. There is a great fire prevailing in the immediate vicinity, and our young city is in some danger of being burned ; all or nearly all of the men of the place are out guarding against this active element; in many places near buildings the kindling flame is soon extin- guished, otherwise we should soon be burned out. The wind is very high, but somewhat favorable to keep the fire a little off from the village. This day Bro. L. H. Judson leaves ; he is rather of a fast friend when he calls upon us. Wednesday, 19. The wind is high; we learn the fire is doing considerable damage in this vicinity; a little east, but adjoining the city. Yesterday I received two letters from Br. Waller; he has strong attachments to his work at the Dalls; but after all, it is in my opinion it is useless for us to remain there. Friday, 21. Mr. Cornwell, 11 a Cumberland Presby- terian minister, visits us; he came in in the southern route. The history of this route is painful. Sunday, 23. This holy Sabbath is spent with our small congregation. Monday, 24. Write a letter to Bro. Waller and Brew- er; hand it to Col. Finley. 12 The Col. is still detained this "Rev. J. A. Cornwall. 12 Colonel William Finley of the immigration of 1845. I Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 401 side of the Cascade Mountains in consequence of snow on said mountains. Wednesday, 26. We are having very dry weather. It is warm also. We are famishing for want of news. Sunday, 30. Mr. Cornwall, a Cumberland Presby- terian minister, is with us; he preaches at the afternoon appointment ; a good sermon ; I think he will be a bless- ing to this land. [1847] Tuesday, June 1. It is three years this day since we first set foot in this place ; these have been years of care, responsibility &c &c, especially the first year. Comparatively, they have been years of solitude, only two or three exceptions. These seasons of overflowing joy were when we received letters from our dear friends in the state of New York. But we have now been so long without such a gust of delight, it is hard work to keep the mind from gloom, even in this beautiful season of the year, and possibly, whenever letters come, they bring us painful tidings of the deranged and broken state of the circle of our friends. That fell destroyer of our race may have been permitted to lay his chilly hand upon some who are dear to us. The ways of Providence, are, how- ever, equal. Wednesday, 2. The thirsty earth is favored with a small rain. It is much needed. Thursday, 3. We are having a circumstance about or attending us quite new to us. Mr. and Mrs. Thornton are stopping with us a few weeks ; he has said and written (for the Spectator) such things about the southern or Applegate route as has provoked the road hunters so that his life is threatened and he is somewhat busy preparing to resist any attacks. A Bowie knife and a six shooting revolving pistol are among his habiliments. We are not in the community of New York or the eastern states. Our community is made up to a considerable degree of southern and western people, whose differences of opin- ion and insults of character are easily and readily settled 402 Charles Henry Carey with the Bowie or pistol. This rage against Judge Thornton is wholly uncalled for only as the truth goads, stings and wounds these road hunters even unto madness. While they had the suffering emigrants on their new route, who generally suffered the loss of all their prop- erty and some of them the loss of health and of life, it was all very well. But now, to be told of their deceptions, or more properly to give the public an account of it, so that others may not be led into similar sufferings and losses, is an offense which subjects a man to a threatened loss of his life. I hope the emigrants in future may be kept from the tender mercies of these road hunters. Friday, 4. Last night, we were favored with another small rain ; a very great favor indeed. Sunday, 6. A little rain today. Congregation rather smaller than usual, say thirty hearers. I suppose quite a proportion of our population are preparing for the election tomorrow. June 7, 1847. This is an important day, it being the first Monday in June, it is, therefore, the day for election throughout the territory. It is also the appointed time for holding the Supreme Court for the territory. It is, moreover, an important day as it is said Judge Nismith is in the city to get revenge on J. Q. Thornton, judge of the Supreme Court, for what he has published in the Spectator concerning te southern or Applegate route into which quite a proportion of the immigrants of last year were persuaded greatly, very greatly to their injury. Nismith, who has been judge when the timber was scarce, is now here for the sake of [road] hunters— their cham- pion and bully; to whip or kill Judge Thornton for the trouble springing out of the developments made by said Judge Thornton. The Judge being a true courageous southerner is abundantly armed and is attending to his affairs as a citizen and Judge; intending either to kill Nismith or be killed by him provided said Nismith shows anything menacing in his manners towards him. Nismith Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 403 will have a trial between his bragging and clamorous honor and his fears of personal danger. I am satisfied Judge Thornton will run any risk rather than retract. So here we are, not knowing what an hour or a minute may bring forth. With regard to the election, the strife is between tem- perance and alcohol; George Abernethy, temperance; A. L. Lovejoy, red faces. Evening: The county has given a small majority in favor of Mr. Abernethy. The day has passed without bloodshed between our road hunter champions and Judge Thornton. Nismith sent a challenge for a duel, it is supposed, but Judge Thornton refused to receive any communication from him or have any conference with him; and the mighty bustle has ended (I suppose) in a scurrilous hand bill issued by the said Nismith and posted up in sundry places, filled with low and villifying epithets concerning the judge. 13 Is this the mouse the mountain has brought forth? When I was a boy, if I remember right, I heard it said, "A barking dog seldom bites." The Supreme court organized or opened today and then adjourned until tomorrow. Tuesday, 8. From the reports of election from ad- joining counties, there is reason to apprehend that alco- hol has gained the day. Wednesday, 9. The Supreme court this day reversed the judgment obtained in circuit court against H. B. Brewer for a yoke of oxen left in said Brewer's care in the fall of 1843. The cause is referred back to the circuit 13 The hand bill referred to was as follows: To the World!! J. Quinn Xhornton, having resorted to low, cowardly and dishonorable means for the purpose of injuring my character and standing, and having refused honorable satisfaction, which I have de- manded; I avail my self of this opportunity of publishing him to the world as a reclaimless liar, an infamous scoundrel, a blackhearted villian, an arrant coward, a worthless vagabond, and an imported miscreant; a disgrace to the profession and a dishonor to his country. Oregon City, June 7, 1847. James W. Nesmith. 404 Charles Henry Carey court of Clackamas county. The costs thus far fall on Mr. Hutchins, he who sued Mr. Brewer. 14 Mr. T'Vault being much crossed and afflicted in his feelings with the course of Judge Thornton in his official duties as judge of the Supreme Court, requests his name to be erased from the church records as a member on trial. We can spare him, but what will become of him, 14 J. Quinn Thornton was Supreme Judge at this time but he was suc- ceeded by Columbia Lancaster in the same year (1847). The following letter from Gary is in the possession of the Oregon Historical Society: Willamette Falls, June 18, 1847. Rev. Messrs. Waller and Brewer and Families. Very Dear Friends. Doct. Locey will give you the passing news of the place. We have none from abroad as yet. The judgment in the Circuit Court in the cause of Hutchins against Brewer is by the Supreme Court reversed, and referred back to the Circuit Court; Br. Brewer's attention to it, will be needed at the October term of said Circuit Court. The costs so far, by the decree of the Supreme Court, fall upon Hutchins. It is my opinion, if it is attended too, the cause can be continued until you can get the affidavits of Perkins & Chapman. The legal principles involved in the cause so far as I am able to judge, have been brought out in an admirable man- ner by, or in, the decisions of the Supreme Court. We are desirous of hearing from you that we may know, how you succeed in your arrangements to leave. You will let Br. Locey have three good (perhaps your best) yoke of Oxen, yokes, chains &c. And should he feel disposed to purchase any- thing else belonging to the mission please sell him such things at what may be considered a low cash price. If practicable send me good cow. Perhaps also one or two beeves. If the Missionaries above do not take your place and property let as much of it come with the Doctor as seems expedient. I am expecting Br. Waller will probably come with his cattle when the Dr. returns. 19th last evening we received letters from the states; my successor was not appointed at the date of the secretary's letter May 12, 1846. Br. Hines and family had arrived, all well. It is not settled fully in my own mind when we shall leave for the states. I however think, next Fall if we go by water. Our grandchild had died, other friends well. I am desirous of writing to friends in the states. Expect a small company will leave soon, and I consequently have no time to write more now. I forward a large number of letters to you by Br. Locey. Yours with Esteem, George Gary. 19th At noon we hear that my successor and one more Missionary have arrived in the Columbia River. Good News. G. Gary. Mon. 21. It is not certain that the vessel having the missionaries is yet in the River. But there is no doubt, they are near at hand. Br. Abernethy wishes Br. Waller to bring the papers, notes &c cncerning Br. Lee's estate. Br. Lee made a later will and Br. Abernethy is one of the Executors. Br. Hines has sent Br. A. a copy of the last will. I send this by Br. Hinman. I think the Doct. will go in a few days to your place. G. Gary. Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 405 finally, is doubtful. So far as I am able to learn, the course of the judge has been professionally respectful, but my friend, T'Vault, has long had his way and now to find out he cannot carry any point at or with the court, after had his way for some time in this territory, is too much to endure, at least to endure with respectful sub- mission and quietude. In his fret or rage, he has erased his name from the roll of attorneys in the Supreme court. Sunday, 13. There is a great meeting today, judging from appearances, at the city hotel, as it is called. The Campbelites are holding their first great meeting in this place. They have the multitude with them. Our congre- gation is, of course, considerably smaller than usual. Monday, 14. Reports from different portions of the territory represent that Mr. Love joy is probably elected governor ; if so, there can be no doubt but alcohol, Roman- ism and Doctor McLaughlin together may share in the credit of the election. This three-fold cord, is, indeed, a strong one. 15 Friday, 18. My days pass somewhat lonely; read a little, hoe in the garden a little, pine some for news, &c &c. This evening we received letters from the states ; from Dr. Pitman, children, Aaron Adams and Catharine Miller. At the date, no successor was appointed, which was May 12, 1846. Saturday, 19. Today the delightful news that my suc- cessor has arrived in the Columbia River accompanied by another missionary, for this field of missionary labor falls upon our ears. Wednesday, 23. Start for the camp-meeting at the Institute. Thursday, 24. Arrive at Bro. Parrishes weary enough. Friday, 25. Attend the Institute meeting. 15 This was a mistake, as Abernethy was reelected by a vote of 536 to 520 for Lovejoy. 406 Charles Henry Carey Saturday, 26. Camp-meeting commences. Say ten tents. Pretty large appearances for this land. Sunday, 27. From three hundred to three hundred and fifty persons present at the meeting. An excellent spirit prevails in the meeting. At evening, say five or six profess religion. A gracious session. Monday, 28. Start for the Falls; leave the meeting in a prosperous state. Tuesday, 29. Reach home about 3 p. m. Soon hear the missionaries have arrived at Portland about twelve miles below here. In an hour, perhaps, hear they are at Gov. Abernethy's, a mile from us. Hasten to see them. Am introduced to Bro. Roberts, 16 my successor, and here is also my old friend Bro. Wilber 17 and his family. Five times, indeed, the door is opening for our leaving this distant land. We have no letters in this arrival except one old one from Dr. Pitman of September 20th, 1846, and another from Bro. David of September 21st. These were picked up in California by some means by Bro. Roberts and a few papers accompanied the letters. The general expectation so far as I can learn was, we should leave last Fall. [1847] July 1, Thursday. We go down to Portland and engage a passage in the Brutus, Capt. Adams, to the Sandwich Islands, give a draft for $120 for our passage. Friday, 2. Return to the Falls. Sunday, 4. This day Bro. Roberts attends meeting at Portland, Bro. Wilbur and myself at the Falls. We now feel the work is in good and safe hands. Monday, 5. We are preparing to leave; these are delightful days to us. We see the door opening for our return to the States. Providence smiles upon us. Saturday, 10. We are very busy in preparing for our departure. Have made an arrangement to sail in the 16 Rev. William Roberts. 17 Rev. James H. Wilbur. Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 407 Brutus, Capt. Adams ; engaged our passage to Sandwich Islands ; passage $120. I have given my papers and counsels to Bro. Roberts, my successor in this mission. Sunday, 11. Bro. Roberts preaches at 5 o'clock p. m. I am pleased with him. I feel easy in leaving this mission in his hands. Monday, 12. Today we leave the Falls for Portland, down the Willamette, about 12 miles ; we are accompanied by Sister Wilbur and daughter, Gov. Abernethy, wife and children, Judge Thornton and lady, Bro. Roberts and wife. Bros. Roberts and Wilbur are starting about the same time we start for Yam Hill to attend camp-meeting, so while we are leaving or retiring from the work, they are engaging in it. At evening, we find ourselves in the Brutus with our state somewhat arranged. The accommodations, to ap- pearances, on board this ship are altogether superior to what they were on board the Lausanne, the ship in which we sailed from New York. The mosquitoes are a great annoyance in this place (Portland). Tuesday, 13. This morning our moorings are loosened and our anchor hoisted and our sails partly spread; we bid adieu to our friends who have accompanied us so far, and with our river pilot on board, we start down the Willamette River. This is a small and difficult river for to navigate so large a vessel as the Brutus. About noon we cast anchor in the Columbia River. Surely so far we have been very successful, not having touched the bottom at all. It is somewhat common for vessels to be detained for hours, by touching some of the bars so com- mon in the rivers. About 2 o'clock p. m., our captain goes with a boat crew to Fort VanCouver, some three miles above the mouth of the Willamette. It is so late when the captain returns we do not hoist our sails tonight. Wednesday, 14. The wind is up the river; but we drift down the river by the current in company with the 408 Charles Henry Carey ship Mount Vernon; one pilot directing both vessels. These vessels keep close together so that the pilot can give directions as he sees proper concerning either of them. We advance from thirty to forty miles today. We feel we are bound homeward, yet the uncertainties of a long voyage at sea are before us. Our confidence is in Him who has guided thus far, and done all things well. Thursday, 15. We drift down the river perhaps twenty miles, against a fierce breeze ; but after all it is possible and even probable that an opposing wind is to our advantage. In many places the water is shallow, and with an opposing wind, we go so slow that when we find very shallow water, we cast anchor and then kedge off our ship into deeper water with the kedge anchor, so called. In one or two instances this day the current has taken us very near the shore, but the anchor has answered its purpose apparently just before we struck. Cool west wind today, so cold as to be uncomfortable on deck. Friday, 16. Calm, beautiful pleasant morning. The sun shines with great brightness. The Mount Vernon has struck the ground and holds still ; the pilot is with us this morning and we are descending the Columbia some- what favorably. At noon we cast anchor near some saw mills, say twenty-five or thirty miles above the mouth of the Co- lumbia River. Here the ship receives more freight. Sunday, 18. We have meeting today. The men from the mills, Mr. Birnie 18 and family &c make a congrega- tion of about thirty hearers. Monday, 19. The crew busy taking in lumber. Tuesday, 20. Still busy in taking in lumber. This day I draw on the Treas. in favor of Capt. Joseph Adams for $120 for our passage to Sandwich Islands. Wednesday, 21. This morning our anchor is hoisted, and we make an effort to float or drift down the river ^James Birnie, representative of Hudson's Bay Company. This was at Cathlamet, Washington. Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 409 without a pilot. We float on till one o'clock p. m. and the wind against us rising high we cast anchor. In a little while our pilot arrives. But as the wind is high, we lie at anchor the remainder of the day. Thursday, 22. In good season, our anchor is hoisted and we are drifting slowly down stream. We proceed slowly on our way until two o'clock p. m., then cast anchor again. There is a very strong wind these days up the river; and as we are where the tide affects the current quite considerably, we can drift only on the ebb tide. So our progress is very slow. We are at anchor for the re- mainder of this day near Pillar Rock, a place well known in this majestic river. We perhaps have come today four miles, a small part of our voyage say of twenty thousand miles ; yet every little helps. Friday, 23. Today, as yesterday, but very little pro- gress; say four miles. Surely our journey or voyage whichever it is called, begins slowly, very slowly indeed. We fare very well at our table ; plenty of Columbia River salmon. Saturday, 24. We make, I suppose this day, about one mile advance. This is the day of small progress. Sunday, 25. We are now at the head of Tongue Point channel and our pilot has charge of the vessel ; this holy day is spent in warping, sailing, &c across this difficult channel. Monday, 26. An early start ; but soon the ship touches the ground. We are dependent upon the state of the tide in order to get along. Our vessel draws about thirteen feet of water; we pass places where at low water there is only nine feet of water. I suppose the captain and sailors spent the greater part of this night in getting our ship into deep water. Tuesday, 27. We find ourselves near Fort George (Astoria) this morning. I suppose two miles below where we were yesterday morning. We take in a little freight; are visited by Bros. Ray410 Charles Henry Carey mond and Judson and families, and at half past three p. m. (our pilot being on board) our anchor is hoisted, and we are on the way to Baker's Bay. This note I made too soon, for after hoisting our main anchor, and fussing away a great while, with our kedge anchor to get it up, the day is far spent the pilot concluded to cast the main anchor again and wait for another day. Wednesday, 28. This afternoon, in ebb tide, we make our way down to Baker's Bay; here to cast our anchor for the night. Thursday, 29. This morning, our sails are early set, our anchor hoisted; but the wind becoming very light, anchor is again cast, and we wait for a favorable time to pass over the bar of the Columbia into the ocean. The breakers on the bar appear fierce and formidable; we are in the hands of Providence. Friday, 30. Last evening, the barque Whitan ar- rived here. We are anchored close together, waiting the winds to take us to sea. The Whitan is bound for Cali- fornia. Mr. Buck, who owes the book agents in N. Y., says he will pay the debt soon as he can ; says he thinks he owes the agents at Cincinnati something also. Note for N. Y. debt left with Bro. Roberts. Saturday, 31. About four o'clock yesterday, the Barque Whitan began to show signs of preparing to go to sea; our captain (Adams) sent his boat in great haste for the pilot ; the pilot was brought ; sour and short words were passed between the captain and the pilot ; the pilot remained on the Brutus; the Whitan started out under the care of another (an irregular) pilot. She went out say a mile; the wind failed and with the returning tide she came back and is now anchored close by us. This morning, Captain Guston of the Whitan called on us; just as Capt. G. was coming on board, Capt. Adams went to his state room and did not show himself until Capt. G. had left (say an hour) ; both members of the M. E. C. and both members of the board of managers of the M. S. Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 411 of the M. E. church. I am fearful this circumstance will add to the prejudice against the Methodist Mission in this land. My opinion is, Capt. Guston ought to have obtained consent of Capt. Adams to have taken the pilot (as it is an acknowledged point Capt. Adams had the first claim to him; having been here first and having him in his employ) before he should have taken him to take out the Whitan and leave the Brutus. Yet as the Whitan is not more than half as large as the Brutus, there might be some prospect of getting her to sea, when it was evident the Brutus could not be got to sea. There is also another ground of hope in getting the Whitan to sea when the Brutus cannot be gotten to sea, viz : she is ably, very ably, manned, while the Brutus has a feeble crew. But it is painful to us, that these Methodist cap- tains should show such a spirit towards each other, Capt. A. especially. I will make a note here; it may be pre- mature; I hope it is in a mistaken view of Captain Adams; I fear he is unfeeling and unkind towards his crew ; and that he is penurious in providing for passen- gers. In the vessels in which we sailed to this land, we were afflicted with intemperate captains ; we will patient- ly endure some poor fare, provided we are not annoyed with intemperance. Providence has apparently opened the door for our sailing in this vessel at least to the Islands; we will hope for the best. We are very glad both vessels did not try to sail last evening while the captains, at least ours, was in such a pet. Half after five p. m. Our anchor is being hoisted to give our sails to the wind and our ship to the waves of the Pacific. By seven o'clock we are over the bar and breakers at the mouth of Columbia river. The Whitan follows along behind us, guided by an unofficial pilot, but with apparent success. So both vessels are out at sea. She soon bears more southward, being bound for Cali- fornia. And as the shades of evening settle upon us, we lose sight of Sugar Hills and also of the barque Whitan. 412 Charles Henry Carey Our captains part under unpleasant circumstances, in reference to their state of feelings towards each other. [1847] Sunday, August 1. We are out at sea; with a very good breeze, progressing most finely. The inti- mations of seasickness keep us very still, and also keep us very abstimeous ; but little food taken today. Monday, 2. Our wind continued very favorable. We find ourselves less affected with the motion of the ship than we did yesterday. Mrs. Gary has vomited a little only as yet. We find ourselves much better situated so far as state room, cabin, &c are concerned on board the Brutus than we did on board the Lausanne. But there is not the good will and harmony among the officers and crew on board the Brutus, there was on that ship. Tuesday, 3. While in Baker's Bay, I finished the sec- ond reading of the bible since the first of January, 1847. This day, I begin it the third time in this year. Our winds are favorable. Wednesday, 4. We are progressing most beautifully. Friday, 6. We have left the cool winds of the Colum- bia and are fanned by the soft breezes of the Pacific. Lat. 34.16 Lon. 141.20. We have suffered but very little from sea sickness. We have every reason to be thankful. Sunday, 8. We have meeting today, though but five hearers. Yet the Sabbath has its delights, especially when it is apparently regarded. This holy day passes with a great deal of quietude and propriety. Tuesday, 10. For a few days our winds have been light, though favorable. We have left the cool winds of the Columbia river and are now fanned with the milder winds of the warmer latitudes. Wednesday, 11. Our wind is increasing some ; I sup- pose we are favored with the beginning of the trade wind. At evening, I am satisfied we have not fairly reached the trade winds yet; our wind is unsteady with small showers of rain. Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 413 Thursday, 12. The sea is considerably rough today, and Mrs. Gary suffers some from seasickness. Friday, 13. We are rapidly approaching the Sand- wich Islands. The sea smoother than yesterday. Lat. 22.70. Lon. 154.00. Small showers today. Mrs. Gary has had six gallons of rain water within a day or two and has done considerable of a washing. We are flattered with a hope of seeing the harbor of Honolulu tomorrow. Saturday, 14. We are in the neighborhood of the Sandwich Islands; but are at some loss to determine the way to Oahu ; just at evening we see a sail ahead ; hoist a signal for speaking, and in a little while we are within speaking distance. We now learn that the island of Oahu is still onward. But we lie by the most of the night, early set forward, and on Sunday, 15, at about half past one p. m., we cast anchor in the outer harbor at Honolulu. In a little while the pilot visits us. Monday, 16. We are early visited by the pilot and by half past seven a. m., we are safely anchored in the inner harbor in Honolulu. In a little while, we are visited by Mr. Damon, the seaman's chaplain. Mr. Hall, of the Presbyterian mis- sion, also calls to us. Mr. Damon and wife take tea with us on board the Brutus. Tuesday, 17. We go to Mr. Damon's. Wednesday, 18. After making a very pleasant visit at Mr. Damon's, we return to the Brutus about 4 p. m. Saturday, 21. We are having very warm weather, and these days of delay will pass with us heavily. I hope some favorable opportunity will present itself to us, to start for home before the Brutus will get ready. It is expensive to remain in this port. Sunday, 22. We attend service this day at the "Bethel" and hear two sermons from Mr. Damon, the seaman's chaplain. He invited me to preach in the even- ing, but I preferred to wait until next Sabbath. Thursday, 26. There are in this harbor two armed vessels; one English, the other American. On board the American, there was a ball last night. Our captain, a member of the M. E. church and a member also of the board of managers, was at it! Has Methodism come to this? My confidence in his piety was never very great; little as it was, it was shaken in his neglect of Capt. Guston while we were in Baker's Bay. Where is this confidence now? after having witnessed his fretful, fault-finding habits for some weeks, and also hearing his continual complaints of every person and thing, almost, connected with the benevolent operation of the Christian church in the present age, and now, to wind up the affair, or to give, as it were, a finishing touch to his character, he attends this ball. In this community, it seems peculiarly bad. The depraved part of this foreign population are considerably prejudiced against the members of the Presbyterian mission of these islands; and to have this Methodist captain go to the ball with them, and spend hours in such scenes and company; it is painful; it is mortifying; would that he were not known as a Methodist man—But that as far as we are concerned, I suppose, that which cannot be cured, must be endured; I do not think the captain danced at the ball. Is it true, "Man is known by the company he keeps"? I should be pleased with a good chance to change vessels.

This day we finish three letters to be sent to the States by the Whaleship, William Hamilton. They are for C. Pitman, M. Adams and children, one sheet each.

Friday, 27. This day we go on shore to visit our friends, Mr. Damon and sundry persons connected with the Presbyterian mission.

In the afternoon of this day, I see Mr. Pierce, the first mate of the whaleship William Hamilton, of New Bedford, now lying in the port, bound for home. I had before this applied to the captain, Captain Fisher, for a passage home, but his answer was, they were so full, there was no room. I now named the thing to the mate; he said they were full, but they talked the subject over of taking us, and would be glad to accommodate us. I told him if they could and would make room for us, by selling twenty barrels of oil, I would pay the difference in the price between this market and that of New Bedford, which would be about $100. When he went away, Mr. Damon went with him; and in a little while Mr. Damon returned saying he had been to the ship and seen the officers; they had concluded if we would give to the officers of said ship $100 they would discommode themselves so as to give us the occupancy of the captain's state room and they would give up their rooms to the captain. Mr. Damon and his wife, Mrs. Gary and myself go immediately to the Wm. Hamilton and see the ship, state room &c, the captain and officers, and the arrangements are readily made for our passage to the States in said ship. It is to be submitted to the owners, when we arrive, what more we shall pay for our passage. Mr. Damon and the members of the mission all judged it safe to be left in this manner. We are to lay in some stores as an outfit. Expenses at this place, outfit, &c.

To Capt. Adams for board while in port $10.00
Fruit and washing 3.50
To the officers of Wm. Hamilton 100.00
Copper bucket 8.00, Two boxes of crackers 15.00
Pickles and ginger preserves 3.75
Tea $6, soups $2.25, water filter $8.00 16.25
Raisins $4.50, prunes $2.00, To Mr. Damon for attention and favor $20 26.50

Saturday, 28. We are enjoying our prospect of sailing soon very much indeed; to be on our way homeward is pleasing indeed; and we are willing to venture a change in vessels, in view of a change in our captain, officers, crew, &c.

Sunday, 29. In the morning of this day we attend the service among the natives; afternoon "Bethel"; in the evening, I preach in the "Bethel" chapel.

416 Charles Henry Carey Monday, 30. We are busy in preparing for our voy- age. Tuesday, 31. In the morning, say by ten o'clock, we are on board our new floating home and are visited by Capt. DuPont, U. S. Navy (Ship Cyane) ; Mr. Damon and family, Mrs. Terrill 9 (consul's wife) and some others. At mid-day, our friends leave, our pilot takes us out of the harbor and soon we are at sea again. Every- thing appears agreeable on board ; yet we shall undoubt- edly suffer more seasickness on board the Wm. Hamilton than on the Brutus, as her cabin, state room, &c are below, whereas on the Brutus they were on deck. But I do not think we shall suffer near as much from a fret- ting captain and snarling crew. — But we must wait. — One month today since we came over the bar of the Columbia. Providence appears to smile upon us. It is I rather remarkable that we are able to take passage in this vessel. A sea captain had been denied ; and yet by some means they consent to take us. A matter of general surprise, and I guess a matter of some feeling to our late captain. But we have passed the point somewhat smoothly, at least apparently so. [1847] September 1. We are at sea, somewhat sea sick. Our wind is very light and we feel more sea sick- ness, I think, than though we had a fine breeze. Tem- perance, I think, reigns here. Saturday, September 11. We have progressed slowly, our winds having been unsteady and for a portion of the time, head winds. The great object to be gained is to get south, as fast as possible ; we are perhaps about seven or eight degrees north of the equator. Our captain wishes to get into thirty or thirty-five south latitude so as to make southing enough to go round Cape Horn. We have suffered considerably (especially Mrs. Gary) from the scent of bilge water in the vessel ; it has been so rank in the cabin and state rooms as to discolor the ceil- 19 Mrs. Joel Turrell. Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 417 ings; and this scent has been very disagreeable indeed. Every precaution, I suppose is now used to guard against it; twice a week say twenty or more barrels of water is poured into the vessel, to keep the oil casks moist to pre- vent their leaking. After this water has been in a few hours, it is pumped out ; which has a very great tendency to keep the hold of the ship clean. The scent is diminish- ing, and we are getting more used to it, so we hope to be soon comfortable. We find our captain, officers and crew harmonious, quiet and pleasant. We are highly pleased with the exchange of the Brutus for the Wm. Hamilton ; not that she is as pleasant as the Brutus in the finishing of her cabin &c, but she is apparently freighted with a very good share of good humor and with a prevailing disposition to accommodate and please and nothing small and niggardly appears as yet in our voyage. In all these points there is as great a dissimilarity between the Brutus and Wm. Hamilton as there is between penurious selfish- ness and a becoming and noble generosity. To be a little particular, in the Brutus, we had in the morning warm soft bread, at no other meal soft bread ; no vegetables, at any time. In the Wm. Hamilton, we have good soft bread at every meal ; a plenty of good potatoes and such other vegetables as were in market at Honolulu. In the Brutus, we were provided for as in a merchant vessel fitted for passengers. In this vessel, we were appraised that they only laid in such stores as were befitting themselves as whalemen, and that we, as passengers, would need some supplies of our own. But after all, the great item of our change is, the getting rid of faultfinding and scolding and its ordinary ill will &c. These were very painful to us. We have a very pleasant state of things in the vessel. We have prayers at evening in the cabin, accompanied generally with singing, as well as reading the holy scrip- tures. In favorable weather, we shall have meetings on the Sabbath, and we feel that Providence has presented this opportunity for our sailing to the beloved land of our 418 Charles Henry Carey nativity. We are oppressed some with the heat, and are having considerable rain, so that we are kept in the cabin rather closely; it is my opinion we shall feel contented if we ever reach home. By this, I do not mean we are now, or ever have been discontented; but we shall be better able to prize the delights and privileges of home and friends than we ever were before we sailed for Oregon. Sunday, 12. In the afternoon, we have meeting, 26 hearers, quite a congregation for this place. In the even- ing, we see some porpoises, the first we have seen in our homeward bound voyage. Monday, 13. Beautiful day, wind more favorable. North Lat. 5.34. See some black fish today. They did not, however, come very near. Tuesday, 14. We are progressing slowly, winds light and they are from such a direction we can do but very little, if any, easting. Our Lat. today is 3.56. Lon. 154.31. There is a current wafting us westward. We are some- what oppressed with the heat. Wednesday, 15. We are south of the sun, say thirty miles. Lat. 2.16. Lon. 155.41. Thursday, 16. We are making slow progress. We are forty three miles north of the equator. Lon. 146.48. Friday, 17. Our wind is a little more brisk. We find ourselves in South Lat. 0.48. Lon. 156.51. We crossed the equator about midnight last night. Rather of an im- portant point in our voyage. We have been unable to make much easting since we left the islands owing to the wind being so much south of east. Have had to run very close to the wind to avoid falling far to the west. Our captain does not expect to make much easting until we shall be to twenty-five or thirty degrees south lati- tude. Then he expects to make longitude and latitude 20 as to bring us to a favorable position to pass round Cape Horn. Mrs. Gary has suffered considerably from sea sickness since we left Oahu, owing very much to the Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 419 bilge (as it is called) in the ship. She is now better and we flatter ourselves the worst (so far as sea sickness is concerned) is over. We find everything made as agree- able to us as can be by the captain, officers and all on board; we feel ourselves favored in this opportunity for sailing homeward. Saturday, 18. Our latitude today is 2.27 ; our weather is beautiful ; this morning a few whales were seen blow- ing at a distance from us, and we are enjoying ourselves pretty well. Only we should be pleased with a brisker breeze and with swifter speed homeward. Providence is wise and kind and contentment should be ours. It is hardly possible to describe the difference between the Brutus and the Wm. Hamilton, in respect to agreement and harmony. Good will had no place in the Brutus. He lives here fore and aft, and ever appears to be at home. We have on board three American seamen sent home by the American consul at the Sandwich Islands; they are disabled seamen; one of them has the consumption; this fearful and fatal disease has such hold upon him as that in all probability he will be committed to a watery grave, even before we pass round Cape Horn. He was desirous to start for home and if possible reach Sag Harbour before death, and see his wife to whom he had been married about two months before he sailed into these seas on a whaling voyage. Poor sailor, it is hardly possible he will ever see his native land or his darling wife. Providence give us an opportunity to counsel him as well as we can. I hope it will not be in vain. Sunday, 19. A very pleasant day, very light wind. Nearly all on board attend meeting. In the evening, quite a number of the sailors before the mast are very (ap- parently) delightfully employed in singing Methodist tunes and hymns. It sounds very agreeably to our ears. This Sabbath has some delights peculiar to the Sabbath. Monday, 20. Yesterday, fish such as Macon, Buntia, &c, were seen around the ship ; one shark presented him420 Charles Henry Carey self to our view; several kinds of birds were about us also; one passed the night on the ship, I mean on some of the timber provided for elevating the boats. It left this morning without any apparent thankfulness. It is nearly a calm ; we desire to be patient, confiding in the wisdom and goodness of divine Providence. Tuesday, 21. Three weeks today since we left Baker. We are highly pleased with our situation, so far as cap- tain and company are concerned. We have a brisk wind this morning; are progressing most finely, and such is the action or motion of the ship Mr. "Bilge" smells as though he had "broke wind." Wednesday, 22. Our wind continues very favorable. The greatest appearance of "squally times" on board the ship we have seen. One man I see seated alone by him- self, as upon the stool of penitence or punishment. I hear he used profane and disrespectful language last night to one of the mates. He has a silent, quiet time to reflect upon it. So far, I am led to think Capt. Fisher governs the ship's company admirably. P. M. The above note I made before noon. About two this afternoon, the captain spoke to me requesting Mrs. Gary and myself to go into the cabin ; as he wished to talk to his men about the insubordination of last night; he stated to them, the man who abused the mate last night must make an acknowledgment to said mate, or be flog- ged. Ten or twelve of the forecastle men presented them- selves in an attitude which indicated a disposition to in- terfere with the government of the ship. The captain prepared himself by arming himself and his officers with loaded guns, pistols, knives, etc., and at about four went upon deck, prepared for the times however they might appear. In a very short time, the offending man made the required confession, and was released (he having been tied previously up). But there still appears among a few of the crew an insubordinate spirit. My confi- dence in the captain is increasing. It is my opinion, he Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 421 will succeed and bring these restless fellows to their place. He undoubtedly has been too indulgent to them, and they now think of running over him. But I very much doubt whether they will step high enough to run over him. Such scenes would have been more alarming to us four years ago than now ; somehow or other, we are different from what we used to be ; we like to see justice dealt out to these rough fellows. Yesterday I finished my first reading of the holy bible in course since we left the Columbia River. Thursday, 23. This morning before breakfast, while we were all on deck, the most insolent fellow to the cap- tain yesterday came aft near where the captain stood, and commenced saying something. The captain told him to go forward, and not come near him ; he still continued to try to say something and did not hasten forward as directed. The captain gave him a moderate blow with a gun he held in his hand, and he hastened along to his place; in my opinion, this is a blow in season. I now think they begin to think it is best to be quiet and orderly. Sunday, 26. The wind and the waves are so high and noisy we have no meeting today. We suppose we are near some small islands; these islands are to be dreaded at sea. There is danger of running on them, especially in the night. Tuesday, 28. Four weeks today since we left Hono- lulu. We like our captain very well. Everything appears quiet and pleasant since the open outbreak last week. About 4 p. m. An island is seen on our larboard bow. As we pass along, it presents itself to our view more clearly. For a while it is somewhat doubtful whether it is inhabited or not but our doubts vanish as the shades of evening gather about us for we see a bright light kindled upon it, undoubtedly to attract our attention and induce us to call and get supplies, but as it is night and we have a brisk wind, we pass along. This island cannot be very far from the Society Islands. Our Lat. today, 422 Charles Henry Carey 19.30. Lon. 147.08. We have been unable to make much easting since we left Oahu. We have been closely braced up to the trade winds, which have come so much from the east as to prevent us from gaining much in longitude, and indeed probably we shall not gain much until we get as far south as 35 or 40. Then we expect westerly winds by which we hope to be driven more directly towards Cape Horn. Thursday, 30. Our wind keeps us from advancing towards the east. But we do pretty well in gaining lati- tude. [1847] Friday, October 1. Our latitude 24.21. Lon. 160.25. Saturday, 2. Lat. 26.18. Lon. 160.45. Sunday, 3. A most beautiful day, light favorable winds. A very pleasant meeting. Monday, 4. A fine favorable wind, we appear now to set out for Cape Horn in good earnest. The weather somewhat cloudy and cool upon deck. I suppose we shall keep our cabin mostly for some weeks. South Lat. 30.08. Lon. 158.31. The motion of the ship wrenches my breast so I can- not read much. I lie a considerable part of the time on the bed. I shall be thankful, I hope, when this voyage is over. Tuesday, 12. I have been quite unwell for some days. The rolling ship is by no means a very pleasant place to be sick in. I have read very little for nearly two weeks. Our weather is cloudy, cool, attended with small showers, much like our April showers. We are nearly as far south as we are north when at home. And this weather is as much like April weather in the state of New York ; and the north wind here brings small showers like the south winds of April in New York. Our progress for some days has been tolerably good. Lat. 39.30. Lon. 140.18. Thursday, 14. My health is now good, though as yet I have read but little lately. I am satisfied I shall read Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 423 but little until we get round Cape Horn. The sea is rough and the winds are cool. Friday, 15. We have had what is called a "gale," but nothing to frighten us as yet. Indeed, from account, the hardest gale was in the night, but it did not awake me. Sunday, 17. Our weather is cool and rough; conse- quently we have no meeting. Our vessel takes in, upon deck, occasionally, heaving seas. But we trust she will convey us safely to the land of our destination. Monday, 18. The violence of the winds and waves has abated. Rather a pleasant day. We are approach- ing Cape Horn. Our latitude today, 42.00. Lon. 121.10. Friday, 22. We are having milder weather than we expected in this high southern latitude. For a few days, our wind has been light, our progress consequently slow. Lat. 45.00. Lon. 110.24. Four years ago this day we spent with our venerable parents, Father and Mother Adams, in Steuben, Oneida county, N. Y. This was the last visit we made them before we started on our long journey for Oregon. We are now on our return. Hope in a few months to see them again. Eight years ago today, these aged friends gave me in wedlock their only daughter ; she has been with me in these wanderings over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, up and down the rapid rivers of the far west, and over the beautiful flowery prairies of Oregon; and is now floating with me home- ward to the land of our nativity. Surely to these vener- able parents I am indebted, a debt I shall never be able to pay. I will most cheerfully remember their kindness with gratitude ; and if there ever is an opportunity, every mark of attention and respect shall be most readily and cheer- fully shown them. Providence only sees into the future. Saturday, 23. Meridian. We have had almost a calm for the last twenty four hours. An event unexpected in this high southern latitude. Sunday, 24. Such is the coolness of the weather, especially upon deck, we do not have any meetings in 424 Charles Henry Carey these high latitudes. Mr. Wright, our consumption suf- ferer, appears to be failing very fast ; poor man, I expect he will find his grave in the deep. Monday, 25. A very fair wind. Lat. 48.22. Lon. 103.20. Thursday, 28. We are highly favored in having so few gales and fierce winds in this high southern latitude. Our progress is not very rapid, yet we are approaching Cape Horn with considerable speed. It is cool upon deck. Thermometer 42. The deck is wet by the dashing waves which pass over it very freely. We keep in the cabin the most of the time where we are the most comfortable we ever have been at sea, having a stock of plenty of room and plenty good company. Lat. 52.10. Lon. 92.19. Some- times a little anxiety will arise about the success and speed of our voyage. Providence will order all right. A thought will occasionally arise about the uncertainty and treacherousness of the elements on which we are so dependent in our present situation, and we know not the amount of peril to which we are exposed from Mexican privateers and if possible the more unprincipled pirates who roam over the deep to find their prey. Saturday, 30. We are met by opposing winds so that we are unable to keep our course; we fall some to the north of east, whereas our course is nearly south east; we must make a few degrees of latitude south before we can go much further east so as to pass Tierra del Fuego, a little out from Cape Horn. It is cold upon deck, with light squalls of snow. Ther. 38. Lat. 52.30. Lon. 86.23. [1847] Monday, November 1. About noon today the wind comes round so that our ship is headed the right or desirable course; a few days of favorable wind, with the blessing of a kind Providence, will put us round the far famed Cape. My health is poor, I hardly know how to account for it. The inactivity of so long a voyage, Diary of Rev. George Gary— IV 425 and then the continual wrenching of the motion of the ship may be the cause. Friday, 5. We are now in the neighborhood of the far famed Cape Horn, Lat. 57.13. Lon. 68.11. This morning about eight o'clock, we were saluted from the deck with Sail ho! and as we bore away towards the vessel, we soon saw Spanish colors and as we spoke to her, by the speaking trumpet, we were not able to get any news concerning the Mexican war, and indeed not much of any news at all. This is the first vessel we have seen since we left Oahu ; are desirous to learn, especially, our liabilities in reference to Mexican privateers. We suppose our voyage is about half accomplished ; but it is very doubtful whether the remainder will be performed in the same amount of time ; we are very dependent upon the wind. Say at six p. m., another cry of Sail Ho! a vessel is seen north of us ; but it is so far off, and as we have a favorable breeze, we keep on our course, not knowing of what character or nation the vessel may be of. This is a very beautiful day, mild weather ; fair sun and a favorable breeze. Saturday, 6. This morning, we find ourselves visited by head winds ; they are light and soon sink away into a calm. I suppose it is rather uncommon to have the ele- ments off this Cape so quiet as they now are. We are just entering into the Atlantic and should consider our- selves highly favored with a breeze that would allow us to sail north east. My health is better than it has been for some days past. Cathartics and blistering have ap- parently relieved me. We are so far south, we have but very little night at this season ; not quite three hours out of the twenty-four but what some day light may be seen ; that is, not quite three hours darkness between the twi- light of the evening and the morning ; this is pleasant to those rocked on the waves of this place. Sunday, 7. A very beautiful morning; sun shines with considerable warmth; three vessels said to be in 426 Charles Henry Carey sight from mast and head. At about eight a. m., our captain goes to visit one of these vessels; the only one that comes near us. He gets but little news from her. She said four months ago the Mexican war was still going on. No news of privateers in our route. He brought back a few newspapers, mostly of June, 1847. Monday, 8. Last night a strong gale from the north met us ; it is still blowing upon us with considerable fury ; it gives us a rough sea, and considerable of a shaking, nothing, however, very alarming, but it keeps us back from our course. Tuesday, 9. Our gale has abated ; the wind has come round to the west so we are able to make some progress homeward. Lat. 55.32. Long. 60.11. As we have fairly passed round the Cape, our course now seems more di- rectly towards home ; and we have solicitude to have the winds drive us towards the United States with rapidity. It is ten weeks today since we left Honolulu, and we hope, Providence favoring us, to set foot on land in our native country within ten weeks more. It is a very cheering thought that we are on the second half of our voyage. Friday, 12. For a few days, our winds have been very light ; almost a calm ; our progress consequently, has been slow ; but now we are moving homeward most finely, and would like a brisk breeze to drive us rapidly homeward. My health today and yesterday is better than it has been for some time. Saturday, 13. We are favored with strong wind, driving us homeward. Every favorable day gives us delight. Today, Lat. 49.04. Lon. 50.51. Friday, 26. Since the last date, I have been sick, suffered much pain in the bowels; from the best views we can obtain (which is by the book accompanying the ship's medicine chest) the inflamation of the intestines is the source of this pain ; it is no pleasant situation to be sick in, far from medical aid, and rocked with the con- stant and often uneasy motion of the ship, whether you Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 427 choose it or not ; add to this, utterly unable to obtain any little delicacies suited to the appetite and comfort of the sick. No telling what I would have given for a piece of chicken, and, indeed, now it would be far better than money ; but so far I have got along. By having recourse to the active medicines of the chest, such as calomel and julap, salts and thorough blistering, the present appear- ance is, I am very essentially relieved; perhaps cured. Since the last entry of the 13th, we have had for a considerable part of the time north winds which has pre- vented us from making latitude as is desirable; we are far enough to the east, being in longitude 31, or there- abouts, and latitude 30. Today we are favored with a very fine breeze, wafting us homeward most beautifully. Saturday, 27. This evening we are in an entire calm. But few things are more uncertain than the wind. Sunday, 28. A sail seen at a distance. My health is too poor to have a meeting. Tuesday, 30. We are beating against a north wind. Four years today since we sailed from New York. Four months this day since we crossed the bar at the mouth of the Columbia River. Three months since we left Hono- lulu. [1847] Saturday, December 4. My health is toler- ably good at this time, though I have to be careful at the table. For some days, we have had a head wind, and all we have advanced in our voyage has been by frequently tacking ship, and beating our way against the wind ; this is a slow work; last evening, the wind came round fair, though light; and we are now sailing at a slow rate, di- rectly in our course; possibly we have the beginning of the south east trade wind; should it prove so, we shall consider ourselves highly favored. Ten days ago, we were as far east as was necessary; we continue in about the same longitude; we have been this time between 31 and 33 degrees west longitude. Our Lat. today is 23.55. Lon. 32.20. This morning, a sail at a distance was seen, 428 Charles Henry Carey in the course of the day she approached a little nearer; but in the night she changed her course a little and on Sunday morning could only be seen from mast head. The sight of a vessel is attended with some little anxiety, lest it might prove a privateer or pirate. Sunday, 5. The wind is so brisk and surges of water so frequently dash upon deck, we have no meeting today. Monday, 6. We have most evidently the trade wind and are driven homeward most beautifully. Lat. 18.39. Lon. 32.07. Really it seems like approaching towards home. We are in the torrid one and have passed under the sun again, yet we are fanned so finely by these favorable breezes we feel but little oppression from the heat ; here- after we shall, I suppose, look upon the sun as a southern sun; this will be pleasant to us; before many weeks we expect to see the north star. Wednesday, 8. This day I am fifty four years old; truly an old man. Never have I felt so much like being worn out, as since we left Oahu. I have suffered much pain and still do daily. What it will amount to, I do not know. Providence will order all for the best. Saturday, 11. We are this afternoon in sight of land on the Brazil coast. The captain designs to call at Pro- numbuco [Pernambuco] to obtain a few additional sup- plies for the ship's company. Mr. Wright, the consump- tion man, lies very low ; he must die soon. At five p. m., Mr. Wright breathed his last. As our captain has no bill of health from the last port from which we sailed, and as it is uncertain whether he could obtain permission to bury the body in this papal region, though Pronumbuco is in full view, he holds out from the harbor until tomorrow. Sunday, 12. About eight this morning, the body of Mr. Wright was committed to the watery grave, say 15 miles from the Port of Pronumbuco. Rather a solemn Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 429 sight, for the first time, at least, to witness this way of burial. At eleven a. m., cast anchor in the outer harbor of Pronumbuco, say two or three miles from the light house. In the afternoon, we have meeting, here in sight of papacy; I suppose, however, we give no offence to any. Monday, 13. Our captain leaves the vessel early and by about ten o'clock he sends fresh beef and oranges so that we have a feast day of it ; though I like the oranges well, yet I should prefer some good apples, such as grow in Oneida county. Tuesday, 14. Early this morning, our anchor is hoisted, sails spread and we again under a very light breeze are moving homeward. The coast of Brazil in sight all day. In the afternoon, we spoke to a vessel forty eight days from Boston ; obtained two news papers dated October 22 and 23, fresh papers to us. Wednesday, 15. We are fairly out at sea again, no land to be seen; a fine wind is pushing us towards the United States. The fruit I have eat or some other favor- able circumstance; my health is abundantly improved; I have not felt so well for nearly three months ; I am eating freely of tomatoes, oranges and have a few apples. Lux- ury, indeed. Thursday, 16. We have a very favorable breeze and are wafted homeward with great delight. Lat. 3.13. Lon. 35.29. Friday, 17. We are going most delightfully. Our progress is perhaps six miles or more an hour; though near the equator, yet such is the activity of the wind we are not oppressed with the heat any by day, at night we feel it some in our state room. Thermometer 84. This day, I finish the fourth reading of the holy bible for the year 1847. Probably I should have read it once more, had I enjoyed good health since we left Oahu. Lat. 3.13. Lon. 35.29. Friday, 17. Beautiful wind, Lat. 0.28. Lon. 36.45. 430 Charles Henry Carey Saturday, 18. Last evening, a little before sunset, we crossed the equator, and find ourselves today at mer- idian in 1.55 north latitude. Sunday, 19. Little or no wind with frequent showers ; too rainy for meeting. Monday, 20. Last night an abundant rain. We flat- ter ourselves we have the north east trade winds; are going finely. A sailor (the cooper) gave me a cane this afternoon. Wednesday, 22. We are progressing homeward very successfully. Lat. 7.40. Lon. 43.19. Thursday, 23. Meridian Lat. 9.51. Lon. 46.15. This forenoon we have packed the large trunk; perhaps not to be opened until we reach Oneida county. My health is good. Mrs. Gary's also very good, for which may we be thankful. Saturday, 25. Christmas ! We have a very favorable wind. The sea somewhat rough and our ship consequent- ly uneasy; yet the noise of the winds and waves are as music to our ears, while they waft us homeward with such rapidity. Lat. 14.00. Lon. 51.47. The second mate has given me a new cane. Wednesday, 29. We never were so highly favored, I think, with so fair and so brisk a wind as we are now having. We have averaged, I suppose, two hundred miles a day, on our direct route, for eight or more days; we are still going ahead; no telling how agreeable to our feelings ; truly we desire to be thankful. Lat. 22.30. Lon. 62.27. Friday, 31. 1847 takes its leave of us this day. To us it has had some important events; among them are the arrival of the missionaries in Oregon last July, our leaving Oregon on the last day of July, five months ago today ; also our leaving Honolulu the last of August, four months today; last, but by no means least, our being so near the states at the present time. Lat. 26.51. Lon. 67.10. Our wind continues good, though not so brisk as Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 431 for a few days past. We hope Divine Mercy will forgive the follies and faults of the year now closing; and help in redeeming time to the best advantage in future. 1848. Saturday, January 1. The new year has opened upon us. Surely it begins pleasant with us. The day is clear, the weather mild, the wind favorable, dif- ferent from one year ago. Then we were shut up at Williamette Falls, with the gloom, rain and darkness of an Oregon winter upon us and about us; now we are here, approaching our own coast; it may, to be sure, be boistrous and stormy, yet we have hopes of setting foot again on our native land. We have just spoken a small schooner eight days from Boston; got some papers, the latest date December 22, 1847. This is almost enchanting to us. We hope a few days will put us on land in New Bedford. Time, Time ! How it flies ! How important its improvement ! Sunday, 2. This morning before sunrise, I went on the deck. In a little while, a sailor by the name of Joseph came to the water butt to get water for his morning wash; the captain asked him, who told him to get water there to wash with ; after some words he poured back the water, and started forwards; the captain kicked him twice or thrice; he, Joe, turned round, took hold of the captain; the captain seized him (no blows were struck) ; in a very short time, the second mate took Joe aft. I went below, but as I learned Joe was tied up and whipped, say from ten to fifteen lashes. This event scared me dreadfully. It is so windy and rough we have no meeting today. At about eight p. m., all hands were called to reef sails ; we had wind and a rough sea through the night. Monday, 3. Strong head wind, very rough sea. Lat. 32.16. Lon. 70.30. Tuesday, 4. Wind not quite so strong ; sea not quite so rough ; but little progress, however, on our route. Lat. 31.41. Long. 71.32. 432 Charles Henry Carey Wednesday, 5. We are making slow progress, but very little wind stirring this morning; very pleasant; Mrs. Gary sewing on deck; We are steering north west, which is nearly the desirable point, until we reach the gulf stream. Saturday, 8. For a few days, light winds ; sometimes quite calm ; we are, however, making some progress home- ward. It is evident by the warmth of the water, we are in the Gulf Stream ; and we have some idea we may reach New Bedford within a week. Tuesday, 11. We are progressing very slowly indeed, head winds and calms attend us pretty constantly. We have had some gales, but nothing frightful as yet. It is quite cold; Considerable ice on deck. This coast is not an inviting place in winter, only as it is connected with "home sweet home." Lat. 38.30. Lon. 72.55. Wednesday, 12. About five last evening, a favorable wind from the south west arose and continued steady nearly twelve hours. We prospered very finely indeed. This morning as half past seven, sounded and found bot- tom at 23 fathoms ; at eight, the captain from mast head sang out, "Land Ho." But the wind is now light, and not very favorable. It has come around to the north, and I suppose we cannot go far on our route with the wind from this point. So near home, we feel no small interest in the character of the wind. Thursday, 13. We are in full view of a portion of Long Island, but our wind is not favorable. Friday, 14. Nine a. m. We have just passed Block Island. We are having a fine breeze; our captain and first mate are almost beside themselves with excitement, lest the wind should fail before we enter the harbor at New Bedford. We are met by a pilot at ten a. m. and in six hours are on land in New Bedford, put up at the Eagle hotel. In the evening, are visited by Captain Fisher and an old Methodist preacher, David Wehle. Diary of Rev. George Gary — IV 433 Captain charges us $50 for passage from Honolulu to New Bedford. Saturday, 15. I was unwell and so much excited that I did not sleep and until three o'clock this morning. To- day we are visited by Bros. Wehle, Kent, Filmore and Butler, and are moved to Bro. Gifford's. Sunday, 16, is spent in the house of God with His worshipping people. Monday, 17. This afternoon we start for New York. Tuesday, 18. We arrive at about nine in the morning at the Book Room. Converse by telegraph with H. B. Clarke in Utica, informing him of our arrival, and learn in return that our people are well so far as he knows ; a very great relief to our minds. Wednesday, 19. Spent this forenoon in preparing to meet the board at four this afternoon. COLONEL GRIMSLEY'S PROPOSED EXPEDITION TO OREGON, IN 1841 Introduction The files of the Indian Department, at Washington, D. C., contain a brief series of interesting, though not viatally important, letters from a prominent citizen of St. Louis, Thornton Grimsley, to President John Tyler and Secretary of War John Bell, relative to an armed expedition to take possession of the Oregon Country. Two of these letters are presented herewith, with a sketch of the life of Colonel Grimsley. These have come to me through the courtesy of Miss Drumm, librarian of the Missouri Historical Society, and are presented without other comment than that they evidence a lively interest in Oregon by the people of the then Western frontier. T. C. Elliott. St. Louis 16th April, 1841. Honerable John Bell, Secty of War. Sir — Some days since I had the honor to address you on the subject of Superintendent of Indian Affairs here, and the Oregon Territory. In that letter I gave it as my opinion that the present incumbent Ma jr. Pilcher — ought to be removed. Time and intercourse with my fellow citizens since has only strengthened my then expressed opinion. No man in or out of office in this country has been more vindictive or is now the pliant tool of T. H. Benton than is this same indian agent. Our next move here, I think, will be to instruct Benton to leave the Senate of the U. States but we cannot do it if the high places of power having a direct bearing on that great object is held by serfs who would buoy him up at the sacrifice of all principle and the complete prostitution of every grow- ing interest of the country. I hope that Pilcher, and all others who was placed in office by the late administration Colonel Grimsley's Proposed Expedition 435 and who made electioneering temples of their offices, may be in due time removed. Now for the Origon. For the last twenty years I have had a constant intercourse with the various trading companies to the Mountains to Santafee and California. Nearly all of them have been fitted out by my establish- ment. I am not a man of letters but profess to be some- thing of an observer of human nature. Aside from my personal acquaintance with many of the leading men now in the Mountains I am sure I can gain an ascendency over the various roaming tribes of Indians as soon if not sooner than any man you can find in this country. Should it be the policy of the Nation to take posses- sion of the Origon country and the will of the appointing power to give me the command of the expedition I will on your requisition Show you a map of the whole country from the western bounds of the Missouri to the Pacific Oceon on which you will see clearly delineated all the water courses the names of the various tribes of indians, and the countrys they inhabit. This map, as I before stated, was compiled from the notes of Mr. J. Smith, who was of the firm of Smith, Sublett and Jackson, successor to Gen'l Ashley in the fur trade. The British traders take from that country an- nually from one to one and a half millions of dollars of furs, and I see no reason why our own people mite not have the benefit of that valuable branch of our commerce. I am aware I may worry your patience by addressing you such long epistles on this subject, and more particu- larly so when you have never known me personally and of course have but an indefinite idea of me, if you recol- lect me at all. Our only interview was a mere introduc- tion at the Nashville convention. I have had the offer on several occasions of the com- mand of an expedition to California, and at one time had the offer of 700 names all enrolled. These men would mostly all go with me to Origon, and I assure if the Gov436 T. C. Elliott ernment is determined to possess itself of that valuable country I can raise 3000 men in Missouri and Illinois in the course of six months. I am aware that the popular notion now is to advance no man to military honor unless he has been to the Military Academy at West Point, and you might commit yourself and injure your standing as the Chief of the Dept. of War were you to give counten- ance to my suggestions. That is a matter for your own reflection. Sure I am that with two months reference to the Tactics of the country I can drill a company of horse, a squadron or regiment, equal to any man in the army. If it would be useful to the department over which you are called to preside I will say further that I can command three men, one whom has been 26 years in the Origon, and the territory on this side of the mountains, and the other two from 16 to 20, all of whom speak the various languages of the Indians inhabiting the country, and would on invitation for small allowance, come to the seat of Government and give explanations. There is one thing more which I will venture to call your attention to. For the last four years I have made out lists for some ten or twelve companies of Europeans, mostly English, who come here and join some trading company and penetrate the country clear to the Pacific professedly to hunt buffalo or to collect natural curios- ities. From the outfits they make and the instruments they take with them the most common observer would at once say these men were sent by the Governments and in- structed to make a reconnaisance of the country, and to report their observations. Even now I am preparing the necessary equipage for two Englishmen who leave in a few days for the head of the Yellowstone river and thence to the Wind River Pass in the mountains. By means of these men the British acquire a perfect knowledge of the country and its resources, and in case of a contest for the maintainance of our rights these will Colonel Grimsley's Proposed Expedition 437 know more if anything of our own country than we do ourselves. And from what I have seen and gleaned from these men I would not be surprised if there were now to be found in the Library of the British Parliament maps and charts of the country compiled within the last six years which are far superior to anything of the kind in America. I would be highly complimented by a line from you touching the above subject if consistent with your duty as an officer. I remain, with great respect, Your Obt Servt, Thornton Grimsley. Hon. J. Bell, Secty of War. St. Louis 16th June, 1841 Sir;— I have just received your favor of the 5th Instant in answer to Col. A. P. Field's letter of previous date. The reasons assigned for not giving me the invitation in place of Col. O'Fallon, who declined, are perfectly sat- isfactory, and such as we should always look for from a department of the government as ably managed as the one you have the honor to preside over. I have taken the liberty to address you on several subjects connected, as I thought, with the interests of our own country, since you have been in your present high and honorable station ; and have written with a freedom which would have been unwarranted were you not a public officer. In one or more of my letters to you, and in one to Mr. Tyler, I was free to mention the great advantage which would result to American citizens from an occupancy of the Origon Territory. The present is an extra session, and of course nothing can be done in the business, and at present I will merely refer you to my former letters on the subject with the addition of some late news. 438 T. C. Elliott I have received from that country to the following- effect. Extract from Capt Harris' letter dated Inde- pendence June 4th, 1841, "Your name is well known in the mountains by many of your old friends who would be glad to join the standard of their country, and make a clean sweep of what is called the Origon Territory; that is, to clear it of British and Indians. I was one of the seven hundred who invited you to take command and march through to California, and will be with you if you can get the Government of the United States to authorize the occupancy of the Origon Country. I have been, as you know, 20 years in the mountains. The British have now taken possession of Fort Hall, formerly a trading post of some American trappers, and are repairing and putting it in military customs. Why our Government suffers these things I know not. The North west Com- pany does not only take from our territory from one to two millions of furs and peltries per year but they influ- ence the Blackfeet, and other tribes of Indians, to take our scalps. "In addition to this they introduce British goods there free of duty, by which they are enabled to sell cheaper than any American can, who purchased British goods in our Eastern cities. Our old friend Bent will hand you this, and I enjoin it upon you to talk with him on the subject." From the above you can see what is going on in that quarter, and when I have opportunity of verbal inter- course with Col. Bent, above referred to, I shall take the liberty to address you again. Col. B. has been some 20 years in the mountains and Santafee trade. I remain, with great respect, Your Ob't Servant, Thornton Grimsley. Honorable John Bell, Sect'y of War. Colonel Grimsley's Proposed Expedition 439 Colonel Thornton Grimsley Colonel Thornton Grimsley was born on the 20th of August, 1798, in Bourbon county, Kentucky. His father, Nimrod Grimsley, was a resident of Fauquier county, Vir- ginia, and having a large family removed to Kentucky at an early day, and helped to make up the number of that enterprising population who immigrated to what was considered the richest soil in America. His father and mother did not long live in the new homes which they had chosen, but died during the years 1805 and 1806, leaving a helpless family of eight children. The subject of this memoir, by the dissolution of his parents, was left an orphan at seven years of age, and three years after losing his parents he was apprenticed to the saddlery business. He served his master faith- fully for eleven years, and the only compensation which he received was three months of schooling, yet, by his diligent application to business, and a mind naturally of a superior order, he soon won the respect and confidence of his master, and in 1816 he was sent to St. Louis in charge of a valuable assortment of goods, at which place he completed his term of indenture; and on reaching twenty-one years of age, the first act he performed in his independent manhood, was to return to Kentucky and attend school for six months, from the proceeds of extra work which he had performed during the term of his apprenticeship. After having exhausted his slender resources, in obed- ience to the invitation of his old master, Thornton Grims- ley returned to St. Louis, and took charge of his business for about fourteen months, and then, feeling that he could succeed better untrammeled by the dictates of a superior, in 1822 he placed his name upon a sign-board, and boldly commenced his fortune.

  • * On commencing business for himself he married

Miss Susan Stark, of Bourbon county, Kentucky, who was sister of the wife of the master under whom he learned 440 T. C. Elliott his trade. Not long after commencing his business, and just as he was beginning to gather the fruits to which his industry entitled him, a fire destroyed the property which he had accumulated during three years of toil, and left him "poor indeed." When his misfortune occurred he was in ill health, but did not waste a moment in idle re- grets, and set about immediately in repairing what acci- dent had deprived of, and in a little time he was again advancing in a prosperous career. From the frankness of his disposition and natural goodness of heart, Thornton Grimsley had always made himself hosts of friends, and in 1826 was elected as al- derman, and introduced into that body the subject of grading the wharf in front of the city, and strongly ad- vocated that the western edge should be raised three feet higher than its present grade. Had his proposition been acceded to, Front street would not be inundated at every high flood of the river, and its property would be much more valuable. In 1828 Colonel Grimsley was called to the legislature of the state, where he was a useful and efficient member. He used his efforts to have completed the national road to Jefferson City, and advocated other important measures. In 1835 he was again elected alderman, and did much settling satisfactorily the important claim of the St. Louis Commons. From this tract was selected Lafayette Park, and the spacious avenues about it. From the liberal di- mensions of this park, some of the short-sighted citizens, in derision, called it Grimsley's folly — now it is one of the chief ornaments of our large and growing city. So useful was Colonel Grimsley in his political life, that in 1838 he was sent to the State Senate, and lent all of his influence for the passage of the bill for the con- struction of the Iron Mountain Railroad, and also for the establishment of a workhouse. Though Colonel Grimsley was so liberally rewarded with civic honors he was not unmindful of military glory. Colonel Grimsley's Proposed Expedition 441 He has filled all of the stations, from an orderly to divi- sion inspector; in 1832 he raised a volunteer company and tendered their services to the Governor of Illinois during the Black Hawk war, and in 1836 received from General Jackson a captain's commission in the dragoons of the United States army. He declined this honor as it was in time of peace, and wisely stuck to his business pursuits. He has now been engaged thirty-seven years in his only pursuit, and does now a business of three hun- dred thousand dollars per annum. In 1846, in less than twenty days he enrolled a regi- ment of eight hundred men for the Mexican war, but being politically opposed to the Governor of Missouri, he was refused a commission and another appointed in his stead. Colonel Grimsley has been the father of ten children, four of whom are now living and happily and prosper- ously settled in life. He has now amassed a competent fortune, and in the autumn of life is enjoying the fruits with which industry ever rewards the managing and per- severing. — (Edward's Great West, p. 106.) Thornton Grimsley, pioneer merchant and manufac- turer, was born in Bourbon County, Kentucky, August 20, 1798, and died in St. Louis, December 22, 1861. When he was ten years old he was apprenticed to the saddler's trade, and in 1816, at the end of a long term of service, he was sent to St. Louis in charge of a stock of saddlery goods. In 1822 he opened a store of his own in this city and afterwards became famous in the saddlery trade. He invented and patented the military or dragoon saddle, which was universally approved by the officers of the United States army, and did more work for the govern- ment at his manufactory than was done at that time at any other factory in the country. Although he had only limited educational advantages in his youth, he became a 442 T. C. Elliott man of broad intelligence, and took a prominent part in public affairs in St. Louis. He was elected to the Mis- souri Legislature in 1828, and proved a useful member of that body, serving at different times in both branches. In 1839 he received the Whig nomination for Congress, but as his party was largely in the minority he was de- feated. He was a prominent member of the Masonic order, and served as grand treasurer of the Grand Lodge of Missouri. For forty years he cultivated and promoted the military taste and spirit in St. Louis and at different times he commanded various military organizations. In 1846 he recruited a regiment for service in the Mexican War, but as a sufficient number of troops had already been raised, his regiment was not mustered into the United States service. He married Miss Susan Stark, of Bourbon County, Kentucky, and at his death left two daughters, Mrs. Henry T. Blow and Mrs. George Stans- bury, and one son, John Grimsley. — (Hyde & Conrad's Encyclopedia of History of St. Louis, v. II, p. 948.) INDEX TO VOLUME XXIV A Abernethy, George, 77; for casual ref- erences to, see Diary of Reverend George Gary. Ackerman, J. H., 201; his entering the office of State Superintendent brought substantial high school legislation, 209; shapes Oregon's school system, 219-20. American Fur Company, 340-2. Armijo, Antonio, reported as intending to seize the furs of the parties licensed by Narbona, 12-13; confiscates furs, 14; 21-2; 27. Astor, John Jacob, 335; 340; 357. .Astorians, More About, 335-60; return of party of, with important dispatches for Astor, 335; gave impression of passable route for wagons to the Pa- cific, 335; experiences on their way back from Astoria, 336-7; popular en- thusiasm over their feat short-lived, 337; characteristics of the four of the party selected for comment, 338; Russel Farnham and his most remark- able journey to convey dispatches via Siberia and Russia to John Jacob Astor, 338-40; sketch of his earlier and later life and services, 340-2; Robert McClellan, his earlier life and as trader among the Sioux, 345-8; characteristic experiences and actions as member of the Pacific Fur Com- pany, 348-50; later life, 350-2; John Day, a member of an illustrious Vir- ginia family, 352; joins the Wilson P. Hunt party but suffers much from sickness and insanity, 355; remains m the Pacific northwest in the service of the NorthWest Company and dies m that region, 355-7; his will, 355-7; Benjamin Jones, an experienced hunter when met by the Hunt party on the Missouri river, 357-8; later a farmer and Santa Fe trader, 358-60; his will, 359-60; significance of the personal- ities and history of these Astorians. B Babcock, Dr. Ira L., court held by, 173; for further references to, see Diary of Reverend George Gary. Barrell, Joseph, largest owner of the ship Columbia on her second voyage, letters to by Clerk John Hoskins, 132-49. Barrows, H. D., son-in-law of William Wolfskin, gives account of the Wolf- skill party of 1826, 8-9. Becknell, Captain William, expedition of, into southwest in 1821, 2; 6. Birnie, James, 73; 408. Boit, John, journal of, 133; 136; 137; 139; 145-6-7. Bonney, Benjamin Franklin, Recollections of, 36-55; reasons for coming to Ore- gon, 36; organization and equipment for the trip across the plains, 36-8; experiences in storm on the way, 38; his party divided by employee of Cap- tain Sutter sent to Fort Hall to divert settlers to California, 38-40; exper- iences as big band of buffalo pass by, 40-41; observes attempt to enslave Indian, 41-3; penalty executed for kill- ing an Indian, 43-4; difficulties over- come in crossing the Sierras, 44-5; life at Sutter's fort, 46-8; naturaliza- tion or exclusion enforced by Mevican authorities, 48-9; exodus of Americans, and arrival in Oregon, 49-52; recollec- tions of Dr. McLoughlin, 53; the mint at Oregon City, 53. Boyd, G. D. R., 65. Brothers of Guernsey, 70-8. Burnett, Peter H., 103-4; letter of, to The Platte Argus, Nov. 4, 1844, 105- 8; settlers and country praised, 105; comment on the political situation as an anxious awaiting of the result of the Pakenham mission and as worn out by delay, so believed Oregon commun- ity would be compelled to form an in- dependent government, 105-8; 154-5. c Campbell, H., 79; for casual references see Diary of Reverend George Gary. Carey, Charles Henry, History of Oregon by, reviewed by Joseph Schafer, 198- 200. Carson, Christopher, 22; gives account of expedition to California, 182 9-30, 22- 2 5. Chadwick, S. F., 59. Chapman, Charles Hiram, as president of the University of Oregon, aided definite high school legislation, 218. Chittenden, H. M., in his Fur Trade in the Far West ignores the fur trade in the southwest, 2. Columbia, Letters Relating to the Second Voyage of, 132-52; ownership of the vessel and cargo, 132; names of of- ficers and crew, 132; sources of in- formation on the voyage, 133; inter- dependence of some, 13 3; the extract from Menzies' journal and the connec- [443] Index tion of Menzies with the different voy- ages to the Northwest and his journal while on the Oregon coast, 133-4; the need of the "Grand Chap" in China, 135-7; reports sent back while ship was on the way out, 134-7; murder bv the Indians of the second mate Joshua Caswell and two seamen, 137-8; sloop Adventure built, 139; skins one hun- dred per cent dearer and natives troublesome because of arms and am- munition they have received, 13 9; re- pair in Nootka Sound of the injury to the ship from striking a rock, enjoy hospitality of the Spanish commander, 140-1. Crooks, Ramsay, 335-7; 34 7; saves life of John Day, 35 5. Crosby, F. S., 62. D Daly, John M., presents bill including provisions for organization of hig-h schools, 218-9. Day, John, the Day family, 352-3; gets land grant in Missouri from Spanish, 353-4; hunter and trapper, 354; his personality, 355; joins the Wilson P Hunt overland party, 355; falls sick on the way down the Snake river and owes life to Ramsay Crooks, 355; be- comes insane when with Robert Stuart party that had started to return to the states, 3 55; later in the service of the NorthWest Company, 355-6; incidents connected with later life and provisions of will, 356-7. Douglas, James, 79; letter of, to Gover- nor Abernethy, 193-4; advises Aber- nethy as to what he would find it necessary to do unless the rumored in- tention of General Gilliam to levy on the property of the Hudson's ' Bay Company was disavowed, 193-4. Dye, Job E., his account of the Young trapping party of 1831, 2 9. E F Farnham, Russel, 337; his remarkable journey from Astoria to St. Petersburg, via Siberia and Russia, 338-40; first trader in the employ of the American Fur Company, 340-2; marriage, 342- 3; farmer and trader, 343; death and characterization of life and personality, 343-4. J Flere, Captain, 70-8. Force, James and John, 92; for casual reference to, see Diary of Reverend George Gary. Framboise, Michel La, has large company of Hudson's Bay Company trappers in California in 1832, 32. Frost, J. H., 77. Fur market in Canton, 148-9. Fur trade in the far Southwest, 1822-34, 1-35; Ewing Young its central figure, 1 ; misconceptions concerning because ignored by leading writers, 2; diffi- culties of project of giving an account of, 2-4; summary of, 4-5; names of some principal participants in, .3-6; operations of parties in 1824, 5; 1826 the year of great activity, 8. G Gary, George, Diary of Reverend, 69-105; 152-185; 269-333; 386-433; sketch of work under Mission Board of the Methodist Episcopal church, 68; gen- eral career, 68-9; observations and ex- periences during stay at the Hawaiian Islands, 69-71; voyage to the Columbia with captain "niggardly close" but "every day disguised by strong drink", 71-4; voyage up the Columbia and the Willamette and arrival at Willam- ette Falls, 74-79; views of the Board of Managers at home stated to the Council, 79-81; particulars gathered from suggestions of members, and con- clusions therefrom, 81; appointment to charges made, 82; goes to Willamette settlement, 82-3; the situation at the Indian school, saw and grist mills, 83- 5; sale of farm at Clatsop, 85; Indian school and records examined, 86-8; Mrs. Holman (Miss Phelps) testifies as to condition at time of "great rein- forcement," 88-9; negotiations for the sale of the Indian school to trustees of Oregon Institute, 89-92; sale of mills, 92; sale of stock, 92-3; mistake of "great reinforcement", 94-5; prom- ising crops of wheat, 95; campmeeting at Yamhill, 95-6; Alanson Beers buys a Mission farm and comment on the policy of the Mission in preempting large tracts of land, 96-7; the Rev- erend A. F. Waller and Dr. John Mc- Loughlin controversy in regard to a land claim at the Willamette Falls, 97-102; sale of house to G. Hines, 103; sale of Mission goods to Aber- nethy, 103; invoice taken of goods and farming tools at the manual labor school, 103; affairs at The Dalles con- sidered, 104; financial affairs of the Mission, 153-4; Mission membership, 154; sale of Mission property, 156-7; The Dalles Mission station situation, 156; letter to Waller pertaining to taking The Dalles Mission, 157-8; trouble with Alanson Beers as to own- ership of stock of iron on farm sold to him, 159-60; letter to David Leslie, 160-1; account of trip to The Dalles, and attention to affairs of this Mis- sion, 163-73; attends session of Judge Babcock's court, 173; arrival of im- migrants, 174; the book accounts of the Mission, 174; change of sentiment toward the Mission noted — from its being of a speculative and monopoliz- ing characcter to now, in that it is no longer the source of employment at high rates, it is accused of ruining the country, 175-6; its lack of morale, 176-7; sale of lots to Dr. McLoughlin, 177; destructive flood, 178-9; trouble in getting letters that have arrived at a point ten or twelve miles below, [444] Index 179-80; a Clackamas farmer has trouble with Indians, 180; debts due to the Mission worry, 181; estimate of loss from flood, 182; sale of debts due Mission, 184; meeting of the Lyceum and characterization of the fall of Jason Lee and the arrival of Gary as like "nine months cholera, 184-5; a statement of some financial relations existing between the Hudson's Bay Company and the Mission, 2 69; financial settlement with the upper Missions, 270; G. Hines and Abemethy compared as to hospitality and cour- tesy, 270-1; all lay brethren hard to please, 271; more finances, 272; as spring express soon to leave Ft. Van- couver prepares reports to the Board, 272; further financial transactions, 273-5; the fading away of the Clatsop and Chinook Indians, 2 75; the pitiable case of Miss Elvira Phillips, a stranded missionary, 2 75; not certain that Abernethy's figures are facts, 2 76; a trip via Butteville to Mission settle- ment, 276-8; the Hauxhurst family, 278-9; the Oregon election, 1845, 280; ten miles farther up the Willam- ette, 281; a visit from Dr. Whitman, 282; does not like the method of dis- cipline at the Institute, 283; gets the 1844 national changes, 283; at camp- meeting on Mill Creek, 284; return to Willamette Falls, 285-6; reads papers from the states, 286-7; admires a dele- gation of Nez Perces, 2 87; new and some unexpected accounts presented, 288; word from Jason Lee, 289-90; immigrants arrive, 290-3; a party de- parts to meet first immigrants coming by way of Mt. Hood, 291-2; memorial sermon for Jason Lee preached by David Leslie, 295; dried apples at 25c a pound, 2 95; restive to return to states, 296; girls find quick market in Oregon, 297; financial accounts, 297-303; interest in temperance, 304; Ezra Fisher preaches, 305; estimating committees report, 306; trip to The Dalles, 306-7; experiences at The Dalles, 307-20; return trip, 321; holds council, David Leslie and William Helm present, 322; jail burns, 323; prominent citizens refuse to testify in case of gambling as itl would incriminate themselves, 32 3; immigrants arrive, 323-5; attends Yamhill campmeeting, 325-7; news of treaty of 1846 arrives, 328-9; Legislative Committee meets, 330; pass license law over veto of governor, 331-2; first arrival of those coming by the Southern route, 33 2-3; the Thorntons, 386-90; Colonel Will- iam T'Vault, 388-9; finances, 391; report that house of one of the mis- sionaries at The Dalles was burned, 392; conclusions to abandon Mission at The Dalles, 397; letter pertaining thereto sent to Dr. Whitman, 398; the Thornton and Nesmith trouble and the Nesmith handbill, 401-3; the Camp- bellites hold first great meeting, 405; the election, 405; campmeeting at the Institute, 405-6; delight at the pros- pect of leaving, 406-7; trip down the Columbia, 407-10; complications de- velop between two Methodist captains, in getting over the bar, 410-12; the stay at the Hawaiian Islands, 413-4; changes vessels, 414-5; the sailing trip back to Boston, 415-33. George, the Indian pilot, 75. Gibbs, Addison C, 63. Gray, Captain Robert, of the Columbia, 132-52. Gregg account of the outcome of the Young and Smith expedition of 1826, 12-13. Grimsiey's, Colonel Thornton, Proposed Expedition to Oregon in 1841: in letters addressed to Secretary of War, John Bell, urging the desirability of the American nation's taking posses- sion of the Oregon country through an expedition commanded by Colonel Grimsley, 434-6; gives as reasons the wealth the British traders are gather- ing in the exploitation of it and the activities of English emissaries in ac- quiring perfect knowledge of the region and the resources will give England a great advantage when the struggle for it is precipitated, 436-8; Captain Har- ris gives details as to British encroach- ments and names Grimsley as the natural leader to make a clean sweep of the Oregon territory, 43 7-8; life and exploits of Grimsley, 43 8-4 2. H Hall, Edwin Oscar, 69. Harrell, James E. R., Reminiscences of, 186-92; experiences of the train cross- ing the plains, 186-8; the stop at the Whitman station, 188; William H. Gray characterized, 189; the Clatsop plains community, 189-91. Harris, Captain, reports to Colonel Thorn- ton Grimsley in 1841 on the conditions in the Oregon country and urges an expedition to take control, 438. Haswell, Joshua, second mate on the ship Columbia, 132-52; massacre of, 138. Haswell, Robert, first mate of the ship Columbia, 132-52; in command of the sloop Adventure, 139. High School Legislation in Oregon to 1910, A History of, 201-237; condi- tions and influences that prevented high school legislation previous to 1900, 201-13; sparse settlement hin- ders development of elementary grade schools in Oregon, 203-4; no legal provision for educational leadership, 204-5; ideals of early settlers are not high, 205-6; influential citizens op- pose public secondary education, 206- 9 ; private and denominational acade- mies are encouraged, 208-11; many communities make beginnings in work beyond the eighth grade, 209-11; the situation as it existed previous to 1910, 211-13; development of public opinion favorable to high schools, 213- 23; the period of organization, 2 23-4; [445] Index the county high school law, 225-8; Oregon high school enrollment, 22 7; union high school law, 228-30; county high school fund law, 2 30-4; conclu- sion, 234-7. Hines, Gustavus, 77; for casual references to, see Diary of Reverend George Gary. Hoskins, John, clerk on the ship Colum- bia, 132-52; recounts with adverse criticism the attitude of the command- er and the crew towards him and the conduct of the vovage, 141-7. Hunt, Wilson P. 337. I J Jackson, David E., 28; leads partv to California in 1831 to purchase mules, 28-9; returns to New Mexico with mules, 131. Japan, clipping (1853) commenting on relations with, 60. Johnson, William, 76. Jones, Benjamin, 33 5; experienced hunt- er, joins the Wilson P. Hunt party, 357-8; antecedents, 358; farmer and trader to Santa Fe, 2 58; death, estate and will, 359-60. Judson, L. H., 82; for casual references to, see Diary of Reverend George Gary. K Kendrick, Captain John, participation in events at Honolulu and the accident causing his death, 125-6; 149. Kuykendall, Dr. William, father of the first effective Oregon high school law, 220-3. L LeDuke, 5; 10; 14. Lee, Jason, 77; 289-95. Leslie, David, 82; for casual references to, see Diary of Reverend George Gary. Lisa, Manuel, 341; 347. Lyons, Daniel Jackson, editor of the Umpqua Weekly Gazette, 56-9. Lyons, Mrs., author of poem, 57-8; 64-5. M McClellan, Robert, 335-6; early life and personal prowess, 345; Indian fighter, 345-6; Indian trader in partnership with Ramsay Crooks, 347; plans frus- trated by Sioux, 347-8; joins Wilson P. Hunt party of Pacific Fur Company, 348; bitter experiences on the way out, 348; balked by Indians in at- tempted return with Reed, 348-9; per- sists in determination to return and joins Robert Stuart party, 349; stub- bornly refuses to make detour to es- cape Blackfeet, 3 49-50; committed to prison for debt, 350; merchant, farmer and active in War of 1812, 350; death and appraisement of property, 351-2. McDonald, Ranald, first to introduce the English language into Japan, 60-1. McKenzie, Donald, beneficiary in the will of John Day, 355-6. McLoughlin, Dr. John, his life and serv- ices to Oregon, 363-4. Menzies' Journal, reference to, 131; 133-4. Menzies' Journal, extract from as Van- couver spoke the Columbia and had Captain Robert Gray detail his move- ments on the coast, 149-52. N Narbona, Governor of New Mexico, issues passports to members of trapping par- ties proceeding to the San Francisco, Gila and Colorado rivers, 8-9; 12. Newspapers, First, of Southern Oregon and Their Editors, 56-67. Northwest Trader in the Hawaiian Islands, A, (William Bronson, master of the English ship Butterworth) , 111-31; not the discoverer of the har- bor of Honolulu, 111; chance discovery of the possibilities of wealth in the fur trade brings him into the north Pacific Ocean, 112; his squadron of three vessels — ship Butterworth, Brown; sloop Jackal, Captain Alexan- der Stewart; sloop Prince Lee Boo, Captain Sharp, 112; description of these vessels, 112-3; two of vessels visit the Islands in the winter of 1792-3, 113; Brown one of the worst offenders in selling firearms and am- munition to the natives and in inciting the chiefs to keep up internecine war- fare, 114-5; the political situation in the Islands, 115; during first visit furnishes Kamehameha defective weapons, 115-7; Vancouver's scathing denunciation of practice, 116-7; enters into politico-commercial agreement with Kahekili, 117-8; evidence of vic- ious counsel given natives, 118-9; per- forms useful service to friend Kahekili, 119-20; sails to Canton, 130; the six accounts of the deaths of Captains Kendrick, Brown and Gordon, 121-30; the questions untouched, 130-1. o Ogden, Peter Skene, Exercises at the Unveiling of the M emorial Stone on His Grave, 361-85; the occasion, 361- 3; life and services of, 367-79; situa- tion in Oregon at the time of the Whitman massacre, 369-70; conditions that brought about the massacre, 371- 2 ; the problem it presented and Ogden's noble, dauntless and skillful handling of it in the rescue of the Whitman massacre survivors, 3 73-6; the murderers guilty of the massacre surrendered, tried and executed, 376-9; dedicatory address commemorating Ogden's conspicuous and noblest fidel- ity as husband and father, 379-82; the quality of Ogden's heroism in the rescue of the Whitman massacre sur- vivors so high as to deserve attention [446] Index by all, 382-4; general interest in this story would aid in making better Amer- icans of all, 384; the hardihood of the early pioneers deserves the tribute of memory from all, 385. Ogden, Peter Skene, has party of Hud- son's Bay Company trappers on the San Joaquin, 24. Oregon Institute, 90-5. "Oregon Missions," extracts from The Friend, Honolulu, including a letter by O. Eells, 1844, 195-7. P Pacific Fur Company, 335-6. Parrish, J. L., 83; for casual references, see Diary of Reverend George Gary. Pattie, James Ohio, 5; narrative of his expedition down the Gila and Colorado rivers, 15-18; comparison of Pattie's narrative with accounts of Ewing Young's expedition of 1826-7, 18. Perkins, H. K. W., 82; for casual refer- ence to, see Diary of Reverend George Garv. Putnam, Charles F., 57; 62. Q R Raymond, W. W., 83; for casual refer- ences to, see Diary of Reverend George Gary. • • , Reed, S. G., makes tour of principal stock breeding districts of country and purchases fine stock to be shipped to Oregon (1871), 108-9. Roberts, G. B., and wife, returning to Oregon, 71. Robidoux, Antoine, 6; 12. Robidoux, Miguel, 9. s Saint Helens, eruption of, 76-7. Schafer, Joseph, review of Carey's His- tory of Oregon by, 198-200. Scott, Harvey W., opposes public second- ary education, 206-7. Scottsburg-Winchester road, 61; 65. Shannon, George, 337. Smith, Jedediah S., 28. Smith, Thomas S. (Peg-Leg), 5; 9; 10; Stock, fine, bought for importation to Oregon, 108-9. Stuart, Robert, his overland party and its members, 335-60. Sublette, Milton, 5; 9; 10; 12; 13. Sublette, William, 2 8. T Thornton, J. Quinn and wife, 386; 390. Thornton and Nesmith trouble and Nesmith handbill, 401-3. Trails, trappers', to California, 4-5. T'Vault, Colonel William G., establishes Table Rock Sentinel at Jacksonville, 65; resents being accused of aboli- tionism and starts Intelligencer at Jacksonville, 66; his career, 66-7; 388-9; 404. u Umpqua Weekly Gazette, 56-65. V w Waldo, David, 28. Waller, A. F., 82; for casual references to, see Diary of Reverend George Garv. Watson's, Elizabeth Ann, sketch of George C. Yount, 11-15; 15-20. White, Elijah, intervenes in Waller- McLoughlin claim controversy, 97-102. Wolf skill, William, 5; 7; 22; 27. Work's, John, Journey from Fort Van- couver to Umpqua River and Return in 1834, his activities on the Pacific coast as fur trader and bibliography for his life and travels, 238-68; route and experiences on way from Fort Vancouver to Tualatin plains with con- ditions in 1834 and present geography, 2 39-43; impressions of the country drained by west side tributaries of the Willamette and of the Indians met and stray settlers in the valley, 243-52; the Siuslaw valley crossed, 252-3; impressions received and experiences in the Umpqua county, 253-69; in the region of the Coast and Mid- dle Forks of the Willamette, 2 60-3; return down the west side of the Willamette valley with fresh exper- iences with and observations of the Indians, 263-8. X Y Yount, George C, 11-12; 13. Young, Ewing, in the Fur Trade of the Far Southwest, 1822-34, 1-35; central figure in, 1 ; the fur trade in the far Southwest, ignored by Chittenden, 1-2; clandestine character of large part and lack of headquarters makes account of difficult, 2-3; newspaper notices of lacking in the Southwest, 3; some light from Mexican archives, 3; identi- fication of names difficult, 4; sum- mary of, 4-5 ; inadequacy of ordinary treatment of, 5; names of some of those who took part, 5-6; scope of Ewing Young's operations in, 6; with Becknell in 1821-2, 6-7; with Wolf- skill and Slover traps on the San Juan in 182 4, 7; probably leader of second expedition down the San Juan, 1824, 7-8; leader of a trapping party in 1826, 8-9; accounts of Young's expedi- tion to the Gila, 182 6, in stories giv- ing biographies of Wolfskill, of Thomas S. Smith, and of George C. Yount, 9- 14; summing up of the above ac- counts, 14-15; details compared with narrative of James Ohio Pattie, 15-22; [447] Index confiscation of his furs, 21-2; secures passports from Washington for protec- tion against another possible confisca- tion, 22; sends trapping party to Colorado, 1828, 22; Young's first ex- pedition to California, 1829-30, 22-7; incidents in his operations in Califor- nia, 24-7; leads trapping party to California, 1831, 29-30; after assist- ing Jackson with his mules on his wav to New Mexico, takes up otter and beaver hunt in California, 31-3; meets Hall J. Kelley, 33; summary of his ac- tivities, 33; question raised as to authenticity of evidence upon which claim to his estate was established, 34-5. z [448] THE OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY Organized December 17, 1898 FREDERICK V. HOLMAN President CHARLES B. MOORES Vice-President F. G. YOUNG - Secretary LADD & TILTON BANK - Treasurer GEORGE H. HIMES, Curator and Assistant Secretary DIRECTORS THE GOVERNOR OF OREGON, ex-officio THE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION, ex-officio Term Expires at Annual Meeting in October, 1924 MRS. HARRIET K. McARTHUR, RODNEY L. GLISAN Term Expires at Annual Meeting in October, 1925 CHARLES H. CAREY, B. B. BEEKMAN Term Expires at Annual Meeting in October, 1920 LESLIE M. SCOTT, JOHN GILL Term Expires at Annual Meeting in October, 1927 P. H. D'ARCY, T. C. ELLIOTT Tbe Quarterly is sent free to all members of tbe Society. Tbe annual dues are two dollars. The fee for life membership is twenty-five dollars. Contributions to The Quarterly and correspondence relative to historical ma- terials, or pertaining to the affairs of this Society, should be addressed to F. G. YOUNG, Secretary, Eugene, Oregon Subscriptions for The Quarterly, or for other publications of the Society, should be sent to GEORGE H. HIMES, Curator and Assistant Secretary, Public Auditorium, Third St., between Clay and Market Sts., Portland, Oregon

  1. Letters of Thomas Forsythe and William Clark in Mo. Hist. Soc. MSS.; Wisconsin Historical Society collections, vols. 19 and 20.