Oregon Historical Quarterly/Volume 24/Number 3

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THE QUARTERLY of the Oregon Historical Society

Volume XXIV SEPTEMBER, 1923 Number 3

Copyright, 1923, by the Oregon Historical Society The Quarterly disavows responsibility for the positions taken by contributors to its pages.


A HISTORY OF HIGH SCHOOL LEGISLATION IN OREGON TO 1910[1]

By Charles Abner Howard

Introductory

The purpose of this paper is to present the develop- ment of the legal status of high schools in Oregon to the close of the administration of J. H. Ackerman as state superintendent of public instruction in 1910, and to point out the influence of legislation on the development of the secondary department of the public school system of the state. The subject divides itself into three parts which will be presented in the following order:

First, conditions and influences that prevented high school legislation previous to 1900;

Second, the development of public opinion favorable to high school legislation which finally resulted in the enactment of high school laws of 1901 ;

Third, the period of high school organization through constructive legislation, 1901 to 1910.

I. Adverse Conditions and Influences

The Oregon School Code adopted in 1878 contains the following provisions as Section 9 of Duties of Directors : 202 Charles Abner Howard "To maintain at least six months in each year, in all districts where the number of persons between 4 and 20 years of age is 1,000, as shown by the clerk's yearly re- port, a high school, wherein shall be taught, in addition to the common school branches, such other branches as the directors of the district may prescribe." This is the first legislation enacted in Oregon having to do with high schools and no other law was passed dealing with secondary education in the public schools until 1901. The legislature of that year enacted two laws which became the basis of the high school system which has since grown up within the state. Since Portland was the only Oregon city with 1,000 children of school age in 1878 and for many years thereafter, the law of that year had no general effect on public secondary education throughout the state. Effective school legislation may therefore be said to have had its beginning in 1901. How- ever, several high schools were organized before the spe- cific legislation of that year and some discussion of the legal status of these, together with an exposition of the conditions and influences that prevented the more rapid development of the secondary section of the public school system will constitute the first part of this paper. This part of the discussion will be brought down to 1900, by which date opposition to public high schools had ceased to be effective. As has been stated, Portland was the only district in the state with 1,000 children of school age in 1878 when the law was passed requiring such districts to maintain high schools. By 1890 Astoria was the only other city whose school population had reacher this figure, and it was not until 1900 that Baker, Pendleton, and Salem had also reached it. 1 The direct effect of this legislation was iStatistics showing the school census by districts were not available. The school population is here calculated by dividing the total population by four. R. L. Polk and Company are authority for this method of cal- culation. High School Legislation In Oregon 203 therefore almost negligible so far as the state in general was concerned. High school organization must wait upon the develop- ment of elementary grades and such development in Ore- gon was slow. Not only were there few large commun- ities, but the state as a whole was sparsely settled until immigration began to speed up about the year 1900. Keeping in mind that Oregon is a state of few large communities, even with its present population of 783,389, we can realize the situation in 1860 when the population was only 52,465, in 1880 when there were only 174,768 persons within the boundaries of the state, and in 1890 when the population was 317,704, considerably less than half the present figure. 2 Such a state of affairs as is here pointed out is not conducive even to the thorough grade school organization which always forms the basis for the establishing of the more advanced departments. Wherever a group of settlers lived close enough together so that their children could be collected at some central point, a school district was organized and a teacher was employed. Money was scarce and the school term was correspondingly short. 3 From 1873, the earliest year for which statistics are available, until 1885, the average school term throughout the state was a little less than ninety days. As late as 1895, the average school term was only five and four-tenths months. Even of these weak school districts, there were comparatively few. In 1873 there were 642. This number had increased to 1,007 by 1880 and to 1,693 by 1890. In this connection, State Superintendent E. B. McElroy states in his report of 1889 that many of the districts were very large, "often em- bracing within their boundaries from fifteen to twenty- five square miles, while the average for the entire state is not under nine square miles. It is evident that one 2 United States Census. 3 S. C. Simpson — Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public In- struction of Oregon. 1874. p. 5. 204 Charles Abner Howard obstacle to the best school work in these large districts is the great distance to be traveled by the children * *

  • * * All the difficulties in the way of an efficient and

permanent school system will be removed only when we have secured a large number of people, thus making our school districts more populous and bringing the boundar- ies within smaller compass." 4 One of the principal needs during the early history of the state was legal provision for adequate educational leadership. Until 1873, the governor was ex-officio Sup- erintendent of Public Instruction and the burden of other important duties left him very little time for educational matters. The different counties of the state were, there- fore, practically independent of each other in school mat- ters. Even within the counties, adequate educational di- rection was lacking. County superintendents did not receive sufficient pay to justify their spending all their time at the work. In 1874 the annual salaries ranged from fifty to five hundred dollars, only five counties pay- ing the latter figure. 5 In 1885 the average annual salary for this important office was $370. 6 As late as 1898 this average had reached only $514. 7 This means that prac- tically all the county superintendents were engaged in regular teaching or in some other employment to eke out a living, and that few, however well endowed with qual- ities of leadership, could spend sufficient time at the job to properly organize and supervise the schools of a county. This lack of leadership meant that the school work of the state hung like a dead weight upon the shoulders of the state superintendent. Only a man of suerhuman en- ergy could be expected to bring about rapid improvement 4 £. B. McElroy — Eighth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Pub- lic Instruction of the State of Oregon. 1889. pp. 111-112. 5 First Biennial Report of the State Superintendent of Public Instruc- tion of Oregon. 1874. p. 86. 6 Sixth Biennial Report of the State Superintendent of Public Instruc- tion of Oregon. 1885. p. 69. 7 Thirteenth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- tion of Oregon. 1898. p. 7. High School Legislation In Oregon 205 of the situation under existing conditions. The early state superintendents seemed to feel helpless in the face of the situation and went about the state evangelizing instead of doing something definite to improve condi- tions. A course of study would undoubtedly have provided a basis for improvement but none was drafted for the state until 1900. 8 Previous to that date the regulations of the State Board of Education specified the subjects that might be taught but no effort was made to grade the work. 9 State Superintendent McElroy felt the need of a graded course of study but it seems not to have occured to him to draft one. In his report of 1891 he recommend- ed, "That each county superintendent be required to pre- pare and establish a graded course of study for county schools, and that each board of directors be required to adopt such a course of study." 10 There is no evidence that this added burden was ever placed upon these poorly paid servants of the people. Added to the fact that the country was sparsely set- tled and without educational leadership is the further consideration that the educational ideals of the rank and file of the early settlers were not high. These pioneers came largely from the raw states of the Middle West where high educational standards had not yet become es- tablished and where public schools were little known. Missouri, Kentucky and Tennessee were so largely repre- sented among the early immigrants as to shape the form of local government and to color the educational outlook. 11 There were, to be sure, a few among them who recognized the value of higher education. Such men were Jason Lee, fourteenth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- tion of Oregon. 1900. p. 199. 9 Twelfth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Oregon. 1897. p. 132. Rule xxxlx. This rule appears unchanged in each biennial report from 1876 to 1897. 10 E. B. McElroy — Ninth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Pub- lic Instruction of Oregon. 1891. p. 272. xl Strong (Frank) and S chafer (Joseph) — The Government of the American People, p. 29. 206 Charles Abner Howard J. H. Wilbur, T. F. Campbell and Bishop Thomas F. Scott. But they thought of "higher education" as a matter to be carried on by the church or by private enterprise. Others there were who vigorously and persistently attacked every effort at public education beyond the common school. 12 Probably the strongest opponent of public secondary education was Harvey W. Scott. As editorial writer of the Oregonian from 1870 to 1910, he wielded a tremend- ous influence in the direction of his conviction in this matter. Mr. Scott was a type of the intellectual aristo- crat. A man of fine mind, he could not but perceive the intellectual inferiority of the masses; of unbounded en- ergy and with an education secured by his own efforts, it was but natural that he should assume that those who could not work out their own educational salvation were not of sufficient value to the state to justify the expense of saving them. The following editorial from his pen clearly expresses the opinion, not only of the editor him- self, but of a considerable group of influential men of the time. Cure for Drones 13 "***** it is an axiom of those principles of political economy which are professed by all enlightened nations that taxation, however cunningly devised, is ulti- mately paid by the laboring classes. The real estate owners and the owners of taxable personal property are, after all, nothing but 'middle men' in the taxation busi- ness. The laboring classes are the real sufferers for the extravagant expenditures in the name of free education, which would otherwise seek investment in organized in- dustries that would afford their children employment and make their households happy; it is the laboring classes who ultimately pay the bills that enable the school book 12 Fourth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Oregon. 1880. p. 63. 13 The Oregonian of Portland, Oregon, April 16, 1879. This editorial and others referred to unless otherwise indicated, are listed in the "Index of the Editorial Writings of Harvey W. Scott" prepared by Leslie M. Scott. This index is in manuscript in the office of Leslie M. Scott, Yeon Building, Portland, Oregon. High School Legislation In Oregon rings to ring changes upon text books used in the public schools ; it is the laboring classes who ultimately pay for teaching music and foreign languages to the thousands of people who afterwards become drones on society, lhe only republican idea in education is to teach people enough to take care of themselves and keep out of jail ; but the cunning of those whose aim is to live without work has dazzled the bone and sinew of the country into the support of a system which gives them double toil m supporting their own children as drones. * * "The conclusion is this: Give every child a good common school English education at public expense, and then stop. There have been two presidents of the United States who have received less aid than this in their school education; if any want more, let those who dance pay the fiddler. This is the cure for drones. It is the way, too, to make the public schools a public blessing instead of allowing them to develop into nurseries of imbecility and idleness." In 1880 the attacks on public high schools in general and upon the Portland high school in particular, became so severe that at the annual school meeting of that year a committee was appointed to investigate the school and report at an adjourned meeting on July 12 of the same year. As a preliminary to its investigation, the commit- tee summed up the main objections as follows : "1. The high school is not a proper part of the sys- tem of public education. "2. Foreign languages, higher mathematics ana sev- eral branches of natural science, so-called, should not be taught in the public schools. "3. Those who desire for their children an education beyond the public schools should pay for it." The committee met these objections squarely and ex- onerated the high school from various charges made against it. The very length and vigor of the report are indications of the danger in which the school had been placed by the force of the attack. 14 fourth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Oregon. 1880. pp. 63-72. The committee referred to consisted or 208 Charles Abner Howard The attitude indicated by these attacks on public high schools would be expected to meet with ardent opposition from those who occupied positions of prominence in the public education of the state. There is no evidence, how- ever, that this was the case. On the contrary, one of the principal speakers at the meeting of the State Teachers Association held at Portland in 1896 consumed a consider- able portion of his time in an argument against public education beyond the "common school." 15 Not only was the speech delivered, but it was printed in the biennial report of the state superintendent the following year. Apparently the state superintendent was not particularly aroused by the following statements quoted from the ad- dress or he would not have printed it in his report : "Private property is justly taxed for public school purposes, not to make drones in society, educated dudes or smart rascals, but in the vital interests of the state and nation, to make intelligent, upright and useful American citizens. To do more than this I believe to be superfluous, unwarranted and unjust to the taxpayers, not in the in- terests of good morals or the nation's welfare, and in a vast majority of cases, injurious to the individual recip- ient. ******* Nothing should be done to extend the curriculum of the public schools beyond that of giving the student a well rounded common school edu- cation adapted to the requirements of the latter part of the nineteenth century." 16 This attitude on the part of influential citizens had G. H. Atkinson, Wm. Kapus, C. A. Dolph, A. Waldman, Wm. H. Wad- hams, Chas. E. Sitton, and Rosa F. Burrell. The committee made a careful investigation and came forth with an extended report which not only exonerated the schools from the charges, but went so far as to set forth vigorous arguments for the high school as an integral part of the public school system. The report of the committee is printed in full in the State Superintendent's Report. 15 "Common school" as used by the laity, means the grades below those ordinarily included in high school. It is this meaning that is intended wherever the term is used in this paper. 16 Dr. George H. Chance — The Preparation in Our Schools for Good Citizenship. Twelfth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public In- struction of Oregon. 1897. pp. 160-162. Dr. Chance was a Portland dentist. High School Legislation In Oregon 209 the effect of postponing the general organizing of high schools in two ways ; directly by keeping down the senti- ment in favor of them, and indirectly by encouraging the opening of private and denominational academies and colleges to meet the demand for education of a higher grade than that offered in the common schools. By 1874 when the first report of the state superintendent was published, there were fourteen colleges and academies in the state. 17 The colleges all conducted preparatory de- partments. In most of them this department had the bulk of the enrollment. By 1895 this number had increased to forty-seven. Though all of these except the State Uni- versity, the Agricultural College, and the State Normals, were independent institutions, they were generally re- garded as a part of the educational system. Each was given space in the biennial report of the state superin- tendent to enumerate its courses and to set forth its ad- vantages. The report of 1878 gives thirty-nine of its one hundred seventeen pages for this purpose. It is rather significant that this advertising of the private institu- tions at public expense stopped abruptly upon the in- duction of J. H. Ackerman into office as state superin- tendent in 1899, and that the first substantial high school legislation was enacted just two years after he became head of the Oregon school system. In spite of the lack of specific legislation to support them, many communities had made a small beginning before 1900 by offering some work beyond the eighth grade. The biennial report of the state superintendent for 1898 lists Astoria, Baker City, Portland, and The Dalles as having high schools, and Albany, Ashland and Salem as having "additional grades." 18 The presumption would be that the first four offered four full years. How- ever, this presumption does not seem to be entirely cor- 17 Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Ore- gon. 1874. pp. 102-123. 18 Thirteenth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- tion of Oregon. 1898. p. 154. 210 Charles Abner Howard rect, for the report of 1900 lists The Dalles as offering only two years work above the eighth grade. 19 The report of 1900 gives the first complete tabulation of public high school statistics for Oregon to be found. 20 It includes fifty-nine schools which claimed to be doing at least one year of high school work. However, in twenty-nine of these, the school year was less than nine months, so the amount of high school instruction was probably negli- gible. Of the remaining thirty, Astoria, Baker, Eugene and Portland were the only ones having at least nine month of school and a high school course of four years. It has already been pointed out that up to the year 1900, Astoria, Baker City, Pendleton, Portland and Salem were the only cities that came under the high school law of 1878. Portland had established a high school in 1869 and each of these other cities with the exception of As- toria had installed advanced classes before the school census had reached the thousand mark as called for in the law. These larger cities as well as all the smaller ones listed in the 1900 report as having high schools, had gone beyond the law in this matter. They were con- stantly subject to attack as having no legal foundation. Their situation was thus made unstable in spite of the fact that the courts would undoubtedly have upheld a school district in levying a tax for high school purposes if a case had been brought before them. In the famous case of Kalamazoo, Michigan, this point had been tested out and such a tax had been declared constitutional, though there had been no specific high school law author- izing such a tax. 21 The court's decision that a tax for high school purposes was constitutional was later concurred in by the supreme courts of Illinois and other states. 22 Such 19 Fourteenth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- tion of Oregon. 1900. p. 44. 20 Fourteenth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- tion of Oregon. 1900. pp. 42-44. 21 30 Michigan. 69. 22 H. D. Sheldon—State Systems of High School Control, p. 6. High School Legislation In Oregon 211 attacks as were made upon these Oregon high schools from the legal point of view, while they could not have met with ultimate success in destroying these institutions, were nevertheless a hampering influence that greatly re- tarded the growth of the schools in some cases and pre- vented their establishment in other communities. Spe- cific legislation was badly needed if public secondary education was to prosper. Before proceeding with the consideration of those in- fluences which were gradually bringing the public into a favorable attitude toward public high schools it has seemed desirable to make a comparison of secondary school enrollment in Oregon with that of five other rep- resentative states, and it is for the purpose of such a comparison that the following table has been prepared. Massachusetts and Pennsylvania were selected as repre- senting two types of eastern states, Kansas and Indiana are fairly representative of the middle west, and Wash- ington was selected as typical of the Pacific coast. It was believed that nothing of value would be added in the way of comparison by including any of the southern states. While we have under consideration at this point, the situ- ation as it existed previous to the legislation of 1901, a tabulation has been prepared for 1910 for reference in the later part of the discussion. The logical place to in- troduce it seemed to be at this point along with the tabu- lations for 1890 and 1900. 212 Charles Abner Howard ENROLLMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS^ 1890 1. Massachusetts 2. Kansas 3. Oregon 4. Indiana 5. Washington ... 6. Pennsylvania . United States... x _v 3 On . 187 . 104 9 . 117 . 11 . 116 .2,773 ■3«  19,467 6,362 566 8,560 693 12,417 211,596 Ph 75 16 17 18 18 105 1,714 HOD 5,100 687 848 955 791 7,347 98,400 24,567 7,049 1,414 9,515 1,484 19,764 309,996 BQ ft 10.97 4.94 4.50 4.34 4.25 3.76 4.95 1900 1910 be Ofj _^ o £ 1 79 90 40 90 47 63 69 1. Massachusetts 241 38,314 96 5,935 44,359 15.77 87 2. Indiana . 390 26,755 29 2,446 29.401 11.60 91 3. Kansas 223 15,638 12 841 16,479 11.02 95 4. Oregon 34 2,639 16 832 3,471 8.39 75 5. Washington .. 74 3,692 15 643 4,335 8.37 85 6. Pennsylvania .. .. 391 32,438 137 11,236 43,674 6.93 74 United States ..6,318 541,730 1,892 108,226 649,956 8.53 83 1. Massachusetts .. 224 58,586 95 7,462 66,048 19.62 89 2. Washington 161 20,109 21 910 21,019 17.54 96 3. Indiana 579 43,917 29 2,030 45,947 17.01 95 4. Kansas ... 363 27,594 22 992 28,586 16.90 96 5. Oregon 115 9,879 19 1,147 11,026 16.53 90 6. Pennsylvania . ... 827 69,691 123 10,810 80,501 10.50 87 United States... .10,234 984,677 1,979 130,649 1,115,326 12.13 88 In this table, the states are arranged in the order of number of secondary students per 1,000 population. The figures show a much better state of affairs in Oregon so 23 The figures on number of secondary schools and enrollment are taken from reports of the United States Commissioner of Education The number of students per 100 population were figured on the basis of the United States Census. High School Legislation In Oregon 213 far as actual secondary shool attendance is concerned than is generally supposed to have existed, for in this group of six representative states, Oregon stood third in 1890, and fourth in 1900. The figures for Oregon are almost identical with those of the country at large for each of these years. Referring to the last column, it will be observed that the number of secondary students at- tending public high schools in Oregon in 1890 was only forty per cent of the total, considerably lower than any other state in the group and twenty-nine per cent below that of the country at large. By 1900 the figure in the per cent column had increased to seventy-five but was still far below that of any other state except Pennsylvan- ia. The private schools were actually taking care of the situation though the number of public high schools was small. However, as the competition between the public and the private schools became sharp, the latter disinte- grated too rapidly for the former to meet the situation. This resulted in Oregon's slipping back in secondary school attendances as compared with other states. Note that Oregon stood third among the six states in 1890, fourth in 1900, and fifth in 1910. II. The Development of Public Opinion Favorable to High Schools Conditions and influences favorable to high school legislation and which finally resulted in the enactment of the high school laws of 1901 will now be considered. During the long period while public secondary education in Oregon, except in a few larger centers, was without legal sanction, there were those who, from time to time, lifted up their voices in favor of this department. The attitude of Harvey W. Scott as editor of the Oregonian, in opposition to public high schools, has been pointed out. It should be noted, however, that others connected with this great daily took a different view. One of these was Aaron Bushweiler, well known in Portland as a news writer of the seventies. An article from his pen appears 214 Charles Abner Howard in the Oregonmn of May 5, 1869, about two weeks after the opening of the first public high school classes in that city, in which, after general commendatory remarks con- cerning the new educational venture, he says : "Already one of the beneficial effects of such an in- stitution is visible in the influence it has upon the public schools themselves. Such is the emulation it promotes that scholars are continually applying for admission who cannot be admitted because they are not up to the re- quired grade, but return with renewed animation to reach the desired point of advancement. ****** We congratulate the citizens of Portland as well as the pro- jectors of the plan on this new and essential element in the intellectual wants of the city, wherein is secured free of special charge, and entirely at public expense as full and thorough an academic course as can be had in the city and perhaps in the state." Evidence of opposition to the public high school from those interested in private institutions is apparent in Bushweiler's closing paragraph : "We bespeak for the high school nothing that shall derogate in the least from the other schools and academies of the city, but we wish the success of all. They are en- titled to the highest consideration and most earnest sup- port of our citizens. They are true exponents of the popular mind and are well entitled to the liberal support of the taxpayers." A friendly attitude occasionally crept into the editor- ial page also but, needless to say, not from the pen of Harvey W. Scott. An editorial of this nature in the Ore- gonian of January 1, 1878, closes as follows: "Objections to free secondary education lie, if of any force, equally against free primary education. Either the state has no right to interfere in education of any kind, or the degree of that education must be defined, not arbitrarily, but by the standard of popular intelligence.

          • ar g Umen t contemplating free educa-

tion to the point of a high school and then excluding this, can, we think, be proved inconsistent and illogical." High School Legislation In Oregon 215 Undoubtedly the most effective piece of work done in the cause of public secondary education during this early period was that of the committee appointed in 1880 to in- vestigate the charges made against the Portland schools and particularly against the high school. This committee was appointed at the school meeting in March of that year. The schools were being subjected to a vigorous attack led by Harvey W. Scott of the Oregonian. The situation had, therefore, attracted a great deal of atten- tion so that the report of the committee, when it was finally presented, gained wide circulation and was read with keen interest. The evidences which it showed of having been prepared after careful, first-hand investiga- tion, its obvious sincerity, and the firm hand with which it swept aside the most frequently repeated criticisms, resulted in settling for all time the question as to whether or not the high school was to continue as a part of the Portland school system. It also had its effect in creating a more favorable attitude toward public high schools throughout the state. It was printed in full in the bi- ennial report of the state superintendent through which it came into the hands of all the members of the state legislature as well as of many school people. This force- ful defense of the Portland schools and particularly of the high school covers eight pages of the state superin- tendent's report and would be read with interest by any student of Oregon's educational history who desires to get the atmosphere and smell the powder of the Portland school controversy of over four decades ago. 24 The growth of the Portland high school was very slow during the first few years of its existence, on account of the general opposition to it and the social stigma that was attached to attendance at a free high school. 25 The enrollment was forty-five on the date of opening in April, 24 Fourth Biennial Report of the State Superintendent of Public Instruc- tion of Oregon. 1880. pp. 64-72. . , , ^Oregonian. April 13, 1919, Section 1, p. 14. The private school students taunted those who attended the public high school by calling 216 Charles Abner Howard 1869, and had increased to only 140 by 1880. However, 1890 showed an enrollment of 263 and from that year, the school grew rapidly both in enrollment and in general favor. In 1895 the enrollment was 685 and by 1900 it had reached 860. 26 In the meantime, though the city had grown rapidly, the private secondary schools had just about held their own. Their total enrollment for 1880 was 388; for 1899, 273; for 1900, 377. The figures for 1880 probably include some pupils below secondary grade. By 1900, more and more of the younger men who had come into leadership in Portland were products of the public high school and relatively fewer were graduates of the private institutions. The Portland high school had over 1000 graduates previous to 1900 while many others had attended the school for a year or more. 27 These men and women served to leaven the lump which had weighed so heavily in its opposition to a general system of high schools for the state. From the time of the establishing of the office of state superintendent of public instruction in 1873, the state board of education had assumed that some measure of secondary education should be a part of the public school system of the state. On the basis of this assumption, text- them "free school bums" and shouting to them: "My father pays for your education." 26 The following tabulation is made up from figures taken from the Report of the United States Commissioner of Education and the Reports of the Public Schools of Portland, Oregon. The tabulation is imperfect on account of the fact that figures showing the enrollment in the private schools were not available for every year. Enrollment Secondary Enrollment Year Portland H. S. Portland Private Schools 1869 45 1876 137 1880 140 388* 1890 263 273 1895 685 1900 860 377 1905 1094 1910 2387

  • Probably includes some elementary pupils.

27 Twenty-eighth Annual Report of the Public Schools of Portland, Oregon. 1900-1901. pp. 47-66. High School Legislation In Oregon 217 books had been selected for some high school subjects, in addition to those chosen for the grammar school branches. The following appears among the Rules and Regulations of the State Board of Education printed in 1874 : "In high schools and other schools of advanced grade, the following named studies together with such others as the directors may prescribe may be taught in addition to those above mentioned (the common school branches), to- wit: Higher Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, General History (Advanced), Composition, Physiology, Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Botany, Bookkeeping, and Science of Government (optional)." 28 For twenty-six years this regulation stood unchanged except for the addition of Hygiene and Vocal Music in 1887, 29 Astronomy and Geology in 1891, 30 and Latin and Physical Geography in 1900. 31 This meager statement at least gave official sanction to any efforts by school boards to establish high school grades. However, the state sup- erintendents as well as other educators of the state real- ized that, if a system of high schools was to be built, it must be founded on something more substantial than the regulation of a state board. State Superintendent Irwin voiced the general sentiment of school men in the follow- ing recommendation to the legislature in his biennial re- port of 1898 : "The law should be so amended and made definite in its statements that any city or town may be authorized to establish a regular high school, of four grades or less, providing the legal voters vote to establish the same and will vote the estimated amount to sustain such a school

          • "32

28Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Ore- gon. 1874. p. 34. . _ 29 Seventh Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Oregon. 1887. p. 24. . 30 Ninth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction ot Oregon. 1891. p. 146. 31 Fourteenth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- tion of Oregon. 1900. p. 69. 32 Thirteenth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- tion of Oregon. 1898. p. 228. 218 Charles Abner Howard The year previous to the publication of the report con- taining the above recommendation, the board of regents had raised the standard of admission to the University. The sub-freshman department had previously accepted all applicants who showed any sort of intellectual promise regardless of specific preparation. 33 At the regent's meeting in February, 1897, it was decided to require at least two years of work above the eighth grade for ad- mission to this department. If this new standard was to be maintained, the state must have high schools in which the necessary preparation might be made. In public ad- dresses as well as in his printed reports, President C. H. Chapman threw his influence back of the move for defi- nite high school legislation. 34 At the session of the Oregon legislature in 1899, an attempt was made to have a school code adopted that would unify the school laws and give Oregon an educa- tional system in the place of the unorganized group of schools that were endeavoring to serve the educational needs of the state at that time. This code, known as the Daly Bill, from the fact that it was presented by Senator John M. Daly of Benton County, included provisions for the organization of high schools in communities where voters desired them. The Daly Bill was the most talked of measure that came before the legislature at that ses- sion. 35 It proposed, among other things, to change the system of textbook adoptions and to cut out about twenty- 33 The requirements for sub-freshman admission are set forth in the catalog of the University for 1896 as follows: "1. All graduates from reputable schools where the eighth grade branches are completed, are admitted without examination. "2. Persons holding teachers' certificates are admitted without examination. "3. Other applicants must pass written examinations covering the topics specified below:" The topics listed are Arithmetic, Geography, United States History, Mathematical Geography, English Grammar, and English Composition. The work to be covered in each subject is set forth. 34 Thirteenth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- tion of Oregon. 1898. pp. 86-88. 35 Files of the Oregonian for January and February, 1899. High School Legislation In Oregon 219 five private and denominational schools and colleges from the privilege of granting teachers' certificates to their graduates without examination. After a short fight, the bill passed the House. In the Senate, so much discussion ensued that, by the time one-fourth of the code had been adopted, clause by clause, it became apparent that it would be impossible to finish the task, so a motion was carried to strike out the remainder. The high school pro- vision was among the sections eliminated. This section did not come up for discussion on the floor of the senate but there was a strong undercurrent of opposition to it and friends of the measure were of the opinion that it would have been killed if it had come to a vote. 36 From newspaper accounts of the attempt at school legislation in 1899 and the discussions that ensued, there is scant mention of the fact that the state had a superin- tendent of public instruction whose voice should be heard in the matter. A man had just stepped into that office at the opening of the legislative session, but neither the legislators nor the general public had yet discovered it. That man was J. H. Ackerman, the organizer, to whose capable hands came the task of giving shape to Oregon's school system. Mr. Ackerman was particularly well fitted for the task which lay before him. He had had normal school training and was a thoughtful student and a careful ob- server of education in its broader aspects, thus filling in the gap that lack of university training would other- wise have left vacant. His range of experience had been broad and successful. He had been a high school prin- cipal, principal of a large grade school building in a city system, city superintendent and superintendent of Ore- gon's most populous county. Most of his work had been in Oregon, so that Oregon conditions and Oregon needs were familiar to him. He was of large physique and of commanding presence. He was clear and forceful in ^Oregonian, February 6, 1899. p. 3. 220 Charles Abner Howard public address. He commanded respect for his opinions. His stable character and steady trustworthiness gained for him the unwavering confidence of men that knew him. He was a good politician. He conducted a careful cam- paign of education in preparation for each progressive measure which he proposed. The enormity of his legis- lative task did not arouse his impatience to the point of losing all by asking too much. His legislative program was well planned and he rarely lost a bill. The first step in that program was the securing of a high school law. A statement of these facts concerning Mr. Ackerman has seemed necessary as a partial explanation of the rapid educational progress of the state during the twelve years of his administration. A history of Oregon high school legislation in Oregon would not be complete without mention of Dr. William Kuykendall of Eugene, who represented Lane County in the state senate for several sessions. Dr. Kuykendall is a native Oregonian. He received his secondary education at the Wilbur Academy in Douglas County and took a part of his medical course at Willamette University. Only his elementary education was received in a public school, but he has shown a keen appreciation of the value of public education and an exceptional understanding of ed- ucational organization. His exceptional ability in his profession and his natural qualities of leadership placed him in a position of influence in the state and his influ- ence was constantly at the service of public education. He made the establishment of high schools in Oregon his special mission. His interest in education was recognized by his appointment to the committee on education in the senate. All the educational legislation of 1899 and 1901, whether introduced by him or by others, was moulded into acceptable shape by him before it ever came to a vote. He was father of the first effective high school law that Oregon ever had. During the later nineties and the first few years of the present century, he was the High School Legislation In Oregon 221 only leader in the legislature who could be depended upon to subject every other interest to that of the public schools. Without his leadership, the development of pub- lic high schools in Oregon would have been greatly de- layed. Immediately at the close of the 1899 session, the new state superintendent began a two years' campaign of edu- cation for high schools. He spoke for high schools at county teachers' institutes, at commencement programs and in private conversation. He urged others to talk about high schools, particularly teachers. When the legis- lature met in January, 1901, he and his close friends in the legislature were still in doubt as to the attitude that body would take toward a high school law. 37 With Dr. William Kuykendall, he had prepared a general school code including a high school clause. However, fearing that some of the legislators would be antagonized by the term, "high school," it was decided to substitute for it, "grades above the eighth grade." This section was as follows : "When one-third of the legal voters of a district shall petition the district board, requesting that grades above the eighth grade may be taught in such district, or when- ever the district board shall in its discretion think proper, it shall give twenty days' notice previous to the annual school meeting, or previous special election called for that purpose, that it will submit the question to the legal vot- ers of said district whether grades above the eighth grade shall be taught in such district, at which election the electors of the district shall vote by ballot for or against establishing such grades. All notices contemplated in this section shall be given as all legal notices of special school meetings. After said election the ballots of said question shall be canvassed by the district board, and if a majority of all the votes cast shall be in favor of estab- lishing such grades, it shall be the duty of the district board to establish such grades and determine what 37 The statements regarding Mr. Ackerman's activities in behalf of high school legislation is based on his public addresses and on many personal conversations with him. 222 Charles Abner Howard branches shall be taught therein, and the course of study used by classes thus formed in districts of the second and third classes shall be that prescribed by the State Board of Education." Senator Daly of Benton County, who had presented the school bill of 1899, was still greatly interested in this subject, so the new code was placed in his hands for pre- sentation in the legislature. He brought it in early in the session as Senate Bill No. 11. It became apparent at once that there would be little opposition to the measure. State Superintendent Ackerman and Dr. Kuykendall were emboldened to attempt something more substantial in the way of high school legislation than the section above quoted. A measure providing for the organization and financing of district and county high schools was forth- with drawn up and presented by Dr. Kuykendall as Sen- ate Bill No. 103. On final passage each of these bills received practically a unanimous vote. 38 The fact that this belated legislation had not only passed, but had passed almost unanimously, meant that Oregon had at last got out of the woods educationally. Superintendent Ackerman's two years of effort at ed- ucating the public on the subject of high schools had had its influence in bringing about this entire change of at- titude on the part of the legislature between 1899 and 1901, but there is at least one contributory explanation for the reversal of attitude that is worthy of mention. Harvey W. Scott had given up the fight. During the legislative session of 1901 he came to Salem and, in the course of his stay there, had a talk with Dr. Kuykendall in regard to educational matters. He stated that he had not changed his views on public education and that he still believed that the state had no business providing free schools above the elementary grades. "But," said he, "I am an old man now and I am not going to fight you any longer. Free public high schools are coming and I ^Oregon Senate Journal. 1901. p. 322. pp. 337-338. High School Legislation In Oregon shall cease to oppose them." 39 The rock that had blocked the wheels of educational progress until Oregon was many years behind the rest of the country, had finally crumbled. III. The Period of Organization — 1901-1910 The third part of this paper will deal with the organiz- ation period of Oregon high schools from 1901, the date of the first general high school legislation, to the close of State Superintendent Ackerman's administration on De- cember 31, 1910. The effect of the District and County High School Law upon the development of secondary edu- cation in the state will be considered, together with the need for and enactment of further legislation. This is spoken of as the Period of Organization because the chief task of this decade was to get high schools started throughout the state. Something was done in the direc- tion of standardizing them but for this period, standard- ization was a secondary consideration. It is unfortunate that the section providing for the organization of grades above the eighth could not have been eliminated from the Daly school code when the Dis- trict and County High School Bill was introduced. Prac- tically all the village and city high schools of the state have been organized under the latter measure, but when the time came that high schools were popular in Oregon, many rural districts seized upon the short law as their sanction for requiring their teachers to give one or two years of high school work. In many of these schools, the teachers had plenty of work on their hands to take care of the elementary grades and few of them were prepared to teach the high school subjects. They were rarely pro- vided with even a minimum of equipment for teaching the advanced work. As a result, the elementary work suffered, while many of those who had taken the ad- vanced subjects went on into city high schools only to 39 Interview with Dr. William Kuykendall. 224 Charles Abner Howard find themselves entirely unprepared to keep up with the high school classes to which they had been promoted. So far as it applied to district high schools, the Kuy- kendall law was worded the same as the "grades above the eighth section of the 1901 code, with the following additions : 1. The district high schools should be under the con- trol of the district school board the same as the element- ary grades ; 2. The district board might use any part of the county, state or district school funds for high school pur- poses ; 3. The district was required to maintain at least eight months of school for the elementary grades if it was to use money for high school purposes ; 4. The high school was to be free to all pupils of school age in the district, who passed the eighth grade examination. 40 It was the purpose of the framers of this law to pro- vide a legal foundation for city and town high school and thus to encourage their organization. It went further than the provision for grades above the eighth in that it defined the high school as a part of the public school sys- tem by placing it under the control of the district board in the same manner as the elementary grades. It also made clear the sources from which money might be used for high school purposes. The section setting graduation from the eighth grade as a standard of admission to high school provided a basis for stardardizing the high schools themselves. They could at least have a common starting point since the eighth grade examination had been made uniform throughout the state. In 1901 there were great sections of the state so sparsely settled that communities with sufficient wealth and population to maintain a high school were very far apart. It was proposed that high school opportunities in 40 Oregon School Law. 1921. p. 142. High School Legislation In Oregon 225 these thinly settled sections should be provided by organ- izing county high schools located at one or more points in the county and supported by a tax upon all the property in the county. A county high school law had been in oper- ation in the neighboring state of California for ten years with apparent success. 41 Such a plan as this was made a part of the Kuykendall law. The plan was set forth in detail and was optional with the counties. 42 At the time of its adoption, the people of the state looked with favor upon the County High School Law. Gilliam, Josephine, Crook and Klamath Counties adopted the plan at once and Harney, Wheeler and Wallowa soon followed. 43 In several other counties the plan was under consideration during the four or five years following the enactment of the law. 44 However, these counties lost their ardor before the question came to a vote and, except in one case, the system has never been extended beyond the seven counties in which it was first adopted. As has been mentioned, this law was designed to serve the in- terests of the sparsely settled sections. But settlement does not always remain sparse. As new communities have grown up in counties having one county high school, jealousies have arisen and the county institution has been subjected to attack. The law provides that, if the people so vote, more than one high school may be established, but only one county has ever established more than one. Lincoln County established two such schools in 1921. Each of the other counties in which the plan has been placed in operation has had only one town of any con- siderable size at the time of the adoption. Presumably, ^Snyder, Edwin R— The Legal Status of Rural High Schools in the U. S. p. 70. 42 Oregon School Law. 1921. pp. 142-146. 43 In Josephine County the County high school board has operated under the clause which provides that a contract may be made with some district already maintaining a high school, to teach the high school stu- dents of the County at an agreed rate per capita. 44 Seventeenth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- tion of Oregon. 1907. p. 190. 226 Charles Abner Howard the voters might vote to establish an additional county high school at a later date if a new community should grow up, but this has not been done. In at least one county, the county high school board has kept the new communities satisfied by appropriating money from funds raised for the county high school, to assist in financing small local high schools. While this proceeding is not legal, it is at least expedient and has been carried on for a dozen years without being challenged. 45 Some years after the establishment of a county high school at Enterprise in Wallowa County, the towns of Joseph, Wallowa and Lostine desired to organize high schools of their own and appealed to the county high high school board for financial assistance. The board re- fused to grant the request and arrangements were carried out to resubmit the county high school question to the voters of the county. As a result of the election, the county high school was voted out of existence. This pro- ceeding was of doubtful legality but was not taken into the courts for settlement. Sooner or later, each of these counties is sure to develop such a situation as is here set forth. A legal procedure should be adopted whereby a county with a county high school may either establish additional schools or divide itself into a number of union high school districts as the population increases. With the enactment of the law in 1901 providing for the organization of District and County High Schools, most of the opposition to this branch of the public school system seemed to vanish. The press as well as the people generally assumed a favorable attitude toward the organ- ization of high schools even in small communities. 46 There were three causes for this change of attitude. First was 45 In 1921 the legislature revised the law so that the county high school board is required to give financial assistance to district or union high schools in the county other than the county high school, provided such schools have been standardized by the state superintendent. (Laws 1921, Chap. 302.) 46 Sixteenth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- tion of Oregon. 1905. p. 225. High School Legislation In Oregon 227 the able leadership of State Superintendent Ackerman, which has already been discussed. Second, the popula- tion of the state increased over sixty per cent from 1900 to 1910. 47 Among the newcomers were many progressive and energetic men and women from communities with well developed school systems, who immediately de- manded adequate school facilities for their children in the communities into which they had moved. The third cause is closely allied to the second. As the stream of immigra- tion flowed in, each community wanted to secure its share of the new population. Realizing that good schools are a real attraction, Chambers of Commerce and other civic organizations seized upon the schools as a part of their advertising program, and many stately brick high school buildings were hastened to completion in order that their pictures might feature in the booster literature of their respective communities. The following table shows the growth in number of high schools and in high school enrollment from 1900 to 1910: OREGON HIGH SCHOOLS AND HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 48 Population Number of High School Year of Oregon High Schools Enrollment 1900 413,536 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 672,765 47 The United States Census shows a population for Oregon of 443,536 in 1900 and 672,765 in 1910. 48 Reports of the United States Commissioner of Education. 30 1916 34 2639 39 2700 50 2875 68 3626 70 4137 72 4676 91 5787 94 6087 110 7258 126 8914 228 Charles Abner Howard After the enactment of the District and County High School Law of 1901, there was no further high school legislation until 1907. Since the law of 1907 was of such a nature as to require seven months to get into operation, the growth of high schools up to and including 1908 may be assumed to have taken place under the law of 1901. The table shows over three times as many high schools in 1908 as in 1900 and an increase of 131 per cent in high school enrollment from 1901 to 1908. The greater proportional increase in high schools than in enrollment indicates the organization of many small high schools during this period. Oregon was rapidly catching up with the educational procession. In the country as a whole, the number of high schools as well as high school enroll- ment had increased only forty-two per cent 49 while in Oregon, the former had trebled and the latter had more than doubled. While the County High School Law had defects which became apparent when it was put into operation, it did serve to enlarge the unit of taxation. It also made the high school technically free to all the boys and girls in the county. However, comparatively few counties had adopted this plan so a large portion of the state was without the advantages which it offered. Many village districts were attempting to support a high school on a low assessed valuation while all about them were valuable farm and timber lands which were not paying a single dollar toward the high school education of the state. At the same time, thousands of boys and girls who lived in these non-high school districts could secure a high school edu- cation only by paying such tuition as the town or city school board migh choose to collect from them. The Union High School Law of 1907 was designed as a partial solution of these problems. This law provides a detailed procedure by which two or more contiguous 49 Report of the United States Commissioner of Education. 1912. Vol II., p. 381. High School Legislation In Oregon 229 school districts may unite for high school purposes only. 50 It is the presumption of such a law that a number of rural districts will unite with a city, town or village dis- trict to form a unit of taxation with sufficient wealth to support a well conducted high school. Property previous- ly exempt from high school taxation would thus be brought in and children previously without high school privileges would have the high school doors opened to them. In this law, but not a part of the general plan, was a clause to the effect that any district or union high school in the state should admit, whenever the facilities of the school would warrant, a resident of any non-high school district prepared to enter such a school. A tuition fee might be charged, but this fee could not exceed "the amount apportioned on account of said pupil from the common and irreducible school funds during the preced- ing year." This tuition was to be paid by the school dis- trict in which the pupil held his legal residence. This law had the effect of opening the high schools to every child in the state who was prepared to enter. To this extent it was a good law. However, it was defective in that the amount of the tuition was very small as compared with the per capita cost of operating the high schools. In none of the counties did the apportionment referred to amount to more than ten dollars per census child, while the per capita cost of operating the average high school of that day was between fifty and sixty dollars. This was a losing game for the districts maintaining high schools and they saw to it that this section of the law was re- pealed in 1911. Even if the provision had been made for an adequate tuition to be paid by the home districts of non-resident high school students, the law would still have been de- 50 Oregon School Laws. 1921. pp. 147-154. As it appears in the 1921 compilation, this law includes revisions. However, these revisions are as to details. The general plan of the law has not been changed. 230 Charles Abner Howard fective. Under such an arrangement, the financial bur- den would have rested upon the districts in proportion to the number of students they sent to high school and not in proportion to their ability to pay. No system of direct taxation for school purposes is entirely satisfac- tory unless it results in a distribution of the burden over a large unit on the basis of wealth and not on the basis of the number of children to be educated. As to the effect of the Union High School Law on the organization of high schools, there are no figures for the first eight years after its adoption. Beginning with 1916, the number of union high schools in the state for each year was as follows : 51 1916, 21 ; 1917, 23 ; 1918, 27 ; 1919, 31; 1920, 34; 1921, 39. Considering the fact that there are over 2500 school districts in Oregon, thirty-nine union high schools seem few to have been organized in the course of fourteen years. However, most sections of Oregon are still thinly populated and the Union High School Plan is most freely adopted in a thickly settled community where the districts are comparatively small, compact and well developed, so that pupils from every section of the union high school district may reach the central school with a fair degree of ease. Where the dis- tricts are large, of small population and with an unde- veloped road system, the union high school does not stand in high favor. With the slight revisions which it has undergone since it was first adopted, the Union High School Law is a good piece of legislation and will no doubt prove to be of increasing value as the state becomes more thickly settled. The last step taken in the progress of high school legislation in Oregon during the period which we have under consideration, was the adoption of the County High School Fund Law by the legislature of 1909. This law was an outgrowth of the County High School Plan as worked out in Lane County. This county had adopted the "Letter of Supt. J. A. Churchill, July 21, 1922. High School Legislation In Oregon 231 County High School Law in 1908. The county high school board had operated under that section of the law which provides that, instead of establishing a central high school for the county, the board may contract with an existing high school to take care of the students at an agreed rate of tuition. County Superintendent W. B. Dillard worked out a detailed plan for administering the law and not only did the plan seem to work well in Lane County, but it attracted considerable attention in other sections of the state. This matter of subsidising high schools with coun- ty funds instead of establishing them as county institu- tions had not been set forth in detail in the county high school law. The county superintendents and the state superintendent expressed themselves as favorable to the adoption of a new law along the line of the Lane County plan. Such a measure was prepared and was introduced by the Lane County delegation at the legislative session of 1909 and passed without opposition. This law did not supercede the County High School Law but was a com- panion to it. Superintendent Ackerman presents a brief statement of the plan of operation of the law in his re- port of 1911. It is as follows : "The people at the general election vote 'yes' or 'no' on the establishment of a county high school fund. If the measure carries, the county court after a careful estimate levies a tax for the maintenance of high schools. A county high school board is organized composed of the county court, the county treasurer and the county school super- intendent. The board contracts with each district in the county that maintains a high school up to the standards set by the State Board of Education, as specified in sec- tion 7, page 177, General Laws 1909, or section 261, Ore- gon School Laws. The contract states that the basis of the distribution of the county high school fund shall be upon the average daily attendance during the school year. The total amount of money paid to any district during the school year shall not be less than $40 per pupil for the first 20 of such daily attendance, and $30 for the second 20; nor more than $12.50 per pupil for all the remaining pupils." 232 Charles Abner Howard This law, which was optional, was adopted in ten counties before 1915, when it was superceded by another law in those counties in which it had not been adopted. 52 In those counties where it had been put into operation, this law had a tendency to equalize the high school ex- pense since the money to be distributed came from a tax on all the property of the county, but this equalization was not complete since even the forty dollars which a district might receive for each of the first twenty stu- dents enrolled was little more than half the per capita cost of running the school. The rest of the money was raised by special tax within the district. A moment's consideration brings to light the fact that this law was designed particularly to aid the very small high school. A high school of twenty students would re- ceive county aid to the amount of $40 per capita ; a high school of forty students would receive an average of $35 per capita; a high school of 100 students would receive an average of but $21.50 per capita; and a high school of 300 students would receive an average of only $15.50 per capita. The small rural high schools flourished under this arrangement and many new ones were organized in the counties in which the law was adopted. Lane County, whose superintendent had framed and whose legislative delegation had introduced this measure, had sixteen high schools drawing money from this fund during the school year 1916-1917, each with an enrollment of less than fifty. 53 In fact, ten of these Lane County high schools had enrollments of twenty-five or less. The record for school year 1915-1916 shows fifty-seven high schools with enrollments below fifty in the ten counties which had voted in the County High Schools Fund, while the thirteen 52 There is some discrepancy in the information as to the number of counties that had voted in this law. The number here given is the result of comparison of figures in the Official Directory of Superintendents, etc., issued by the State Superintendent for 1915, 1916 and 1917. 53 0fficial Directory of Superintendents, Supervisors, Principals, High School Teachers and Standard High Schools of Oregon. 1915. p. 102. counties that had neither County High Schools nor County High School Fund, had a total of only thirty-three high schools of this size.[2]

This discrimination in favor of the small rural high school was probably justifiable at the time the law was adopted. It gave many boys and girls an opportunity to attend a high school near at home at a time when automobiles were few and good roads were uncommon, and when the town high school a few miles away was consequently out of reach. Though these schools were small, many of them did very effective work and all were required to come up to a certain standard as to preparation of teachers, library facilities and general equipment before they could draw money from the County High School Fund. However, as these small schools multiplied and as the high schools in the larger towns increased in enrollment, the discrimination began to be felt. In some of the districts of the first class, the high schools found themselves with an enrollment of 100 or even 200 students from outside the district for whom they were receiving only a very small tuition from the county fund. In consequence of the objections raised by these larger districts, the County High School Fund Law was eventually replaced by the County High School Tuition Fund Law in all those counties in which the former had previously been in operation. This change was made in 1921 and its effect does not come within the scope of this paper.

The chief values of the County High School Fund Law were: First, that it made the high schools free to all the children in the counties in which it was adopted; second, it increased the popularity of the high school as a part of the public school system; third, it served as a stepping-stone for more complete equalization of high school taxation. 234 Charles Abner Howard Throughout the period covered by this paper, the laws of Oregon were particularly weak as to the standards of preparation required of high school teachers. Previous to 1901, high schools were not distinctly defined and cer- tification requirements for high school teachers were not clearly set forth. The District and County High School Law of that year included a requirement that all teachers employed in high schools should be graduates of the state normal schools of Oregon, graduates of some institution of collegiate or university grade, or should hold state certificates or state diplomas. This very modest law with its easy interpretations remained on the statute books until 1911 when the excellent certification code now in force was adopted. This low standard of prepar- ation for teachers was an element of weakness in the high schools of the period, but the higher institutions of learn- ing in the state were not strong or well attended nor were their departments of education well developed. If the standards had been placed high at the beginning of the period of high school development, it would have been difficult to secure enough teachers to fill the high school places. There is also the consideration that, until high school sentiment had developed considerable strength, the higher salaries necessary to secure well prepared teachers could not have been secured and high school expansion would have been slowed down. Standardization had to wait upon organization. Conclusion At the close of Superintendent Ackerman's adminis- tration on December 31, 1910, we find the state with fairly adequate laws for the organization and administra- tion of district, county and union high schools, and with a county high school fund law that is acceptable as a step in the direction of county aid in the support of secondary education. We find 126 high schools in the state with an enrollment of 8,914 as compared with 30 high schools and High School Legislation In Oregon 235 1,916 students at the time the first of this legislation was enacted. These laws are imperfect and the percentage of the population in high school is small, but, considered as the accomplishment of a decade, this piece of work is of large proportions. The imperfections in the laws as they stood in 1910 have already been discussed. They will be but briefly referred to at this point. Since both the laws that made the county the unit of taxation were optional, many boys and girls were left without free high school opportunities and considerable property within the state remained free of all tax for high school support. The standard of pre- paration for high school teachers was low and compara- tively little had been done in the way of standardization. Later legislation has provided a partial remedy for each of these imperfections. The County High School Tuition Fund Law, which now applies in every county except those with county high schools, assures that every piece of property in the state pays something toward the sup- port of high schools and also opens the high school door to every boy and girl in Oregon prepared to enter. The administration of this and other high school laws gives the state superintendent a large measure of authority over the high schools which he can use to good effect in bringing them up to set standards of effectiveness. Since 1911, there has been little to complain of so far as the high school certification law is concerned. Oregon still faces three definite needs in the way of high school legislation. First, there should be a plan for state aid to high schools in proportion to their need. This need is not in- dicated by the number of students enrolled nor by the number of teachers that are employed. It is indicated by the levy for high school purposes that is assessed upon the property of the high school unit, whether that unit be county, district or union high school district. A tax should be levied upon all the property of the state to 236 Charles Abner Howard create a fund, a part of which should be used to reimburse high school taxing units to the extent of fifty per cent of all money raised for high school purposes in excess of a three mill tax. Some high school units do not need to levy three mills. These would receive no state aid. Some must levy five mills or more in order to maintain an ef- fective high school. These should receive state assistance. Second, the remainder of the proposed high school fund should be used to pay the transportation of students whose homes are out of easy reach of a high school. Definite regulations could be worked out for handling this matter. Third, there should be a provision for an assistant to the state superintendent, who should serve as high school inspector to advise as to improvement and to see that definite standards were met by the schools of the state. The financial measure here proposed would distribute the tax burden and, combined with expert inspection, would improve the quality of high school instruction in the poorer districts. By eliminating the individual ex- pense of transportation, it would give equal high school opportunities to all the boys and girls in the state so far as equality in such matters is possible. BIBLIOGRAPHY ACKERMAN, J. H. — Fourteenth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Oregon. 1900. p. 197 Recommends high school legislation. P. 199. Tells of the adoption of the first state course of study for elementary schools of Oregon and of the establishing of uniform eighth grade examinations. Seventeenth Biennial Report. 1907. pp. 190-191. Discussion of the high school situation in Oregon and recommends Union High School Law. Eighteenth Biennial Report. 1900. p. XV. A plan of classification for Oregon high schools. BROWN, E. E. — The Making of Our Middle Schools. Chapter XIII, The Movement Toward Public Control. Chapter XIV, The First High Schools. Chapter XVI, Later School Systems. BROWN, J. F. — The American High School. Chapter I, Historical. Gives a brief sketch of the development of high schools in this country. High School Legislation In Oregon 237 CHANCE, DR. GEORGE H. — The Preparation In Our Schools for Good Citizenship. Twelfth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Oregon. 1897. pp. 160-162. An address delivered be- fore the Oregon State Teacher's Association. Contains vigorous ar- gument against public education beyond the common schools. CUBBERLEY, E. P. — School Funds and Their Apportionment. GASTON, JOSEPH — Portland, Its History and Builders. Vol. I, p. 375. Brief sketch of beginning of Portland's first high school. HOLMAN, ALFRED — Oregonian, January and February, 1899. Holman was legislative correspondent for the Oregonian and gave a good deal of attention to school legislation of the 1899 session. McELROY, E. B. — Sixth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Oregon. 1885. pp. 68-69. A discussion of the importance of the work of the county superintendent and the status of that office in Oregon in 1885. Eighth Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Oregon. 1889. pp. 111-113. Deals with size and population of districts. OREGONIAN — Our City Schools. Editorial pages, January 1, 1878. Reports of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction of Oregon. 1874 to 1911. SCHAFER, JOSEPH — History of the Pacific Northwest, pp. 177-195. Tells of the sources of the "Great Migration" to Oregon. School Laws of Oregon. 1874 to 1921. SCOTT, HARVEY M.— Editorial, Oregonian, September 3, 1878. Cure for Drones, editorial column Oregonian, April 16, 1879. The Limit of State Education, editorial column, Oregonian, Janu- ary 12, 1899. SHELDON, H. D. — State System of High School Control. A brief survey of high school systems in operation in the various states in 1906. SIMPSON, S. C— Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public In- struction of Oregon. 1874. pp. 5-55. This report gives a brief but enlightening account of the conditions of the public schools of Oregon at the time of the appointment of the first state superintendent. In addition to a statement by Superintendent Simpson, the pages noted include reports from superintendents of eighteen of the counties. SNYDER, EDWIN R.—The Legal Status of Rural High Schools In the United States. (1909.) Chapter XIV discusses "the most adequate and just methods of equalizing the burdens of secondary education in the state." Thirteenth Biennial Report, etc. 1898. pp. 86-88. University of Oregon entrance requirements adopted in February, 1897, together with a statement of President C. H. Chapmon urging the need of high school

legislation.

JOHN WORK'S JOURNEY FROM FORT VANCOUVER TO UMPQUA RIVER, AND RETURN, IN 1834

Introduction and Comments by Leslie M. Scott

Introduction

John Work was an extensive traveler and trader and a chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company. He came to the Pacific Coast from York factory, on Hudson's Bay, in 1823, with Peter Skene Ogden, who had charge of the annual express that year, and served in the fur-trading posts of the Upper Columbia River. He established a farm at Fort Colville in 1823, the first in the Old Oregon Country, and built Fort Colville in 1825-26. In 1830 he succeeded Peter Skene Ogden in charge of the Snake River brigade. Fort Simpson was in his charge in 1835- 49, and in the latter year he was stationed at Victoria as a chief factor. For many years he was a member of the legislative council of Vancouver Island. He was born in 1791 and died December 22, 1861. For his biography, see Howay's and Scholefield's History of BHtish Colum- bia, IV, 1178; Oregon Historical Society Quarterly, X, 296-7. For journals of his travels, see Washington His- torical Quarterly, III, 198-228 (1824) ; V, 83-115, 163-91, 258-87 (1825); VI, 26-49 (1826), all by T. C. Elliott; XI, 104-14 (1828), by William S. Lewis and Jacob A. Meyers ; Oregon Historical Society Quarterly, X, 296-313 (1828); 331-65 (1825-26); XIII, 363-70; XIV, 280-314 (1830-31), all by T. C. Elliott. A narrative and journal of Work's Snake River expedition (1831-32), edited by William S. Lewis, of Spokane, and Professor Paul C. Phillips, of the University of Montana, is soon to be pub- lished by the Arthur H. Clark Company, Cleveland, Ohio. The John Work journal of the expedition of 1834 from Fort Vancouver to Umpqua River, and return, is here- with presented as copied from the original, and has not John Work's Journey to Umpqua River, 1834 239 been edited or otherwise altered. The bracketed numbers represent the pages of the H. H. Bancroft copy of the journal. The writer of the subjoined comments is in- debted to William S. Lewis, of Spokane, Washington; T. C. Elliott, of Walla Walla, Washington, and F. G. Young, of Eugene, Oregon, for many details of informa- tion. This copy of the John Work journal of 1834 was made from the H. H. Bancroft copy of the original, under di- rection of Dr. Herbert I. Priestly, librarian of the Ban- croft Library, University of California, Berkeley, Cali- fornia. The original journal is in the Provincial Library at Victoria, British Columbia. journal of a trip to the southward in 1834 1834. May 22. Very heavy rain the greater part of the day. Left Vancouver on a Trading & Trapping Trip to the Southward with 12 men. We embarked at 2 p. m. Comments May 22. The "traverse," where the boat route joined the mountain trail, was on Willamette Slough (Multno- mah Channel), called by John Work "little channel/' probably one or two miles northwest of the railroad sta- tion named Holbrook. This is some twelve miles from Fort Vancouver and five miles south of the present town Scappoose. At or near this "traverse," the Hudson's Bay Company had a dairy on Wapato (now Sauvie) Island. The mountain trail led across hills of between 1100 and 1200 feet elevation to McKay Creek, tributary of Tualatin River. John Work's bateaux probably crossed the upper end of Sauvie Island, which was then inundated by the spring freshet of Columbia River. See map of Charles Wilkes in Narrative of the United States Exploring Ex- pedition, 1838-42. The distance across the mountains is estimated by John Work at ten miles, but the later wind- ing road (1923) is about eight miles. It may be of inter240 Leslie M. Scott & reached the traverse in the little channel of the Will- amet at just 6 oclock whence we are to proceed on horse- back. It rained so hard that the people were completely soaked and the baggage also a good deal wet. And where we had to encamp is among wet grass which is very un- pleasant, besides there plenty of mosquitoes & very little wood to make fire. Saturday, May 23. Heavy rain. Sent part of the men across the mountain to Faladin Plain for the horses with which they arrived in the evening, all completely soaked with wet. 24. Showery. After getting everything ready raised camp & proceeded across the mountain to the beaver Comments est to note that John Work gives the "i" instead of the "a" vowel in the first syllable of Willamette. This vowel difference has been the subject of controversy. May 23. "Faladin" or Tualatin Plain was near North Plains, Washington County, Oregon, probably one mile or more northeast of that place. The Indian name Tu- alatin has had many variations. The meaning is un- known. The horses were probably those of Thomas McKay, who probably sent them there for grazing from his farm near Scappoose. This grazing ground is de- scribed by John Work in his entry of May 24 (see follow- ing). For John Work's description of McKay's place, see his entry under July 8, following. For details, see also Lee and Frost's Ten Years In Oregon, XI, 124-26; also printed journal of Wyeth's second expedition (1835) , p. 251, published by University of Oregon, 1899 ; diary of Jason Lee (1834), Quarterly of Oregon Historical So- ciety, XVII, 297, 399, 400, 401. May 24. The horses to be sent to "Mr. McKay's place," apparently, were to return by the same mountain route to the "traverse" of May 22, and thence to go north to McKay's home near Scappoose. Thomas McKay was John Work's Journey to Umpqua River, 1834 241 ground at Faladin Plain. In the afternoon gave out the people their horses & selected those to accompany the party, the remainder to be sent tomorrow to Mr. McKay's place. We were 3% hours crossing the mountains which may be perhaps 10 miles across about S. West. [184] The road is in many places steep & rugged particularly on the N side of the hill. The unfavorable weather & being encumbered in places with fallen timber rendered it worse than it otherwise might be. The soil is composed of a thick strata of dark vegetable mould perhaps not over 6 or 8 inches deep, over a bed of reddish tile (?) No stone or gravel worth mentioning. It is not thickly wooded with timber but overgrown with underwood. The trees principally pine & cedar and of a pretty large size. On reaching the plains some oak of a middling size fringe the edges of the woods. There are also some ash & other trees. The country on getting out of the woods has a Comments a son of Alexander McKay who was lost on the Tonquin in 1811. Wilkes' Narrative, 1841, page 221, mentions McKay's gristmill near Champoeg and describes him as "a man of middle age, tall, well-made and of muscular frame, with an expression of energy and daring, and a deep-set, piercing black eye, beneath a full projecting eye brow." The gristmill was built in 1836. "Killy- maux" Mountain, to the west, is John Work's variation of Tillamook, which has had many diverse forms and is supposed to have been originally the designation of an Indian tribe. The camping place was east of the present village North Plains, Washington County, probably four or five miles north and east of the site of Hillsboro. "The most northern fork of the Faladin" probably was Dairy Creek, some four miles southwest. The distance to the Columbia River, north, given by John Work as "not far," was thirty-five miles. In a northeasterly direction the distance to that river was less than fifteen miles. 242 Leslie M. Scott beautiful appearance. It is a continuation of plains which commence here and continue on to the Southward, sparated by narrow strips of timber, bounded to the east by the strip of woodland which occupy the banks of the Willamet; and to the westward by the woods which occupy the base of the Killymaux Mountain. The soil is a rich blackish mould covered (but not with a close [185] thick sward) with grass & other plants, among which are considerable quantities of strawberry plants, now well furnished with fine fruit. Not a stone & scarcely a shrub to interrupt the progress of the plough which might be employed in many places with little more difficulty than in a stubble field. The country here though termed Plain from being clear of wood, is not a dead flat but composed of portions of level land with gently rising grounds. Portions of the flat lands are springey. Here the soil inclines to be clayey. The vegetation is not rank, yet it yields a great deal of pasture. This first plain may be about three times the size of the clear ground about Fort Vancouver, and about 170 horses have been feeding upon it for the two last months, and there would still be grass enough for them for the rest of the summer. This Plain is never overflowed; the nost Northern fork of the Faldin is a little distance further on to the Southward. It is not far but through a woody country, to the banks of the Co- lumbia in a N. N. W. direction. The open country here is of an irregular form, as points of woods [186] jut out into the plains from both sides. There can be no doubt but abundant crops of every kind of grain would amply reward the labor of the hus- bandman, besides its being so well adapted for pasture both of cattle & sheep. The open ground here may be about 3 or 4 miles wide from E. S. E. to W. N. W. May 25. Thick fog in the morning. Fair weather afterwards. Sent off six men and boys with 103 horses to Mr. McKay's Place. Owing to the fog it was late in John Work's Journey to Umpqua River, 1834 243 the morning before the horses were all collected, and as it took some time to separate those which we are to take with us from the others, it was near noon before they started. They are directed to be here as early as they can tomorrow so that we may proceed on our journey. Kanata killed a deer. May 26. Fine weather. By the time the men who were sent with the horses yesterday, it was near three oclock and too late to raise camp. There was a good deal of trouble getting the horses down through the woods yesterday. May 27. Overcast fine weather. Proceeded [187] on our journey at 8 o'clock & encamped near 2 at the 4th & Comments May 25. Kanata was listed among the employes of Hudson's Bay Company in 1821 as number 935. His name appears as Kanote, Kanota, Kanola, Kanotti and Kanato. He accompanied John Work in the Snake River country in 1831-32. This name and others are from the Hawaiian Islands, natives of which were brought here by the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, following their first introduction by the Astors and the Tonquin in 1811. The name Owyhee in Eastern Oregon, is a relic of these people. For the name Knola and Kanotti, see Quarterly of the Oregon Historical So- ciety, XIV, 295, 309. May 27. Camp, apparently, was between Dilley and Gaston, the "4th and last fork of the Faladin River" be- ing either Scoggin Creek or South Fork of Tualatin Riv- er. The river crossings this day were probably of McKay Creek, Dairy Creek and Scoggin Creek. The difficult crossing probably was that of Dairy Creek. The "third fork" was probably Gale's Creek. The hills to the east- ward of the camping place were Chehalem Mountains. The day's route passed the sites of Forest Grove and Dilley, in Washington County, Oregon. 244 Leslie M. Scott last fork of the Faladin River near the mountains. We were delayed an hour & a half crossing the second fork where the horses had to be swam across, and the baggage carried across a bridge formed by a tree thrown across the river. The other forks were all f ordable ; the banks of all these forks are very steep & clayey. Our course today was S. S. W. about 18 miles. The soil has mostly the same appearance as where we left in the morning, but where we are encamped near the hills the soil is of a more reddish cast, and as not such a good appearance, and there are some gravel & stones in it. To the Eastward of this there are some hills covered with wood. On the banks of the third fork there is some low, stony land, with longer grass & herbage than else- where. Some spots today are overgrown with fern, & the soil did not appear so good. May 28. Heavy rain in the night, and rain the most of the day. The unfavorable weather deterred us from raising camp, for the rain was not heavy during the day, yet te bushes were so loaded with water [188] that the baggage would have been wet. The hunters were out in the evening but without success. They saw some deer, but they were so shy that they could not be approached. There are a good many Indians about here, which causes the deer to be so wild. May 29. Fair weather in the morning but continual heavy showers during the day afterwards. Raised camp & continued our route S. S. E. 4 miles [hours?] & about Comments May 28. The Indians mentioned were probably either Yamhills or Tualatins, of the Kalapooian family. May 29. Camp was apparently on Chehalem Creek, west of the site of Newberg, and near the land of Ewing Young, who arrived there later in the same year (1834). The day's travel followed the east shore of Wapato Lake, whose overflow conditions John Work well describes. 15 miles. Encamped on a small creek at the head of an extensive plain. After leaving the river where we slept last night, the road lay through a point of woods, and two small plains of fine rich soil, but subject to be under water at times during the rainy season. Then over a few hills mostly covered with wood and bushes, and along an extensive plain of rich soil with a kind of swamp or lake running all along the West side of it. Parts of this plain are subject to be partially inundated. Before reaching the southern extremity we struck across to the Eastward over a portion of low hilly country covered with bushes and some trees, principally [189] oak to the head of the

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Comments

"Sand's Encampment" was Champoeg, otherwise known as Campment du Sable, Camp au Sable and Sand Point. Depatty's house was near Champoeg and appears in the map of Nathaniel J. Wyeth (1832-33. See Correspondence and Journals of Nathaniel J. Wyeth, 1831-36, edited by F. G. Young, Eugene, Oregon, 1899, p. 178. See also p. 233, "Duportes House." Gagnion was apparently J. B. Gagnion, or Gagnier, number 821 on the list of employes of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821, where the name is given J. B. Gagmon. This employee was assigned to Fort Umpqua as interpreter in 1840. Lucius Gagnion, said to have opposed the American party at Champoeg in 1843, may have been the same. In Gustavus Hines' Oregon, VI, 99, Gagnion is referred to as follows: "We were kindly received at the fort (Umpqua) by an old Frenchman, having charge of it, by the name of Goniea. * * * * * The Frenchman, it is said, belongs to a wealthy and honorable family in Montreal, and though frequent efforts have been made to reclaim him from his wanderings, yet all have been unavailing. He lives with an Indian woman whom he claims as his wife." The Umpqua Indians, whose habitat was the river of that name, are classed as belonging to the Athapascan family. 246 Leslie M. Scott fine plain where we are encamped; which is some miles in length and breadth, composed of a rich soil covered with fine pasture; the lower part of it subject to be over- flowed or rather covered with water in the rainy season. Passed some small rivulets during the day's march. After encamping I went to the Sand's encampment which is about 8 or 9 miles S. E., about half way through the plain we are encamped, and then through alternate small plains and points of woods to the Willamet. My object in going here is to get some information from Depatty relative to the trade with the Umquah Indians, but though he had been there two years ago & as it was Gagnion who performed the trade, he could tell me very little about it. Kanola killed a deer & the men traded 3 from the Indians. May 30. Fine. Continued our route near 7 hours S 10 miles to Yamhill river which we crossed, & then S. S. W. 8 miles up the Southside of the river a little below the Faladin fork, and encamped on a small creek. The road till we [190] reached the river lay along a fine valley not very wide, surrounded with a number of rising hills thickly covered with oak. The soil all the way is very rich and the pasture though not rank more luxuriant than in the large level plains. On the summit of the hills the soil inclines in some places to a reddish tile. On the South side of the river the road lay through an extensive Comments May 30. The party crossed Yamhill River probably near Dayton. Faladin (Tualatin) Fork probably was the north fork of Yamhill River, which rises from the north- erly direction of Tualatin River. The "small creek" upon which camp was made probably was Salt Creek, near the later village Amity. P. Lagere may be Raptismo Deguear and J. B. DeGuerre, frequently mentioned in "Swing Young and His Estate," Oregon Historical Society Quar- terly, XXI, 171-315. John Work's Journey to Umpqua River, 1834 247 plain of fine soil, and different from the country we passed through three days past by being a dead level. It appears a fine rich soil. The plain continues on without interruption except a few trees along some small streams, on to the mountains to the Westward and is capable of yielding pasture for immense herds of cattle, for in places it is several miles wide. On the North side of the river the plains also continue on to the mountains, as well as along the Faladin fork. The banks of the river are clothed with a little timber, principally pine with a mixture of oak & some other trees. This wood here & there juts in points out to the [191] Plain, and there are patches of oak here & there. To the Southward of this plain on the S side of the river, a range of low green hills extend, with a few oak trees upon them, and would be a fine pasturage for sheep. The river has generally steep clayey banks, & is difficult to approach on account of the underwood, and can only be crossed at some places wherever traversed. It runs over a bed of soft rotten sandstone, and many of the horses fell descending the the lower part of the slop- ing bank which is also composed of these stones. This & the river which we crossed yesterday morning are the only places we have seen stones since we started. Where we crossed there is a rapid, but from the formation of the river it would be difficult to make it secure for mill- stream [?] The hunters were out. P. Lagere killed a deer. Sunday May 31. Fine & warm, cool at night & heavy dew in the morning. Continued our route 6% hours Comments May 31. Camp apparently was on Luckiamute River, which the diary calls "second fork from the Yamhill." The first "fork" was Rickreall River. The route passed the sites of later McCoy, Dallas and Monmouth. The "lake" is one mile south of Perrydale. 248 Leslie M. Scott about 24 miles S & S. S. W and encamped at the second fork from the Yamhill. The road for the first 16 miles lay through a fine uninterrupted [192] Plain of fine soil, with some swampy places, with better pasturage than we have hitherto met with. There is also a small lake. On each side of us there were ranges of moderately elevated hills, some of them with little wood, the others thinly cov- ered with oak, and here & there a patch of pine. Beyond these hills to the Eastward there are said to be other ranges of Plain country. Here we closed up pretty nearly with the mountains to the Westward, and crossed a small river the first from the Yamhill, when the road lay about 3 miles along a ridge of hills pretty well timbered with oak, & then along a marshy valley about 5 miles to the fork where we are encamped. The Plain which we left beyond the first fork con- tinues along the range of hills which run along East of the road. The river where we are camped is 10 or 12 yds wide. A fringe of woods runs along its banks, be- hind which a narrow plain extends towards the moun- tain on both sides, and also downwards. This river runs over a bottom of a rocky & gravelly nature, of a slatey [193] texture, but has steep clayey banks. The plains in places appear subject to be inundated in the rainy season. The first river which is a branch of this one runs over a gravelly bottom & the soil on its banks is for a short distance gravelly, which is the only place we have seen gravel since we started. June 1. Fine. Continued our route 7 hours, 24 miles. The first half of the way S. E. & then S. W. to the river at Sauvie [Laurie] where we camped. The road for the first 14 miles lay through a plain country for about 7 miles across a point to another fork which falls into the river we left in the morning & thence over low hills & across along plain 7 miles further to another creek. All the way there is fine soil, and the low grounds about the creeks superior pasture land and very extensive to the E. John Work's Journey to Umpqua River, 1834 249 Some woods along the banks of the rivers. And on the high ground oaks here and there. The road for the next 4 miles lay along the base of some hills thickly timbered with oak and composed of rich tile soil & pretty well covered with grass. Large tracts of open ground extend to the E. The road now lay along [194] an extensive plain, some parts of it swampy, to Laurie river where we are camped not far from its discharge into a Channel of the Willamet. Here is an extensive plain on both sides of the river, and the mountains to the W. are nearly without wood. Clover was observed today both on the high and on the low ground. The soil & herbage has the same appearance as usual. Where we are camped at the usual traverse of the river is too high to be forded, but we learn from the Indians it is fordable a little higher up. We met a party of Indians today who informed us that all MichelFs party but himself and one man were killed by the Indians ; that this report was received from an Indian who was coming from the Umquah with the news, but turned back. Passed some Indian huts at the rivers we passed. A few natives visited us in the even- ing. The hunters were out in the evening, but without success. Comments June 1. Laurie River was Mary's River. This river is Riviere des Souris (Mice River) in Duflot de Mofras' Exploration, II, 210. Apparently John Work's Laurie is Duflot's Souris. The day's crossing was the South Fork of Luckiamute River, which John Work calls "another fork which falls into the river we left in the morning." The next creek mentioned is probably the later Soap Creek. Camp apparently was near the site of the later Corvallis. "MichelFs party" evidently refers to the party of Michel Laframboise, see under June 2, following. La- framboise is frequently referred to as "Michell" in this diary. 250 Leslie M. Scott June 2. Fine. Proceeded 18 miles S & camped at the traverse at Sam [195] Tomeleaf [?] river. We were de- layed some time in the morning fording a traverse where we camped last night, after which the road lay throgh an extensive plain, very level except place [s] & averag- ing from 5 to 7 miles wide. On our left or E side at a short distance lay first the small channel of the Willamet, then a long narrow lake like a canal & then the river where we camped. And to the W extends the chain of mountains, the first range of rising hills with little wood on them. The soil here is of the same description as that passed three days past, but from being mostly a dead level, considerable portions of it appear to have been under water in the rainy season. And in places the grass seems to be less luxuriant than we have observed hither- to, probably owing to the drought having rendered the ground hard & cracked. Along the banks of the lake some places are swampy. The river here is close to the mountains and runs over a bed of rocks over which there are steep clayey banks. On the E side of the [196] river there are extensive plains. By what we can learn from T. Mouria[?] the Islander the Companion of poor Mourio who was drowned coming Comments June 2. Sam Tomeleaf River was Long Tom River. Camp probably was near the site of Monroe. The day's journey, apparently, followed the route of the later South- ern Pacific Railroad. Michel Laframboise was a French- Canadian voyageur and interpreter who arrived in Ore- gon on the Tonquin and established himself in later years on a farm at French Prairie. See Ross, Oregon Settlers, p. 257 ; Franchere's Narrative, pp. 29-30. In 1833-38 he was attached to the Umpqua expeditions. In 1839 and 1841-43 he was listed on the Bonaventura expedition. He served as guide for the Wilkes party. He is listed as an opponent of the American party at Champoeg in 1843. John Work's Journey to Umpqua River, 1834 251 with letters from M. Laframboise some time ago, it appears that it was somewhere about here that they em- barked in the canoe to descend the river, and 2 days after (but he cannot make us understand when [where?]) the canoe came in contact with a stick or fallen tree that was in the river, & upset when the poor man was drowned & the letters & everything they had was lost, and he Morina barely saved himself by his good swimming and found his way to the settlement 2 days after nearly starved with cold & hunger. From the little information he can give us & the length of time elapsed since the im- portant occurrence any attempt to find out the place, or anything relative to the accident would be fruitless. The hunters killed 1 deer. June 3. Chilly & rain. Continued our route 18 miles S S E & S. Crossed the [197] river in the morning when we continued up the E side of it to the commencement of the mountains, where we are camped on the same river. The road lay through an extensive plain, the greater part of the way quite level, bounded to the E by the Willamet. Considerable portions of the plain are subject to inunda- tion & parts of it are not so well clothed with grass as some of those we have already passed. Some places of it are also swampy. And parts of it gravelly which is the first soil of the kind we ave seen since we started. This plain is 4 to 6 miles wide. The river here runs over a muddy bottom with steep clayey banks so much so that it is difficult to water the horses. Where we left this Comments June 3. The river crossing was that of the Long Tom near Monroe. The mountains were those at the head of Willamette River, southwest of Eugene, called Calapooya Mountains. The day's course was up Coyote Creek of Long Tom River. Camp apparently was ten miles west of the site of Eugene. The Indians were probably Cala- pooyas. 252 Leslie M. Scott morning would be an eligible situation for a settlement. On the E side of the river would serve for pasturage & the high ground on the W side for tillage & sheep walks ; and the river could easily be made navigable. The hunt- ers were out but without success, except P. Legare who killed 2 deer. There are some deer, but [198] they are very shy. Some Indians visited us in the evening. June 4. Cloudy. Proceeded 20 miles, first S. S. W. & then S. S. E. through a hilly country. First up a nar- row valley along the river where we are camped, & then across a range of hills and along another narrow valley, where we crossed some more hills to another valley which brought us to the Yangawa river where we camped at the foot of Elk Mountain. This river at the foot of the mountain falls into the sea. Some spots of rocks are to be seen on the brows of some of the hills we passed today. Some parts of the valley we passed today are subject to inundation. There are also a few places marshy but all the rest of the way the soil appears very rich & clothed with a more luxur- iant crop of herbage than we have met with since leaving the fort. There is a considerable quantity of clover among the long grass, which in many places is sufficient- ly rank & thick to be cut for hay, & most excellent hay it would make. [199] The ground appears highly sus- ceptible of cultivation & would be superior pasture land, the low ground for cattle, the bare or partially wooded hills for sheep. The plain on the end of which we are camped is of considerable extent & has a pretty large swamp in the middle of it. The second valley through which we passed is watered by a fork of the river which Comments June 4. Yangama River was Siuslaw River. Elk Mountain marks the divide between Siuslaw and Umpqua rivers. Camp probably was ten miles west of the site of Cottage Grove. John Work's Journey to Umpqua River, 1834 253 we left in the morning. Through all the hilly country through which we passed the land on the sides of the hills and in the intervening valleys appears to be of a superior quality, or at least the vegetation is more luxuriant than on the low flat plains even where they do not appear subject to inundation. There is also some timothy grass similar to what we have from England. The clover is of the white or red kind & grows most luxuriantly on the border of swamp or on the plains, where the ground is a little damp & springy. The timber today was mostly oak & a few other trees, & pine on the higher hills. June 5. Rain. The unfavorable weather deterred us raising camp, as passing [200] the mountains through the thick woods & bushes which are loaded with water would have wet & spoiled and baggage and horse agnts [ ?] An Indian, Catarah joined us here & state that M. Laframboise had gone along the seacoast & that reports had been received that the Indians attempted to pillage them of their property which caused a quarrel in which 16 of the natives were slain, & that subsequently the Indians had assembled in great force & cut off all, or the greater part of M. Laf ramboise's party. This part of the story I do not think probable. The hunters were out but without success. There are but few tracks of animals, besides the weather was unfavorable. June 6. Heavy rain. Did not raise camp on account of the bad weather. The hunters were out but without success. June 7. Fine. Proceeded 4% hours, 15 miles, first S 8 miles across the Elk mountain to Elk river, & then S W. 7 miles down the N side [201] of the river to the traverse where we camped. We were an hour ascending the mountain on the N side, & 1% in descending. All Comments June 7. Elk River was the later Elk Creek. The "traverse" and the camp probably were near Drain. 254 Leslie M. Scott the way through a woody country until we came within a short distance of the river when the road lay down a fine sloping hill & across a plain clear of woods & covered with fine verdure on a rich soil. The road then lay along the declivity of the hills which are mostly clear of woods. The soil in the mountains appears good. I observed tim- othy at different places along the road. No stones dur- ing the day's pourney, but the river here runs over a bed of loose stones and rocks. The wood in the mountains is chiefly pine and along the river & on the hillsides a mixture of pine, oak & other trees. June 8. Cloudy & light rain. Left camp in the morn- ing & proceeded with 3 men and an Indian down to the Vernon [?] (for some furs which Michell had traded in the winter) where we arrived after 9 hours about 40 miles, first S W then W. The road [202] through a very hilly country, several of the hills steep ; thickly wooded ; parts clear of wood. The road crosses the Elk river be- Comments June 8. "The Vernon" or Vervor appears to have been near the site of Scottsburg, on tidewater, and twenty miles west of Elkton and the later Fort Umpqua. The later fort was near the site of the later Elkton, on the south side of Umpqua River. Elkton is on the north side. The letter to "C. F. McLoughlin" was to Chief Factor John McLoughlin at Vancouver. "Michell" refers to Michel Laframboise. Fort Umpqua near Elkton, appar- ently did not exist in 1834. John Work camped near there on June 9 and passed there June 8 without mention- ing the fort. But he mentions "Umpqua old fort," which appears to have been established in 1832 on or near Cala- pooya Creek. See entry of June 11, following. See also Himes and Lang's History of the Willamette Valley, p. 201. The Umpqua country is described by Ross' Oregon Settlers, p. 257, as the "finest hunting ground on the Will- amette." John Work's Journey to Umpqua River, 1834 255 tween our camp & its discharge into the Umquah which is about half way to the Vervor. The road then lies along the N bank of the Umquah which may be about 80 yds wide. No stones worth mentioning all the way ; the river runs on a bed of soft slatey rock. The soil rich and clothed with fine pasture. A narrow valley runs along the north side of the river. Here is a most luxuriant growth of fern mixed with grass, clover, vegetables & flowers. The plain which may be from % to i/ 2 mile wide is bounded to the N by a range of bare hills with trees along their tops, and several rivulets intersect it on their way to the river. Joe the master of the only house that is here has a small patch of potatoes which appear in a most healthy & thriving condition. Some of the pines in the woody part of the country are of very large size. [203] We had put up close by the House in the grass for the night and had supper, but as there was an appearance of heavy rain Joe invited us to take shelter under his roof which we reluctantly did as we dread being infested with fleas. In other respects except the excess- ive heat of the house our quarters are very comfortable but a scarcity of provisions prevails here at the present season. This Joe is a noted character among the natives by whom he is much feared, as the life of a fellow creature is held in little estimation by him. He has seven wives now in the house with him which is said to be but half of the number he possesses. He appears attentive to us. There are five packs of beaver here which Michell left, besides 2 belonging to his men. Joe it appears has also about a pack to trade. Here I received a letter from Mr. Laframboise addressed to Mr. C. F. MLoughlin dated 17th of April last. He & his party were then all well- shortly previous to that date he had had a battle with the Indians on the S side of the Umquah mountain in which 11 of the [204] savages were slain & several wounded. None of the whites had received any hurt. The cause of 256 Leslie M. Scott the quarrel is not mentioned. He desires Mr M Loughlin not to be uneasy about his safety. June 9. Light showers. Had the furs arranged, & returned on our way to the camp accompanied by Joe & 2 other Indians with some beaver to trade, at the end of 7 hours march put up for the night as our horses were fatigued. The road very hilly. This must be a very bad road to pass in the winter season on account of the num- ber of times the river & other small creeks have to be crossed, the country being so hilly & in many places so thickly wooded. Even now our eyes are like to be torn out with the thicketty branches. June 10. Light rain. Continued our route & reached the camp at the end of 5 hours march. Traded Joe's beav- er in the evening. Some more Indians, Old Grey Head's sons, arrived with some beaver. I saw some Indians on the way going down 2 days ago [205] coming up the Umquah in canoes & sent word with them that we were here for the purpose of trade. Since I have been off 3 deer were killed. June 11. Heavy rain. Traded what beaver the In- dians had which with those received from Joe make 72 beaver & 25 otters. I find some of the Indians difficult to deal with. I have not a proper assortment of goods. Heyquales[?] are much asked for, and I have none of small green beads which are much in demand. I had only 4 or 5 pounds & they are all done. The other sorts of beads are in little repute. Nor are the other goods except ammunition in much demand except at very low prices. The Indians also complain that the goods are Comments June 9. The party returned some twenty miles or half way to the camp on Elk Creek. This half-way place apparently was near the later site of Fort Umpqua, on Umpqua River, opposite Elkton. June 10. The party arrived at the camp on Elk Creek. John Work's Journey to Umpqua River, 1834 257 charged higher than they have hitherto got them, which in some things perhaps may be the case. But be it so or not the Indians are always apt to say so when a stranger comes among them for the first time. The most of these furs appear to be procured from along the seacoast, & there seems to be an opposition among the Indians who go there to trade, which causes the [206] beaver first to cost higher than they otherwise would do, & to induce the Indians to ask a higher price from us, in order to have a little profit. Joe returned home. I sent a letter with him for Michelle & also sent a bag of corn, 5 Gall rice, 5 Gall flour, 1 lb tea & % loaf of sugar. Should Michell be sick as was my case last year, these things would be a great acquisition to him. After Joe went off I learn that he & some of the other Indians are not on the best of terms. He is said to have killed 4 Indians during the winter & is represented as a very bad character & a great hand for taking other people's wives. The men set some traps since I went off ; only 1 beaver taken ; 2 deer killed. June 12. Fine. Had arranged to proceed to the Umquah old fort where I understood the natives have a few beaver, but was deterred on account of a child of Champaign's which has been sick some time, being so sick that it was not expected to live out the day. By some indians that were here I sent word to those on [207] the Comments June 12. "The Umpqua old fort" indicates there were two Forts Umpqua. The later fort of that name was opposite Elkton on Umpqua River. Either the old or the later fort, probably the former, was established by Chief Trader John McLeod and Michel Laframboise in 1832. The "old fort," apparently, was on Calapooya Creek west of the sites of later Oakland and Sutherlin, perhaps at the junction of Calapooya Creek and Umpqua River, which place was the southermost objective of this journey. 258 Leslie M. Scott Umquah to meet me with what few beaver they may have to trade. Hunters out, but no success, except Kanota 2 deer. June 13. Overcast & chilly. F. Champaign's child continued so ill that it was not expected to live out the day, in consequence of which we did not raise camp. Hunters out, 2 deer killed. We got enough to serve the people so that they require to touch but little of their voyage provisions. June 14. Cloudy & fine. Proceeded 20 miles S. E. & S. to the second fork of the Umquah through a hilly country with intervening valleys of rich soil richly clothed with verdure. Found some Indians where we encamped, and about 20 men visited us in the evening. Two of the men crossed the mountains to the E. accompanied by an Indian as a guide to set some traps. Hunters had no success. June 15. Fine. Did not raise camp. Champaign's daughter died about noon. The old chief Latana accom- panied by 2 other Indians visited us. There are a few beaver among his people which I mean to go down [208] that way to trade. I received a note from Mr Lafram- boise dated 8th April. It contains no news but what was contained in the one I received a few days ago addressed to Mr McLoughlin. Men off yesterday returned. Hunt- ers out ; an elk & a deer killed. Comments June 13. Francois Campoigna was an employee of the Hudson's Bay Company on the list of 1821-22 as number 638, and on the list of 1822-23 as number 509. See Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, XIII, 367 ; XIV, 290. June 14. The route was southerly from the camp near the site of Drain to Calapooya Creek, probably near the site of the town Oakland. The second fork of the Umpqua was Calapooya Creek, the first fork being Elk Creek. John Work's Journey to Umpqua River, 1834 259 June 16. Fine. Proceeded down river to below its discharge into the Umquah 9 miles. The river which the road runs along runs through a valley enclosed by hills. Soil fine & clothed with pasturage, grass & clover. The old chief Satarna (opposite to whose house we are en- camped) with several of his people visited us in the even- ing. The hunters had no success. June 17. Fine. Employed most of the day trading with the Indians & traded only 21 large beaver, 2 small do & 5 otters, which I believe is all they have. They are troublesome to deal with. They suppose, or affect to suppose, that they are harder dealt with than usual. News arrived again that Michell & his party were all killed. The Indian who brought this news had heard it from another, who had received the information from [209] a third far off; and again it is stated that our peo- ple have killed 25 more of the Indians. Most probably the whole story is a falsehood. The Umquah here is about 150 yds wide & runs over a rocky bottom of soft slatey rock & is not very deep. A horse can ford it at present. A little below our station, the mountains which are steep & ragged strike close into the river. Where we are en- camped there are a few plains on both sides of the river. The rock on the high ground is a sort of a freestone. June 18. Fine. Returned to our station of the 17th [15th?] . There we met a party of Indians from the head of the Willamet, headed by a man named Charles who Comments June 16. The day's journey ended below the junction of Umpqua River and Calapooya Creek, probably the site of "Umpqua old fort." June 18. Beginning the return, the party journeyed up Calapooya Creek to the camping place of June 15. A person named Charles is mentioned in "Ewing Young and His Estate," Oregon Historical Society Quartely, XXI, 219, 267, 280. 260 Leslie M. Scott had been formerly a slave, but obtained his liberty & is now a chief. From this man we learned that the head of the Willamet is so difficult to ascend that it can only be hunted with canoes, & that for a length of time no one has been up it (indeed no white man has ever been all the way to the head of it) and that there are some beaver in it. I have [210] determined to go there & try what can be done as there is nothing to be got elsewhere that we can venture to go to. Old Satana & some of his men followed us up in the evening. The hunters out, P Legare killed a deer. June 19. Fine with squalls. Charles has some busi- ness to settle with the Indians which requires this day, and as he is to guide us to the head of the Willamet across the mountain we did not raise camp. There is some dis- turbance & rumors of war among the Indians here. It appears that an Indian was bitten by a rattlesnake some time ago & died. His friends accuse a tribe above of having effected his death by conjuring, & threaten to avenge it if property is not paid for the body, which will probably have to be complied with as the conjurers are the weaker party. One deer killed. June 20. Fine. There was a total eclipse of the moon last night, which continued a considerable time. Raised camp & proceeded 20 miles N. E. & N. to a fork of Elk river through a hilly country partially wooded [211] some valleys of fine rich land covered with pasturage. A num- ber of Indians encamped near our station. Three hunters out, each killed a deer. June 21. Fine. Proceeded 6 hours N. across the Elk mountain to a fork of the Willamet. Road across the mountains rugged & lies through thick woods. But on Comments June 20. Camp was on Elk Creek above the site of Drain, perhaps five miles northeast, and also a few miles northeast of the camping place of June 7, 10-13. John Work's Journey to Umpqua River, 1834 261 both sides places clear & covered with verdure. The soil more gravelly than we have seen for some time. June 22. Fine. Continued our route 10 miles N down the river where we camped in order to send the hunters in quest of deer. The hunters had no success. June 23. Fine. One of the men who was out hunting lost his horse & it was late when he found him, so that we could not raise camp. One deer. June 24. Fine. Continued our route 16 miles N to the main or middle fork of the Willamet at the commence- ment of the mountains, or end of the plains or clear ground where we camped. The river here is 80 to 100 yds wide. From Indian information the upper part of this fork has never been visited by whites and beaver [212] are said to be numerous within a few days march of this place beyond the first range of mountains, where there is a valley, but from the mountainous nature of the country, thickly wooded, little or no grass, it would be very difficult to get to with horses & though the naviga- tion is difficult, it is said to be practicable to ascend the river in canoes. I have determined therefore to send the people to try what can be done that way. The men were off & selected cedar trees to make canoes for the purpose and were afterwards getting their tools in readiness to commence making canoes tomorrow. June 25. Fine. The men busy at the canoes. The Comments June 21. The route crossed the divide between Elk Creek of Umpqua River and Coast Fork of Willamette, to a camp south of the site of Cottage Grove. The party had crossed this same divide, more to the westward, on June 7. June 22. Camp was near the site of Saginaw. June 24. Camp was near the site of Springfield. John Work proceeded to build canoes so as to enable members of his party to ascend Middle Fork in quest of beaver. 262 Leslie M. Scott tree is very large & pretty difficult to work. Several Indians visited us & corroborate what we have before heard respecting beaver being in the upper part of the river, & that the navigation is practicable, tho' difficult. Traded 2 beaver. One of the men taken ill with fever. The [213] hunters were out but without success. One of the Willamet freemen, Louis, paid us a visit. He has killed 7 beaver within a few days between the settlement & this, and from his account upward of 80 beaver have been in the river from this downwards since the spring, the most of which must have come from above during the high water. June 26. Fine. The people still busy with the canoes. Hunters killed nothing. 27. Lowering weather, thunder & light rain. The canoes were brought out of the woods to the water side, but they are not finished yet. 1 deer killed. 28. Heavy rain. People busy finishing their canoes. F. Champaign still continues very ill. 29. Foggy with rain, The canoes 3 in number being ready, I sent off 6 men accompanied by 3 Indians to ascend to the head of this fork to trap beaver. They are allowed 2 months to be back here if they find wherewith to employ themselves so long. They will have some dif- ficulty in [214] getting up but from the accounts the Comments June 29. McKenzie's Fork was the later McKenzie River, named for Donald McKenzie. This river enters the Willamette some ten miles below, but the distance to the river from camp was not more than four miles. Donald McKenzie was described by Ross in Fur Hunters, II, pp. 264-65, as "Perpetual Motion McKenzie." He was a Northwester but came overland with the Hunt party and returned in the employ of the North West Company in 1816. He was a notable figure in the early Snake River fur trade expeditions. After coalition of the North John Work's Journey to Umpqua River, 1834 263 Indians give of beaver being numerous it is expected that they will get a good many. An Indian who is ac- quainted with that place & speaks the language of the natives there, the Melilish is engaged to accompany the people. Two men remain with the families to hunt for them, & take care of the horses. These men are to have a share of the hunt the same as those who have gone off. Champaigne who is ill with the fever also remains but he is not concerned in the partnership. Gave Kanota a few articles to trade any beaver he may find and make trifling presents to the Indians. Some Indians arrived in the afternoon from McKen- zies fork & brought a few pieces of salmon. Traded 2 beaver. June 30. Fine. Proceeded 10 miles N. W. to Mr. McKay's old house where I left the three men & Cham- paign & the men's families that are gone up the river, as this is said to be a better place for deer than where the canoes were made. [215] I then continued down the river 12 miles W. to the plain accompanied by De Champ, an Owyhee & an indian on the way to the fort with the Comments West and Hudson's Bay companies in 1821, he became governor of the Red River colony. He accumulated prop- erty in the fur trade and died at Mayville, New York in 1840. He was a kinsman of Alexander Mackenzie. He was a remarkable rifle shot, skilled in woodcraft and Indian warfare and was an able Indian trader. June 30. "McKay's old house" probably was at or near the confluence of Willamette and McKenzie rivers, some six miles north of the site of Eugene. From this place the canoes would ascend McKenzie River. John Work then continued the day's journey to a place appar- ently west of the site of Harrisburg. "McKay's old house" indicates that an earlier trading party under leadership of Thomas McKay had a temporary trading post there. 264 Leslie M. Scott furs. The road lay through a hilly country, woods & clear ground, & the rest thinly timbered. The banks of the river are thickly wooded. A good deal of the soil is gravelly and of a poor quality, yet a good deal of pasture on the S side of the hills. The herbage is being already dried up. Some parts of the road stoney. July 1. Fine. Continued our course 24 miles W. & W. N. W. down the river & then across a plain to the traverse at Lamitambuf f [ ?] Met 2 Indians & traded the meat of a deer; three other Indians passed us but made a very short stay & appeared to be much afraid of something. Parts of plain gravelly & soil poor, herbage getting dry & the ground has an arid appearance ; on the lower spots grass luxuriant. July 2. Fine. Continued our course 6V2 hours across the plain to River Lauries river where we camped. [216] The Indians set fire to the dry grass on the neighboring hill, but none of them came near us. The plain is also on fire on the opposite side of the Willamet. July 3. Fine. Sent in the morning to an Indian village below to see if they had any beaver. 10 of them visited the camp & traded their beaver. These Indians are much alarmed lest they be attacked by the Umquahs. It seems some of their tribe a little ahead pillaged an Umquah Indian some time ago of a rifle, & that nation Comments July 1. Lamitambuf f probably was Sam Tomeleaf River of June 2 (Long Tom River). Camp apparently was several miles northeast of the site of Monroe. "Long- tabuff River/' tributary of the Willamette, is mentioned in David Douglas' journel, printed in London, 1914, page 236. This is probably a form of the modernized Long Tom. The name has had many variations. Wilkes gives Lumtumbuff (1841), in Narrative, V, 222. July 2. River Lauries was Mary's River. See under June 1. John Work's Journey to Umpqua River, 1834 265 have threatened to come to war upon them. They also inform us that 4 men of Lautaude Indians have been killed & 3 children taken slaves a short time since, as they suppose by a party of Faladin or Yamhill Indians. It was 11 oclock when we had settled with these Indians after which we proceeded on our journey and camped at our station of 31st May. As we were coming on we found a party of 32 men all armed & ready for war, supposing that a party [217] of the Umquahs were coming upon them. The smoke made near our camp was made to apprise them that strangers were coming. It was these people that had taken the rifle alluded to above. One Indian who is an Umquah who accompanied us & who was commissioned to get the rifle, demanded it from them, and after a great deal of talk they gave it to him. Where we are camped we found 8 or 10 Indians with the meat of 2 deer. They gave us a little. They are now busy dancing & singing & making merry with the produce of their chase. July 4. Showery. Continued & camped. An Indian came some distance to trade 6 or 8 beaver & otters that he had, but he demanded such an exorbitant price that I did not trade. They will no doubt find their way to the fort. After 9% hours march we camped on a small fork near Yamhill river not far from our station of 30th May. Several Yamhill Indians passed us going to their village which [218] is close by, on their way from the Willamet falls loaded with salmon which are now of an indifferent quality, having been carried 2 days in the sun. These people have no beaver, nor do they know of any Indians about here who have any. Part of a deer was obtained from an Indian today. July 5. Cloudy. Proceeded 6 hours & camped not Comments July 4. Camp was near Amity. Willamette Falls were less than forty miles distant. 266 Leslie M. Scott far from an Indian village opposite the Campment de Sauble. Traded a beaver & 8 otters from the Indians here. These people are preparing to go to war in a band of the same tribe a short way to the N. who killed one of their men a short time ago without any cause. July 6. Fine. Continued on 5% hours & camped on the 3rd fork from the N. of Faladin river. There are a number of Indians here which I suspect to be the people that killed the Indian above alluded to, though they deny it, as they are all armed & prepared for an attack. They have no beaver. July 7. Fine. Proceeded 4i/ 2 hours to the [219] N. fork of the Faladin river. We were delayed IV2 hours carrying the baggage across the middle fork which is too deep to ford. Owing to the constant marching our horses are much jaded. July 8. Fair. Continued our march & in 3% hours crossed the mountain to the little Channel of the Urnqvah Comments July 5. Camp was on west side of Willamette River opposite Champoeg. John Work had been here on May 29. July 6. Camp apparently was near South Fork of Tualatin River and Gaston, where the party camped May 27. This was the "fourth and last fork" of May 27, and the "third fork from the north fork" (McKay Creek) of Tualatin River. July 7. Camp was on McKay Creek, this being the "north fork" of Tualatin River. The "middle fork," which made delay, apparently was Dairy Creek, where the party encountered similar delay on May 27. July 8. The route was that of the mountain trail of May 24, as far as Willamette Slough or Multnomah Chan- nel, near the site of Holbrook. Thence the route was northward to Scappoose plains where Thomas McKay lived. Travel was slow owing to the bad trail and the fagged condition of the horses. John Work's Journey to Umpqua River, 1834 267 [Willamette] when we continued down the river to Mr. McKay's place which we reached in 6 hours. The road lay sometimes along the plain & sometimes along to the height of the water. We had to pass through the woods where the road was very bad & difficult to pass owing to the thickets & fallen timber. We had also to unload & carry the baggage across a creek deep with steep clayey banks. The horses could not cross loaded. There are immense meadows all the way down along the river, & if the grass were not injured would yield an immense quan- tity of pasturage & hay. Where the water has recently dried off there is a thick crop of grass so tall that it reaches to the horses' [220] shoulders. Mr McKay's place is in a beautiful situation. There is a plain of considerable extent surrounded by woods clothed with fine pasturage in which there is a consider- able quantity of clover. The soil however is gravelly & appears of an inferior quality to the Faladin country. There is a considerable quantity of ground enclosed & under crop. One field of potatoes, 5 acres, has a fine ap- pearance, but the wheat, barley, pease & Indian corn dont promise so abundant a crop. The house is built on the bank of a lake which communicates by channels with the small channel of the Willamet. The cattle & horses are in fine order. What a pity the low ground is subject to be inundated, for otherwise it would yield most abund- ant crops of every kind of grain. July 9. Fine. Obtained a canoe from La Bonte and a boy as a guide & embarked at [221] 10 oclock & after winding through a number of small channels reached the Comments July 9. Louis La Bonte provided the canoe for the journey to Fort Vancouver. Camp was six miles west of and below Fort Vancouver, on the Washington side, op- posite the mouth of Willamette River. The "lake" was probably Sturgeon Lake in Sauvie Island, that being the 268 Leslie M. Scott small or western channel of the Willamet which we as- cended a considerable distance & crossed a lake (which now occupies a considerable portion of Wapitoe Island) and made a portage of 190 yds into the main channel of the Columbia which we ascended to opposite the upper fork of the Willamet where we encamped at sunset, as it would have been late in the night before we could have reached the fort. A canoe with people from the "Llama" passed us in the evening on their way to the fort. July 10. Fine weather. Proceeded on our way by daylight as we were glad to get away from swarms of mosquitoes, and reached the fort for breakfast. Afterwards had the furs all opened and examined & stood by. Comments later name of Wapato Island. The "upper fork" of the Willamette was the present main channel of that stream. The vessel Llama was owned by the Hudson's Bay Com- pany, for whom it was operated by Captain William O'Neil for trading purposes. The vessel evidently was anchored down river, at Fort George (Astoria), and had sent a small boat to Fort Vancouver. Captain O'Neil sailed the vessel to Columbia River in 1832, and sold it to the Hudson's Bay Company in 1833. Louis La Bonte came to Oregon with the Hunt overland party in 1811-12. He was an employee of the company in 1821-23 as num- bers 989 and 798.

July 10. The party arrived at Fort Vancouver.

DIARY OF REVEREND GEORGE GARY— III

(Continued)

Notes by Charles Henry Carey

[1845] Tuesday, Jan. 21. This day I receive from Doct. McLaughlin a bill of our indebtedness to Hudson Bay Company at Fort Vancouver, amounting to £974, 15 shillings and 9 p. at 4/6 to a dollar. No small amount, between five and six hundred pounds of this was due a year ago. Nearly three hundred is embraced in settling with and sending home the Sandwich Islanders. The re- mainder has been used by the missionaries in various forms. Added to this indebtedness, we shall owe the company for the passage to Sandwich Islands of Bro. Perkins and Doct. Babcock, and their families ; this pass- age is by the day, so the amount cannot be ascertained until we hear from Sandwich Islands ; probably the whole will nearly consume the sale made Doct. McLaughlin of city lots last July, which was $6,000. This sale I deem a very fortunate one; inasmuch as it was made so as to cancel this indebtedness. I think it was in reality worth nearly eight thousand dollars in drafts as these drafts by this company would have to be subjected to heavy dis- counts. Moreover, I think we are so arranging our af- fairs that this company may never again have the mission so completely dependent on them, or indebted to them. I design to and think I shall establish the principle no- thing will be bought of them by the mission without pay- ment, or a very ready and certain arrangement for paying in this country.

We have meeting this evening. It is very rainy and the river is rising.

Wednesday, 22. Bro. Abernethy busy in settling with the persons formerly connected with the mission, H. Campbell and others. We have evening meetings; they are of some interest.

Thursday, 23. Clouds, rain, rising river &c, &c, &c. We have from the upper settlement, D. Leslie, L. H. Judson, H. Campbell and wife. Company plenty. Busy in writing and reading.

Saturday, 25. Our friends from the upper mission are here yet; we have preaching every evening this week. The spirit appears somewhat reviving and encouraging. Mr. Abernethy is busy in settling with Bro. Campbell in reference to the former school and also his own accounts. It is difficult business to get to the ends of these rather confused affairs and this school business has been a very leaky business.

Sunday, 26. Today we have a very good meeting about sixty hearers; our congregation has much increased since the arrival of the emigrants. To day I finish my bible the fourth time since I left New York.

Monday, 27. Very stormy, strong south wind. Our friends from up the Williamette are kept here by the high water. No boating on the river, especially up when the river is as high as it now is. I pity Bro. Hines' family; they have as visitors, Bro. Leslie, Judson, Chapman, Campbell and wife; they have been in the place nearly two weeks and no calculation can be made when they will be able to return to the places of their residence. They are to Bro. Hines, nearly all the time. Somehow or other, Bro. Abernethy and family have a fine tact in not having much company and consequently the whole is by some means shoved off upon Bro. Hines. I think the board were only about tolerably fortunate in their selection of a steward for this mission. The more I become acquainted with him, the more I am forced to the opinion the choice was not a fortunate one.[3]

Tuesday, 28. Pleasant day. Sun shone nearly all day, the fairest day we have seen for more than three months. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 271 Wednesday, 29. This is the coldest morning we have seen, since we left New York. The surface of the ground is stiffened a little by frost. Ice in little parcels of still water as thick as thin glass. Evening, The clouds and rain of an Oregon winter are again upon us. Thursday, 30. Our brethren from up the river leave today. The weather is so rainy, Sister Campbell stays behind. I frequently find a disposition to dictate among the most of our lay brethren, especially in matters relat- ing to their former departments ; and more especially in reference to settling with them. They are occasionally very short in giving their opinion and directions. I am satisfied Bro. Lee has had a difficult set to deal with. I do not think one among all that I have dismissed feel right about it, unless it was Doct. Babcock; and I some suspect his apparent reconcilliation was as much from policy and the courtesies of a gentleman as from anything else. These brethren I fear will not make the best sup- porters of society. For example, Bro. Abernethy is the leading man in church here and is too good or too high to open the door of the meeting house or make a fire for Divine worship; the other male members here think, I suppose, they are about as good as he ; consequently Bro. Hmes or myself open the door and make the fire, and I generally ring the hand bell for the meeting ; and it goes tolerably well ; for he that will be the greatest should be the servant of all. Saturday, February 1, 1845. Dark rainy weather. I find my feelings and thoughts flying among the fields and scenes of my former labors; look forward with hope to the time when I may be associated in those delightful fields of ministerial labor again. But all is submitted to an unerring Providence. "Thy will be done." Sabbath, 2. Congregation of perhaps thirty five ; by some means, the hearts of the irreligious seem as imperv- ious to divine truth. 272 Charles Henry Carey Monday, 3. Dark, rainy weather. Spirits prone to droop ; but winter will not last forever. Tuesday, 4. Beautiful day; sun shines with many charms. I have had some difficulty in my own mind settling the account at Fort VanCouver. I made an ar- rangement in July in the sale of the lots at Williamette Falls to Doct. McLaughlin to have this indebtedness met by him ; but as it amounts to much more than was expect- ed either by himself or myself, I have, after weighing the question as far as I am able, made a deduction on the Doct. purchase of ten per cent. i. e. six hundred dollars from the six thousand, and he gives us the credit on the Hudson Bay Company books at Fort VanCouver, five thousand four hundred dollars. This indebtedness ex- ceeds my calculations; First, I supposed the Sandwich Islanders who were returned to Hudson Bay Company in June and July, 1844, were nearly paid, whereas for their labor and their return to the Islands, the mission has had to pay more than fifteen hundred dollars ; this payment has been made by the Hudson Bay Company and charged to the mission as cash. They have taken Doct. Babcock and Bro. Perkins and their families to the Islands, which will probably be six hundred dollars. The Doct. expected we should have lessened our debt by delivering some wheat to the company, but as yet we have not done it. So in view of everything, I have made the arrangement as above. I had designed to save some of the Doct's. purchase, as money at interest in this land ; his note was to run ten years annual interest at six per cent. Our in- debtedness at this time to the Fort is nearly four thousand and seven hundred dollars; about half of this has lain over on interest for more than a year. Probably the pass- ages above mentioned will nearly make up the credit we now have, viz : $5400. The arrangement I made with the milling company Dec. 21, 1844, will secure some money to this mission in this land. So our drafts hereafter need be small. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 273 Saturday, 8. The weather is more pleasant, for a few days. I am busy in writing and reading. Sunday, 9. Our meetings are of some interest, but something unaccountable; the word has but little or no effect. Monday, 10. Dark and rainy. I am reading the bible with attention and interest. But my time does not turn to much account these days as far as my ministry is con- cerned. Tuesday, 11. Today I receive from the Chenamus, 1 Tierce No. 15, 1 barrel No. — , brought in the Lausanne from New York to Honolulu, but they were somewhere among the cargo so we could not find them when we came away in the Brutus. By some mistake they are sent sub- ject to freight from Oahu, which is $4.00. I pay it. One advantage after all, there are fewer in the mission than there was when we arrived ; and these things will do these few an abundance of good. Wednesday, 12. I am informed the express will leave Fort Vancouver 10th of March. I now begin to prepare my communications for the board and friends in the states. Probably I shall have no opportunity again until next fall. Then perhaps I will accompany them. I lend J. Force 20 yds. bagging, double width. Thursday, 13. Busy writing to the board. Friday, 14. Finish my letter to the board. Saturday, 15. This morning, Bro. Hines is in trouble about his claims on the mission. When he left, 1843, he had his salary made up to December 1, 1843. Took a cer- tificate to present to the board of nearly twelve hundred dollars. When he got to Oahu, Bro. Lee drew for him a draft of nine hundred dollars, which he laid out in part for goods to bring to Oregon after he concluded to return. Part of these goods were sold by Mr. Abernethy, and I suppose the debts made by the sale of the goods are en- tered to the credit of said Hines on the mission books. So now the mission owes him more than a thousand dollars. 274 Charles Henry Carey This method of business does not suit me exactly. I pro- pose that the mission pay in cash or a draft ; the amount Bro. Hines returned from his certificate of 1843, his ex- penses at Oahu, his salary, his passage back from Oahu and two hundred dollars on the house lots (these lots and improvements are kept in the hands of the mission as a parsonage) and the remainder of his claim to be paid in this country deal. He finally consents and the storm passes over. I have kept cool while this cloud was rising. Sunday, 16. Meeting about as usual. Evening, I heard preach and it actually appeared to me they are not careful enough who they license to preach in this land. (It was an excellent cathartic to me.) Monday, 17. Today I receive a bill from Fort Van- couver presenting a charge against me as an individual for freight paid to Capt. Frese, Master of the Brutus, for 1 parcel to D. Lee, $1.05; box of bibles, $3.45; grave stones for Mr. Lee and others, $8.00, $12.50; give an order on Fort to credit George Gary said amount, and charge the mission said $12.50, and Mr. Abernethy charges the items to persons concerned. Tuesday, 18. Today Mr. and Mrs. Campbell leave for their residence up the river. Wednesday, 19. Write to Dr. McLaughlin to balance his books with C. Rogers 2 estate and credit the mission the amount $100.18. Also send an order from A. Beers to be credited to the mission, $45.00. Thursday, 20. I hand my letters for the states to Mr. Ermitinger 3 for Hudson Bay Company's express, via Can- ada, 1 from D. Lester 4 to cors. secy, (mine 1 cors. secy., 1 M. Adams, 1 G. Gary, Jr.) Monday, 24. Paid G. Hines in an order on Capt. Couch, 5 for board, $125.00. Today I receive a letter from Doct. McLaughlin stating Mr. Beers order for forty five 2 Cornelius Rogers, drowned February 4, 1843. 3 Frank Ermatinger. 4 David Leslie (?). 5 Capt. John H. Couch had a store at Oregon City (Cushing & Co.). Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 275 dollars and $100.18 from Rogers estate are put to the credit of the mission. Receive a long letter from A. F. Waller concerning the mission at the Dalls and mission- ary efforts in general. A letter also from H. B. Brewer. Tuesday, 25. Reading the bible. Wednesday, 26. This day I had an interview with J. L. Parish, a local preacher from Clatsop, mouth of Columbia River. He has officiated as an employed local preacher for six months since my arrival in the land. But from the information I obtained from time to time, concerning the amount of ministerial labor he performed, I have discontinued him. From his account of the Clatsop and Cheenooks Indians, they are passing away like the dew; there are but four children under one year old in both tribes. He thinks less than ten under six years old and over one. There are perhaps in the Clatsop tribe, 100 ; Cheenook, 300, including old and young. [1845] Thursday, March 13. Our weather is becom- ing beautiful ; the rains have ceased ; the sun shines with considerable warmth and everything says spring has come. I have just had an interview with Miss Phillips, 6 and the understanding is, her claim on the mission for salary and board ceased last July, when I offered her a passage to the states at the time Mr. Waller was design- ing to go ; but she continues her claim on the Board for a passage home whenever she may wish to go; any time within the ten years for which she came at first to this land. She is out of health ; somewhat in years ; what she may finally do, I know not. She is rather to be pitied. Saturday, 15. Beautiful weather. I am busy writing to the Board, A. Adams, and H. R. Clark, and copying my journal. This week I sent Mr. Parish's bill against his Kanaka for $70.50 to Fort VanCouver. Presume it is put to the credit of the mission. Sunday, 16. The preacher designs to discharge his duty to the few who attend the ministry of the word. 6 Elmira Phillips. 276 Charles Henry Carey Tuesday, 18. Mr. Abernethy does not get through the mission books yet. I fear I shall have to implore the aid of Patience before I get through this business with the books of the mission and steward. Wednesday, 19. I have just had an interview with Mr. Abernethy; he is busy in making out his report to the Board; he makes out the mercantile department of the mission has been very profitable; it is my opinion this profit is more in figures than in anything else. Moreover, I suspect there has been aid and expense at- tendant on this department, that has never been charged to it. I find an unwillingness in each to have his depart- ment come out heavily minus. Thursday, 20. Today Bro. Leslie arrived from the Institute ; to take us up next Monday. Very busy in clos- ing our accounts with Mr. Abernethy. Friday, 21. Settled with Bro. Hines, paid for 37 2/7 week's board, for self and wife, $5.00 per week, $186.43. Order formerly mentioned on Capt. Couch, $125.00, on Rogers estate. My private stores, $47.54. Donation goods, $13.89, total $186.43. Received an order from G. Hines on Mr. Abernethy for $7.81 for donation goods formerly entered. Paid expense up the Will, from dona- tion, $7.81. Saturday, 22. Today we are very busy in preparing to go up the river next Monday. Also finish my letters for the secy., Mr. Adams, and H. B. Clark; hand them over to Mr. Ermatinger. Sunday, 23. Bro. Leslie preaches today; L. H. Judson also in the evening. The sermons were very respectable. Monday, 24. Start early; as soon as it is light; for up the river, start from the upper landing at seven o'clock ; this is about a mile from the Falls. The current is so strong near the Falls so that the people very uni- formly go to the upper landing, since the death of Mr. Rogers and Mr. Leslie's daughters. These persons and two or three more were taken over the falls by passing Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 277 lower and by some means getting into the current and found their watery graves. Our present company con- sists of D. Leslie, Mr. Hatch, 7 Miss Phillips, Mrs. Gary, myself and a crew of three, two colored persons and Mr. Chapman. 8 After a hard effort, our crew reached the Butte. There we expect wagons to meet us ; one is here, we must wait for the other. We pass somewhat comfort- able under the boughs of a fir tree, a rainy night, spread our umbrella over our head so that the drops of rain which get through our leaky roof do not fall on our faces ; here we enjoy sweet and refreshing sleep ; find our bed- ding and wearing apparel wet some as we wake and enter upon the scenes of the morning; but few in the states know how little they can do with. Surely man needs but little. Tuesday, 25. We stir early; prepare and eat break- fast. In a little while the other wagon comes; we pick up and load up and start off. Mr. Raymond 9 takes in his wagon Miss Phillips and part of our plunder (as the westerners call it). Mr. Leslie takes the remainder of the baggage, Mrs. Gary and myself, and we are soon off. But not quite so soon neither, for one of Bro. Leslie's horses baulks, but a free use of the whip makes him go and on we go and so we go over the delightful prairies. Our balky horse is dull and lazy ; our driver, Bro. Leslie, has a diligent and hard days work to whip him along. While passing over a large prairie two deer pass in full view and at full speed. On our route, the wagon breaks but as necessity is the mother of invention, we contrive to repair our broken vehicle, and after perhaps an hour's delay, we are under way again, and finally reach Bro. Leslie's at about four o'clock. So we are now at the parsonage, a pleasant place. Commence boarding at D. Leslie's. 7 Peter H. Hatch. 8 William Chapman. 9 W. W. Raymond. 278 Charles Henry Carey About tea time, we hear Bro. Hauxhurst 10 has lost a child about three years and six months old; drowned in the mill creek. It is not known how he got into the water. A sudden death. Mr. H. passed by our house a few hours ago, in a wagon with all his family in it. Now one of the number is with the dead. [1845] Sunday, April 13. Today the funeral of Bro. Hauxhurst's child was attended. Bro. Leslie preached. This Bro. H. is more a pleasant and agreeable man than the ordinary class of men. He was born in Brooklyn, near New York, was formerly a sailor, left his vessel in California, came into this country nearly ten years ago with all the propensities of a depraved life. The cause of temperance first took him and he was rescued from his cups. In a little while, he took an Indian girl and lived with her as he pleased. Conscience troubled him, and he furnished this girl with blankets and sundry other ar- ticles, and sent her, as he supposed, to her people. In the night, I am informed, he heard her at his door beseeching him to let her in, averring her love to him and promising to be good to him if he would let her live with him; his purpose in part yielded ; he let her in ; and knowing it was wicked for them to live together as they had done, he, in a short time, soon experienced religion, and is now a respectable man in the community, only he has a squaw for his wife. This, it is presumed, is the source for great mortification to himself and affliction to his friends ; yet he is leading a religious life; his oldest child is at school and he takes a great interest in his children. But the Father of all has taken this little one home ; where he will never suffer either in his feelings or relations in life for being a half-breed. Monday, 14. Examined the box of books; sold it to Rev. D. Leslie. The almanacs were deposited on our ar- 10 Webley J. Hauxhurst, built first grist mill in Willamette Valley in 1834. He was converted in January, 1837, and became a Methodist. (Lee and Frost, p. 143.) Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 279 rival in the stores. The remainder of the bill, $147.27, one third off, left $97.52, five per cent added for freight made $102.39. Box 75c, total charged to D. Leslie as salary, $103.14. Saturday, 19. Spent the week mostly in reading; reading Elliott on Romanism. What a blessing to be born and edcated in the land of Protestantants where the bible is of ready access. Bed bugs slaughtered today. Sunday, 20. Preached today in the Institute to per- haps 40 persons; half or more of them members of the school. Baptize a child of Mr. Hauxhurst's ; last Sunday the funeral of one of his children, today he gives another to the Divine Being in baptism. Monday, 21. Today I finish the bible in course the fifth time since I left the state. Saturday, 26. I am reading Elliott on Romanism. I am favored with time for reading, more than I ever was before. Occasionally something comes along which re- quires thought, and perhaps some decision in reference to some persons and things heretofore connected with the mission, but the elements are generally very quiet. For about a month, we have had cold and rainy weather ; we are favored in not having to travel and tent out this weather. [1845] Saturday, May 3. Beautiful weather; April has been a very rainy month, but May promises fair weather so far. Vegetation is growing rapidly. This day I finish reading Elliott on Romanism; a great work. Surely here is much good laid up for many years on this question of so much interest to the Protestant or Christ- ian world. There are but few situations if any in this life free from annoyances. We have now fine weather, fine room, fine board, fine time to read and a few vex- ations, cause : labor, light, &c &c. But there is so much scolding in the family with which we board that it is really annoying ; but let me record it to the honor of the fairer sex, it is not from the woman of the house. Query : Ought the man of the house to be labored with on this subject?

Tuesday, 6. We ride a few miles in nature's oak park, the most enchanting and delightful scenery of the kind I ever saw, the ground, the trees, all beautiful; such is the variety and beauty of the flowers as to present themselves in every step; it is like a flower garden, a flower garden, indeed, on a large scale, to an extent unmeasured, and it hardly seems right that our horses should step—

[1845] Monday, June 2. Beautiful, fine weather. The month of May has been rainy and cold, but summer has now come. We have passed through the seasons of the year in Oregon, it being a year yesterday since we arrived at Williamette Falls.

Tuesday, 3. This day is election day in this territory; politicians wide awake. Governor, sheriff, territorial attorney, treasurer, recorder, judge and assessor, besides county and military officers. There are four tickets,—four great political parties. Tickets are denominated Republican, Farmer, People, and Farmer, but more properly Hudson Bay Company ticket. Now is the time for office. The candidates for governor are Gov. Abernethy, O. Russel,[4] J. L. Lovejoy,[5] and Wm. Bailey,[6] less, I believe, than five hundred tickets or votes taken.

Monday, 9. We learn that Geo. Abernethy is elected governor of Oregon. In this election, it appears the American interests have a strong claim upon the affections of the population of this land. Also the cause of temperance has its successful friends and supporters. The friends of Alcohol, voted, I suppose, for Wm. Bailey. The Hudson Bay Company's sycophants for O. Russell or J. O. Lovejoy. Mr. Russell, more openly Hudson Bay. Mr. Lovejoy on or off from Hudson Bay Company as he thinks he will best secure office and honor. Though I am Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 281 no politician, I am pleased with the result of this election. We are anxiously waiting some arrival in the Columbia with the news from the states; nearly fifteen months since the date of our latest letters from our friends. Not a word concerning general conference. We have no idea who are the new bishops of the Methodist Episcopal church. We have no guess who fills the presidential chair of our dearly beloved country. This want of news of friends, church and country to those who love friends, church and country is no small evil. Wednesday, 11. We are preparing to go ten miles up the Williamette to Mr. Campbell's ; have two or three men exploring the pasture to find the horses all the morning up to eleven o'clock; have not as yet found all we want. We labor under some inconveniences in having so large a pasture; it includes an unknown portion of the planet earth. One o'clock p. m. We start for Hulpum, 14 all on horse back. Company consists of D. Leslie and wife, G. Hines and wife, Mrs. Abernethy and her son, William; Julia Bryant, Lucy Anna Maria Lee, Mrs. Gary and my- self. A delightful ride over hill and dale; the highest richest grass I have seen in the territory. We waded through on our way in places today. Like a most luxur- iant meadow in the state of New York just before mow- ing. In one of these places, we were saluted with the rattle of a rattle snake. One of our company dismounted and killed him. We arrived in due season at Bro. Camp- bell's ; a part of our company put up at Holden's, 15 a near neighbor to Mr. C. Thursday, 12. We ride about four miles to see the place where Mr. Campbell and Mr. H. are preparing to build on a higher part of this beautiful prairie; where they now live, they are exposed to the ravages of high water, as the banks of the Sandyam 16 overflow and con- 14 Chehulpum (Chinook for the place of beaver). 15 Horace Holden; for biography see Vol. I, p. 467, Bancroft's Oregon. 16 Santiam River. 282 Charles Henry Carey vert thousands of acres into the appearance of a sea. D. Leslie, wife, and William Abernethy return. Friday, 13. Doct. Whitman, from the Presbyterian mission, visits us. Our interview is a short one. Perhaps I cannot give an opinion concerning him; upon but one point with safety, and that is that he is not a slow or small talker. Saturday, 14. We ride up the Sandyam a few miles to see the country and gather strawberries. Sunday, 15. Have meeting at Mr. Campbell's. Tuesday, 17. We return to Bro. Leslie's. Kill a rattle snake on our way and see at different times bounding deer. I do not think we have seen in this short tour a half a dozen Indians; comparatively speaking, there are no Indians, or at least very few, in this Williamette por- tion of the country. We have had very fine weather and in every respect a pleasant time in this town. On Satur- day evening, I was weighed ; weigh 166 pounds, about 25 pounds larger than I was in the state of New York. I am getting to be a great man. Wednesday, 18. Visited at Mr. Holman's in company with D. Leslie and wife, and G. Hines and wife. Thursday, 19. Our company took dinner at Mr. Haux- hurst's. We had an excellent dinner ; Mrs. H. is a native. At our dinner, we have good new potatoes and good boiled cabbage, this year's growth. Oregon is really a goodly land. Friday, 20. We are having warm, dry weather; the dry season has commenced ; There is but little dew in the night in the dry part of the year in this country. Sunday, 22. Meeting at the Institute ; perhaps forty persons present; more than half under fourteen years of age. How enchanting a quarterly meeting on some circuit in Herkimer district would be. Monday, 23. They are in great trouble, as near as I can guess, at the Institute. Mr. Raymond, who keeps the boarding hall, has whipped one of the scholars, unreasonDiary of Rev. George Gary — III 283 ably; the father has come to see about it. Bro. Leslie asks no advice; is so reserved and cross I hardly know what to do. I never had any idea a good man and min- ister could scold so much and be so unpleasant in his family as he is, until we came here to board. Now he is in real trouble about this whipping. I would sympathize with him, as he is deeply interested in the school, only he is too elbowish for sympathy to approach him, and so much acid about him, it must essentially change the prop- erties of sympathy into something else; so we keep our room and know but little, only as we catch it accident- ally. I am satisfied the scholars in the former Indian manual labor school were unreasonably and unmercifully corrected, and in many respects, the school was more like a place of correction and imprisonment than a place of charitable and kind instruction. Excessive whipping, hand-cuffs, fetters and chains were somewhat common in those days, but the school is now for whites and it will be found indispensible to have the school governed in a mild and consistent manner. Report says that one of the Hudson Bay Company's vessels has entered the Columbia river. Report also says Mr. Polk has been elected presi- dent of the United States of America. We are hoping for letters. Thursday, 26. We received letters and papers from Sandwich Islands. Letters are from Mr. Daman and Mr. Hall; papers are "The Friend," edited by Mr. D. By these we learn Polk is president ; Texas is annexed ; also a small paragraph which says, "The Methodist Episcopal church is divided into northern and southern. " Said to have taken place in general conference in 1844. It is not easy to conceive the anxiety I feel to know the truth of this statement, and, if true, the particulars concerning it. Saturday, 28. As there is a probability of a chance to send letters by a small company over the mountains, we are busy in writing a few. Sunday, 29. Preached at the Institute. 284 Charles Henry Carey Monday, 30. Writing letters for the states, and pre- paring to go to the Dalls. [1845] Tuesday, July 1. Cool, cloudy, some rain. Busy writing. Wednesday, 2. At camp meeting on the north side of Mill creek, perhaps % of a mile from our boarding place. G. Hines preached the first sermon at 8 p. m. Mat. 18 :20. Four tents, sixteen person present. Thursday, 3. Eight a. m., L. H. Judson preached from St. John, 15:5, 33 present. Ten a. m., E. Garrison preached from John 10:9. 31 present. Two p. m., D. Leslie from John 6:28 and 29. 33 hearers. Seven p. m., G. Hines, Zach. 9:12. 36 hearers. Friday, 4. Eight a. m., D. Leslie, Hosea 2:15. Ten a. m., G. Gary, Psalms 15. 50 at each. Two p. m., G. Hines, Numbers 10:29. present, 66. Seven p. m., E. Garrison, 1st Kings, 18 :21. 52 present. Saturday, 5. Eight a. m., D. Leslie, Psalms 51 :12 and 13. 46 present. Ten a. m. L. H. Judson, 2nd Cor. 6:2. 60 hearers. Two p. m., G. Gary, Gen. 19:17, 88 present. Seven p. m., G. Hines, Ezek. 9:4 to 6. 70 hearers. Sunday, 6. Eight p. m., W. H. Wilson, Prov. 1 :24 to 26, 80 hearers. Ten a. m., G. Gary, Psalms 45:5. The largest congregation, say 120, old and young. Two p. m., G. Hines, St. John 1 :29. Nearly the same number. Seven p. m., D. Leslie, Prov. 4:18 and 19, 75 hearers. Monday, 7. At Eight this morning, we closed our camp meeting. A few had experienced religion. About 40 at the sacrament, Sunday. In the number, quite a pro- portion children, say 20 students from the Institute. Yet the congregation appeared respectable in deportment and intelligence. Good will result from this meeting. Tuesday, 8. We are at our room, so much controversy in the family, we hardly dare come within sight or hear- ing of the man of the house, lest we should be either scared or afflicted with his scolding. In counsel some about going to the Falls to board. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 285 Wednesday, 9. Settled with Rev. D. Leslie. Paid him for 16 weeks board, $4.00 per week, $64.00. Paid former- ly for traveling expense up to this place, $7.81. Add now as an overplus as an expense not heretofore brought in, $1.19. Paid him in a note against H. Campbell for interest on note given June 27, 1844 ; as D. Leslie's salary, $228.04. This board bill paid up to July 15, $5.25, out of my own things. Donation goods from barrels 14 and 15, $59.55; box of books already charged, $103.14; order from G. Hines, already charged, $7.81 ; H. Campbell's due bill, $228.43 ; Bennett, $4.25 Demijohn $1.00; (mine) Total D. Leslie, Dr. $404.18. Board 16 weeks at $4.00, $64.00 ; traveling expenses paid for G. Gary, $9.00; For salary, April, $103.14; July 9, 1845, salary, $228.04; Total D. Leslie, Credit, $404.18. Thursday, 10. Very agreeably and profitably enter- tained in reading The Christian Student, a little volume lately issued from the Book Room. Friday, 11. Visit at Mr. Barton Lee's. 17 Sunday, 13. Meeting at Institute. Mr. Saxton 18 is present and stays in class and informs us that he has experienced religion. The camp meeting was a blessing to him and to a number of others; surely the Lord has respect to His cause in this dark land. Monday, 14. We are preparing to go to the Falls in hopes to receive news from the states soon. Tuesday, 15. After considerable fixing so as to bal- ance the boat and make it safe, we start, leaving a part of our baggage behind. Put ourselves again upon the uncertain waters of the Williamette. Company consists of Bro. and Sister Hines, Lucy Anna Marie Lee, Mrs. G. 17 Barton Lee represented Champoeg District in the Legislative Com- mittee of the Provisional Government, June, 1845. (Or. Archives, p. 71.) 18 Joseph Charles Saxton, an immigrant of 1844, went with Dr. Elijah White to find a pass in the Cascade Mountains in 1845. He published the Organic Laws of the Provisional Government, 1846. Gray's History of Oregon, p. 352.) 286 Charles Henry Carey Gary and myself, one Kanaka and an Indian. Go perhaps eight miles and put up for the night. It was the middle of the afternoon when we started. Having no tent, we make our bed under a tree and are annoyed by the mos- quitoes in no small degree. Wednesday, 16. Still passing down the river. Mos- quitoes at night. Thursday, 17. Reach the Falls; find ourselves board- ing again at Bro. Hines'. Friday, 18. Rest and retirement. Saturday, 19. Mr. Abernethy has just arrived from Oahu ; brings no letters from the states for us. No news concerning Rev. J. Lee. Surely we have a dirth of news. Sunday, 20. About 25 hearers. Monday, 21. To make myself contented and happy in this great dirth of news, busy reading the holy bible. Bro. Hines and family are in no small difficulty to know what to do provided they get no news from or concerning Rev. J. Lee ; they having the charge of Bro. Lee's child ; are laboring under great doubt to know what to do with her without some information on that point. Tuesday, 22. I am so blanked for want of news it is difficult to keep my mind quiet and attentive for read- ing. I have been thinking over the sufferings of the prisoners in the state penitentiaries of New York and am led to think the want of society is not among the small sufferings of a state of imprisonment. It is some- thing like being buried alive, to live and know nothing of the church at home, children, parents, &c, of our dearly beloved country. Wednesday, 23. We learn a Sweedish vessel has come into the Columbia river. Possibly we may have letters in her. Friday, 25. Bro. Hines and myself and families go down the river about 12 miles to the Chenamus and bor- row sundry papers from the states. Not a Christian Advocate among them. They are filled with politics ; by Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 287 them we learn, however, Doct. Janos and L. L. Hamline were elected bishops of the Methodist Episcopal church at the general conference for 1844. Also a vote touching slavery in reference to Bishop Andrew passed said gen- eral conference; yeas, 110; nays 68. Slavery can never expect that the general conference of the Methodist Epis- copal church will cordially recognize the various and im- portant duties connected with the general superintend- ency of said church as performed by a man embarrased with American slavery. Saturday, 26. Busy in reading papers from the states. Sunday, 27. We have in our meeting today about 20 Indians (Nez Perces) from the upper country. Fine looking men. They are from Mr. Spaulding's mission, now in this place on business. Tuesday, 29. Rode about four miles to Mr. Hatch's. [1845] Friday, August 1. Returned to Bro. Hines'. Gave an order on Dr. McLaughlin for $825.00, the amount of passage of Doct. Babcock and Mr. Perkins and families from Columbia river to Honolulu. Saturday, 2. For a few days, we have been in great suspense about whether Bro. Hines will start for the states this fall or whether he will stay and let us return. This morning it is settled, Bro. Hines is to return; we probably shall remain in this land another year. Tuesday, 5. G. E. Garrison 19 this day presents an account against the mission school for $261.00 for teach- ing. No small item to be overlooked in the settlement with the school expenses. Very much in character with Mr. Campbell's careless way of doing business. Thursday, 7. Busy writing to send to the states. We keep writing to our friends though we receive so little from them. Sunday, 10. 20 hearers. Monday, 11. Today busy in arranging various mat- ters in reference to settling with Bro. Hines. 19 Probably J. W. Garrison. 288 Charles Henry Carey Tuesday, 12. Busy writing. Wednesday, 13. Bro. Waller, from the Dalls, is with us. We are busy in preparing to keep house. I make a bill of crockery and iron ware of $10.10, one piece of calico, $9.90 ; total $20.00. Thursday, 14. I arrange passage for Mr. and Mrs. Hines and two children to Sandwich Islands, $150.00; from there to the states, $520.00. Friday, 15. This day I perfect a draft for the above passages. Mr. Hauxhurst presents a bill against the mission school for $200. Never did I see the equal of this school for confusing in closing up its concerns. It was supposed long ago, everything was settled ; but now within a few days, nearly five hundred dollars has come in against this leaky concern ; Saturday, 16. On settlement with Bro. Hines, I pay him off by drawing on the treasurer for him $668.00 Sunday, 17. About 30 hearers. Monday, 18. Today I pay in specie $75.00 for draft from J. Lee, Aug. 19, 1842; also for D. Leslie, $35.45. G. Hines, Dr. cash $185.00 ; cash again 45c ; draft on the board, $668.00 ; on Oahu $900.00. This day I finish my letters; 2 to the board, 2 to Moses Adams; 1 to Bishop Hedding ; 1 to Geo. Gary, Jr. All of these were delivered to over the mountain company July 1 except one to the board, 1 to Mr. Adams and 1 to Bishop Hedding. Tuesday, 19. This day I am favored (if a favor it be) with a bill from Fort VanCouver, for lumber borrowed by the mission ; between thirteen and fourteen thousand feet, borrowed in 1841. I have some comfort when I receive these old unsettled bills; I think every one is the last. At any rate, each one diminishes from the number remaining. Wednesday, 20. We are having considerable of a rain which is very uncommon for this season of the year. Bro. Hines has much to try his patience in settling up his affairs. The purchasers of his claims are by no means Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 289 prompt. Gave an order on Mr. Abernethy in favor of J. W. Garrison for $261.00 to pay his school bill. Thursday, 21. Five o'clock p. m. Bro. Hines and family given the parting hand. They start for the states. We are left upon this distant shore to pass another year. Providence orders wisely. Saturday, 23. I feel rather lonely and solitary; none in this immediate vicinity that I can calculate as my social and intimate friends. Without being a prophet, I can foresee that most of my time will be spent under my quiet and peaceful roof. Sunday, 24. From 30 to 40 attentive hearers. I can almost hope these Sabbath seasons are not in vain to these hearers. Saturday, 30. This is the time of some affliction. I have the ague and fever. I am unable to read, write, visit or preach at least every other day. I have spoken to Mr. Abernethy to read a sermon tomorrow, as it will probably be my sick day. [1845] Wednesday, September 3. I am greatly fav- ored to human view; I am through with the ague; the attack was slight and short; remarkably so; Providence is tender and kind ; insensibility and ingratitude, be gone. Sunday, 7. About 30 hearers. Monday, 8. We hear by Mr. Ogden 20 that Mr. J. Lee reached the states in safety. Tuesday, 9. I suffered considerably from tooth ache ; it kept me awake nearly all night, and while watch- ing with my aching teeth, I heard an ox break into my garden ; I soon drove him out and saved my garden. Friday, 12. I am busy reading Mr. Wesley's journal. Sunday, 14. About our usual number at meeting. I propose to do my duty to these people in plain, close preaching. Thursday, 18. Yesterday I read a letter Bro. Leslie 20 Peter S. Ogden. had just received from Rev. J. Lee, dated August, 1844. He has made up his mind to return to this territory.

Saturday, 20. Patience and courage keep to your post. Another bill against the Indian manual labor school, by Mrs. Holman, one hundred and fifty seven dollars and some cents. Mrs. Holman (Miss Phelps) served the mission about nine months, i. e. which was nine months before she was married after she arrived in the mission, for which she has no credit. Mr. Abernethy gave her credit for $75.00, to be open for any other adjustment after the arrival of Bro. Lee.

Monday, 22. Receive a letter from Bro. Waller. I am very profitably employed in reading Mr. Wesley's journal.

Thursday, 25. We hear the forward persons in the emigration have reached Fort VanCouver. Expectation is awake to have them arrive here, and especially to have letters from friends in the states. Our weather is very fine, a most favorable time for the emigrants. Report says, "3,000 are coming."—Possibly there may be 1,000.

Friday, 26. We purchased of Bro. Hines a very good garden; a very fine lot of melons were stolen last night. We, however, had had more of them before the stealing than we expected to get of them, so we won't complain much.

Saturday, 27. Cloudy, appearance of rain soon. This day one emigrant reaches this place. Poor fellow, he is so thronged about with persons asking questions as by platoon; he has no chance even to answer, I do not see him. We are anxious for letters and the Christian Advocate and Journal.

Sunday, 28. About our usual number at meeting. Say 30. Fine weather.

[1845] Wednesday, October 1. I have been busy for a few days in digging my potatoes in the garden. Have perhaps 20 bushels. A few more emigrants last evening.

Thursday, 2. Bro. Leslie and family arrived to spend a few days with us.

Saturday, 4. Frost this morning to injure our vines in the garden.

Sunday, 5. Our quarterly meeting. 19 communicants.

Monday, 6. Bro. Leslie and family leave. Another error against the mission farm of $73.58. It really appears as though there has been great carelessness in keeping the account.

Wednesday, 8. The emigrants are coming into the country; so far but few have passed this place. We hear two were drowned at the cascades. It is said one was a Baptist minister. No letters yet. Learned afterwards, one only, Mr. Moore.

Friday, 10. Nine a. m. More than one hundred head of horn cattle have just passed our door, attended by a number of emigrants. The weather is beutiful. They are coming in in fine spirits. Report they have had excellent weather, left Independence the 2nd day of May, and are coming into Oregon as a land of promise with great hopes.

Saturday, October 11. We are having most beautiful weather. Emigrants keep arriving in small companies; from the statements of all so far the emigration will perhaps number more than two thousand, and more than five hundred wagons.

Sunday, 12. Our place is rather confused or unsettled by the arrival of new emigrants; almost everybody wishes to see them and propose their questions, many inquire for friends on the arrival of emigrants. Under this excitement and curiousity, our congregation is smaller than usual; only about twenty hearers.

Monday, 13. Today I received a letter from Dr. McLaughlin stating he could not take wheat on Dr. Babcock's account and credit the Methodist mission.

Tuesday, 14. Quite a stir concerning a parcel of emigrants coming from the Dalls by the way of Mount Hood 292 Charles Henry Carey with their wagons; heretofore all the wagons have been brought in boats down the Columbia river at great ex- pense, say $30 a wagon, but now it is said a small com- pany of emigrants are by taking a circuitous route like to reach the Williamette with their teams, wagons, &c, altogether ; if this is accomplished, wagons may pass from the Mississippi River to the Pacific ocean. A small company from this place have just started to meet these enterprising and hardy emigrants and take on pack horses about twelve hundred pounds of flour ; their meeting will doubtless be a joyful one ; the great peril and trouble with the emigrants in coming to this place is from the Dalls to the Williamette valley. There is no calculating the benefit of a passage by land for teams and wagons. Wednesday, 15. After so long a time, we are cheered with a letter from Rev. A. Adams, dated March 20, 1845, in which we learn of the continued life and health of our very dear friends in the state of New York. Surely this letter is like water to a very, very thirsty man. This was brought by an emigrant over the mountains. We ex- pected more. Friday, 17. Cloudy, dark and rainy as though Oregon winter was setting in. Busy writing to friends in the states. Saturday, 18. Emigrants are coming in, in small companies and appear very respectable. Sunday, 19. Beautiful weather again. Congregation small; say about 20. Monday, 20. Today we hear there is an American vessel in the Columbia river; we are in hopes of letters and papers. Wednesday, 22. Busy in writing. Friday, 24. Cloudy and rainy. Saturday, 25. Dull weather. Reading Mr. Wesley's journal; surely he was raised up for a special work and his abundant labors were a very special blessing to the religious world. This evening I receive a letter from Mr. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 293 Brewer, giving information that the emigrants, "The Meek Party", many of them are sick; quite a number have died ; a disease prevails among them resembling the old camp distemper in the Revolutionary war ; the effect of their toil, destitution, and the impure water they drank in their lost and dreadful situation. Mr. Brewer is about worn out and discouraged in waiting upon the emigrants, and inquires what shall be done; Mrs. Waller was con- fined last Sabbath and delivered a fine boy; Mr. Waller had to be the doctor in the case ; all said to be doing well. Sabbath, 26. Rainy morning. Not quite twenty at meeting. Evening, the rain abates, congregation larger. Monday, 27. Fair weather again. We take great in- terest in the weather these days in view of the emigrants. The probability is the entire number of this year's emi- gration is about three thousand souls, six hundred wagons and fifteen thousand head of cattle; So writes Mr. Brewer who has a pretty good opportunity to ascertain the number. A large proportion of this large emigration are as high up the Columbia as the Dalls and some still further back. Their passage down the river is difficult, dangerous and slow as there are very [1845] Monday, November 24. This day we receive a box of books from the vessel in which we find the North- ern C. Advocate, a few Advocates and some other papers. Our eyes will now weary with reading. Tuesday, 25. Bro. Abernethy reads me a letter from a distinguished member of the board in N. Y., informing us of the death of Rev. Jason Lee, late superintendent of Oregon mission. He has gone, gone from his labors and cares for this new and rising portion of the earth ; where his fairest hopes have bloomed, bloomed with a great deal of promise but painfully faded to a considerable ex- tent. As I have had some opportunity to see his footsteps in this territory, I feel safe in saying I believe he was actuated by large and generous views for the natives and emigrants of this colony ; and that he was aided by others 294 Charles Henry Carey in forming these sanguine views, and that he and others were sadly disappointed in the unfavorable results of the many enterprises in which he or they engaged. But he rests from his labors, cares and mortifications. Respect to his memory as far as sacrifice, toil and motive are concerned. Wednesday, 26. Busy in reading the Northern C. Advocate, the church, the dear Methodist E. church (to which I am an insolvent debtor) has had trouble enough; perhaps it is well for me, I am so far away at this time ; I might do or say or feel something which could afflict me were I in the midst of such excitement. From the papers I am led to form the opinion Bishop Soule has not all the prudence that some of his distinguished colleagues have. Thursday, 27. Beautiful weather, very different from last year. Today another leak in Mr. Campbell's accounts of the Indian school is presented by Mr. Hauxhurst, he, Mr. H., being charged twice with $80.89. Friday, 28. This day we receive the box containing the Christian Advocate and Journal. The news of more than a year breaks in upon us like an overwhelming tor- rent. The eyes pay a heavy duty on this importation. Receive also a letter from Cors. secy., via. of express through Canada, dated March 26, 1845. Postage $1.00. Saturday, 29. The weather continues very fine — very different from what it was a year ago. Sunday, 30. Congregation is increasing some; the emigrants make the addition. Two years this day since we left the port and city of New York. Fine weather. [1845] Tuesday, December 2. Bro. Leslie visits us. Hold a consultation about employing J. L. Parrish as a preacher. I believe I shall employ him one year. Thursday, 4. We conclude to have a funeral sermon on the occasion of the death of Rev. J. Lee. Bro. Leslie is to preach it next Sabbath, half past ten. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 295 Saturday, 6. Write to Bro. Waller, Brewer and J. L. Parrish. Sunday, 7. Bro. Leslie preaches a funeral sermon on the death of Rev. J. Lee. Text Luke 7 :4 and 5. "That he was worthy for whom he should do this ; for he loveth our nation." The performance no way remarkable. Monday, 8. This day I am fifty two years old. I have completed the reading of the journal of the general con- ference as reported in the Christian [Advocate] and Journal. I do not think that I have seen any period since we left the states that I have felt half as disturbed in my feelings as I should have felt had I attended the general conference in 1844. Wednesday, 10. This day, we receive the remainder of our papers, books and also two barrels of donation goods from the Toulon. A fine supply of good reading; the donation goods are also a very great favor. The bibles and testaments from the American Bible Society are in good season, as many of the emigrants have lost their bibles on their journey and now receive a bible with great delight and gratitude ; it is pleasurable to be the agent in these noble charities. Sunday, 14. Congregation larger than usual; great attention to the word. Tuesday, 16. I have just been to see about buying some dried apples; they are 25c a pound (specie) ; too much for a circuit preacher to think of buying. I have made an arrangement to send a barrel of flour to Rev. S. C. Damon and another to E. O. Hall, Honolulu, as a token of respect for their attention and kindness to us when on our way to this land. Wednesday, 17. Drew for Mr. Abernethy on Fort Vancouver for sixty dollars — Lent to be returned by the first of March — $50 returned, $10 returned. Saturday, 20. We are having beautiful weather ; but little rain compared to last year. Pleasant days and 296 Charles Henry Carey frosty nights; ice in small places of standing water, say half an inch thick. Sunday, 21. Mr. Johnson, 21 Baptist Missionary lately arrived preached in our meeting house; hope his labors in this land may do good ; here is plenty of water in the Williamette. Monday, 22. Paid Mr. Crawford 22 for wood, &c, &c, see his bill, in a draft on Mr. Abernethy, $41.61. Our papers and new books keep us busy. Thursday, 25. We have just butchered our pigs. Bought of Mr. Crawford another one. Saturday, 27. Warm, rainy weather; some sickness about us. Sunday, 28. About 40 hearers. It sometimes seems as though good would be done by these sanctuary seasons. Thursday, January 1, 1846. New Year. Forty five has gone. Gone never to return. In view of the frailty, weaknesses, imperfections and faults of the past, the foot of the cross is the only place of hope and of safety. Here may I abide. May I record it* There is occasionally an uneasiness to return to the states that I may see my many and my very dear friends again in the land of the living. Moreover, the state of the mission as far as I am able to judge, does not call for my remaining long in this territory. I am by no means dissatisfied in remaining here at present ; but it does seem as though there will be some opening in the course of 1846 like a Providential opening for our return. Providence smiled on our coming here, I want it equally apparent that Providence smiles on our return. Friday, 2. Write letters today to send by the Toulon to the Sandwich Islands; then through Mexico to the states. (One sheet Dr. Pitman and Dr. Babcock and one sheet to M. Adams and G. Gary, Jr.) 21 Rev. Hezekiah Johnson. 22 Medorem Crawford. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 297 Saturday, 3. Delivered these letters to Mr. Stark, 28 Supercargo on board the Toulon. Sent postage $1.00. Sabbath, 4. Four p. m. married Mr. George Neal and Miss Millie Stephenson. Mr. Neal has been in this terri- tory a little more than a year. Miss Stephenson less than three months. Girls find quick market in Oregon. $1.50 Wednesday, 7. Received letters from Bros. Waller and Brewer. They give accounts up to Jan. 1, and it appears they had not heard of the death of Rev. J. Lee. Bro. Waller has very large views of enterprise and labor among the Indians at the Dalls. It is rather my opinion he will always be uneasy in his situation with the appro- priations which shall be deemed necessary for sustaining the Dalls appointment. Saturday, 10. We are having warm pleasant weather ; it freezes a little at night, but the shining sun by day warms the earth ; it is very much like the pleasantest part of April in the state of New York. Here we are consid- erably north of our friends in New York. They are shivering with the cold, or breaking through snow drifts ; or possibly shut in their dwellings; their roads being blocked up with snow ; but in this land, an excellent time for ploughing and sowing. The sun shines so bright and warm in our windows, Mrs. Gary has just put down the window curtains. A year ago, our winter was rain, rain, rain. But not so, this. Considerable fair pleasant weath- er. We are somewhat put to it to keep our feelings along with the winter, so as to make it seem like winter. This day I receive a letter from J. L. Parrish. More than a month since I wrote to him proposing to employ him for one year in the ministry, to be associated with Bro. Leslie in labors on both sides of the Williamette above this place. On the following conditions : the mission is to pay him his disciplinary quarterage, that is to say, $264. He is to depend on the people with whom he labors for his 23 Benjamin Stark. The Toulon, Captain Nathaniel Crosby, was in the Columbia frequently after October, 1845, trading with the Islands. 298 Charles Henry Carey table, moving and traveling expenses ; his time is to com- mence at the time of his arrival here (Williamette Falls) on his way to his work. From my acquaintance with the local preachers in this land, I prefer Bro. Parrish to either of the others for being employed for the time being as a traveling preacher. Sunday, 11. At the evening service, more than usual in numbers and in apparent attention. Can these seasons be lost? I hope not. Tuesday, 13. Write to Mr. Roberts, 24 A. F. Waller and D. Leslie. Wednesday, 14. Received a letter from Dr. McLaugh- lin concerning Jimmo (a Kanaka) which he says he lent to the mission ; this Kanaka has been with Mr. Campbell for years I believe ; I had no idea that he was one which the mission borrowed of the Doct. I seriously fear here will be another heavy bill of wages for the mission to pay. Tuesday, 15. This day I give Mr. Parker an order on Capt. Couch (on the Rogers estate) for twenty five dollars in payment for ten cords of wood delivered at my door. Sabbath, 18. The appearances in our congregation are encouraging. We have more at meeting; they are quiet and attentive now and the starting tear gives evi- dence that there is some moral sensibility about the heart of some of these hearers. This evening, death enters the habitation of a near neighbor and removes Maryette Hol- land, a child nearly two years old. Perish the grass and fade the flower, yet immutibility characterizes the word of the Lord. Thursday, 22. Bro. Leslie is with us. This day I re- ceive the report of the estimating committee. I enter a copy. "Meeting of the committee for estimating the family expenses of the itinerant ministers in Oregon, convened at the house of Rev. D. Leslie, Thursday evening, Decem- 24 Rev. William Roberts. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 299 ber 25, 1845, at seven o'clock p. m. Present A. Beers, W. H. Willson and L. H. Judson. On motion, A. Beers chosen chairman, L. H. Judson, secretary. Proceeded to estimate and after consultation, estimate the amount necessary for an adult to be $150; one child under seven years, $75; one child over seven years, $100. Board of a domestic to each family, $60. Adjourned. A. Beers, chairman, L. H. Judson, secretary." This estimate I think is too high by one third. But I see no other way but to be governed by it. There ought to be some check at some point, in my opinion. Produce is dear, to be sure; say butter 25c per pound; brown sugar, 12i/ 2 c; tea, $1.50; coffee, 33 l/3c; flour from 3 to 4c per pound; beef 6c; pork 10c. Friday, 23. Give an order on Mr. Campbell for $65.10 in favor of Mr. Holman ; to stop one of the leaks in the former mission school. Mrs. H. (formerly Miss Phelps) has not been paid up for her services in the mission school until now. Saturday, 24. Ascertain from Bro. Abernethy books that the estimate for the year from May 1, 1844 to May 1, 1845, for Bro. Leslie's family was $332.97. This was paid to 1 January, 1845. Due to 1 May, 1845, $110.99. The estimate for this year, same family, $535. Differ- ence $202.03, which, to me, is rather unaccountable. Saturday, 24. Keep the order drawn for Mr. Holman ; and sell him a note given by H. Campbell April 1, 1845 for $146.34 with interest at six per cent. Interest nine months, $6.51. Present value, $152.91. Pay Mr. Holman $65.10 and said Holman is to pay D. Leslie $87.81, which is charged to D. Leslie. This note was given by Mr. Campbell to embrace J. W. Garrison's for $120 and $18.20 paid by a Canadian to Mr. Ermitinger and also $8.14 by Mr. Pettigrove. 25 (See Mr. Abernethy 's letter.) Sunday, 25. Quite out of health today but fortunately 25 F. W. Pettygrove. 300 Charles Henry Carey Bro. Leslie is here to preach to this people. Very rainy day. Monday, 26. My health is still poor; death has just entered Mr. Gray's house (near us) and removed their hired girl. Wednesday, 28. Today I get from Bro. Abernethy's books the estimate of table expenses previous to May 1, 1845, which I believe stood for a few years from year to year; that is, the committee from year to year followed the estimate of the preceding year, except where the numbers in the family made a change. D. Leslie, $332.97. A. F. Waller, $362.72. H. B. Brewer, $287.07; total, $782.76. This year, same fam- ilies $1755. This to me is unaccountable and painful. This day I write a letter to Bro. Waller and Brewer. Our weather is pleasant and warm; it is almost or quite dif- ficult to make it seem like January. [1846] Sunday, February 1. Being out of health, I preach but once today. This warm and wet weather does not agree with my health near so well as the clear and cold weather of the state of New York. Tuesday, 3. It is very rainy. Bro. Leslie has been here nearly two weeks. Now kept by the rains. It is very difficult to travel much in this region in the rainy season. Today I hear Bro. Raymond has got the Institute claim recorded in his own name. So I suppose the friends of the school will have trouble with him. Alas that he ever was sent to this country. He has- been employed to keep the boarding hall in the school; now he takes the advantage by being on the premises and records the sec- tion of land in his own name and may lay claim to it as his own. It is not mission business ; but it is a reproach to the mission to have had such a man connected with it. Wednesday, 4. Bro. Leslie leaves for the place of his residence. Thursday, 5. Weather is fair today. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 301 Friday, 6. My health is much improved; shall hail good fair weather again if permitted to see it. Sunday, 8. Rainy day. Congregation small. Friday, 13. Very rainy for some days ; it is difficult to keep the kind so as not to have it effected by this dark and gloomy weather. To be sure, I have a fine time for reading; yet I feel very much the need of fine weather to give buoyancy to my spirits. This day receive letters from Bro. Brewer and Waller. Condition of the station. Cash and propeerty on hand, $1822.19 They have paid for labor $187.33 Expenses these tripps 124.32 i/ 2 $311,651/2 A. F. Waller claim from Dec. 21, 44 to May 1, 45. Table expenses from Dec. 21, 44 to May 1, 45 $131.03 Salary same time 101.11 Salary from May 1, 1845 to May 1, 1846 Table expenses, same time $232.14 280.00 710.00 Received since Dec. 21, 1844 $1222.14 699.69% Due $522,441/2 Received from Williamette, Fort Vancouver and farm Also same places Amount of library Donation goods ($63) Donation to M. S. of M. E. C. $308.16 221.181/2 70.35 100.00 $699,691/2 302 Charles Henry Carey H. B. Brewer's claim. From Dec. 21, 44 to May 1, 45 Salary $101.83 ; table expenses $103.65 $205.48 Table expenses from May 1, 45 to May 1, 46 510.00 Quarterage same time 282.00 $997.48 Received since Dec. 21, 1844 $292.80, $158,781/2 donation to M.S.M.E.C. $100 551.58i/ 2 (which pay up to 1 May, 46) now due $445.89y 2 Saturday, 14. A most beautiful day. Rev. J. L. Parrish reaches here today; this day begins his year in the employ of the mission as a preacher. It may be asked if it was best to pay him his equivalent for his claim on the board for his return home provided he shall be em- ployed in the ministry connected with the mission. To this I answer, We can now stipulate on the terms of em- ploying him. The mission gives him only his disciplinary quarterage, himself, wife and children. His other ex- penses, he depends upon the people for; and it's my opinion, Bro. Leslie also ought to give up his claim on the mission for table expenses. Sunday, 15. Another wintry day which is made up of clouds and rain. Monday, 16. Somewhat pleasant today. Tuesday, 17. Pleasant, beautiful day. Mrs. Gary is getting a great supply of baskets from Sister Parrish. Wednesday, 18. Fair, beautiful weather ; busy writ- ing to friends in the states, Sunday, 22. A favorable day, so far as relates to weather, number and attention in the congregation. Wednesday, 25. Today I hand to Mr. Redshirt Smith 26 three letters for the states, John Smith, St. Louis, A. W. Smith, Middletown, and James Mudge, Lynn. Mr. Smith is about starting over the mountains for the states. 26 Hiram Smith; for biography see Vol. I, p. 527, Bancroft's Oregon. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 303 Friday, 27. This day come care and trouble. The debt at Mr. Ermitinger's of $1079.90, which the milling company assumed and which has been reduced by said company to $656.79, and which is now demanded from the mission, I have had to pay by drawing on Fort Van- couver for said amount. Mr. Abernethy will try to meet the payment at VanCouver, but his success is somewhat doubtful. Saturday, 28. I am examining the financial concerns for the year past. In this examination, I find unsettled accounts have come in from the departments supposed to be closed a year ago; nearly as follows: Manual labor school, $514.58; Mr. Burn's [Beers'] farm, over-credited a year ago, including mistake, $433.00; mercantile de- partment $589.51; nearly $220 of which is in a bill in favor of Ladd and company. These departments are in reality so much worse off than they were reported last year. [1846] Monday, March 2. This day I close my letter to the board to be sent over the mountains ; we are about finishing one to M. Adams and also one to H. B. Clark. In the morning of the 5th of March, I delivered these letters to Mr. T'Vault, 27 to be forwarded to the states, in hopes they will reach the places of their destinations sometime in September. The financial condition of the mission as exhibited in the above letter to the board: Estimate of property at the Dalls $1822.19; Institute owes on interest, $4,000; Judson and Wilson, $5860; H. Campbell, $3807.33; J. Robb, $1500; G. Abernethy, $1556.65; all on interest; milling company, $12193.66, not on interest; we owe $1500, leaving a balance $27- 417.63; Two notes for specie due the mission $719.39. Saturday, 7. This day I receive the account from Fort VanCouver up to February 21, 1846. At that time they owed the mission $287.65 but on the 27th of 27 W. G. T'Vault, first editor of the Oregon Spectator, appointed Post- master-General in 1845 by the Provisional Government. 304 Charles Henry Carey February, I drew on them for the Ermintinger debt for $656.79. The mission owes at this time $369.13i/ 2 - Sunday, 8. Our Sabbaths are somewhat pleasant with perhaps 40 hearers. Monday, 9. This day I closed the arrangement with L. H. Judson in reference to an equivalent for his claims on the board to be returned to his former place of resi- dence in the states. I give him the interest on the mill of $6000 for 18 months, up to December 27, 1845, and also on principal $268.72. Thursday, 12. Appearances of spring are so promis- ing we have commenced gardening. Planted some po- tatoes today. This evening, quite a congregation in the Methodist meeting house at a temperance meeting. 100 persons present. Almost everything depends on keeping alcohol out of this territory. But I fear the result is doubtful and alas for this people if alcohol has free cir- culation among them. Many have come here to get away from alcohol; others have persuaded their friends to come to get them away from this temptation, &c &c. Now let ardent spirits have a free circulation here and quite a proportion of this population will be found at the altar of Bacchus. And the natives — language cannot paint the horrors and evils which will sweep them away on the free circulation of spirits in this land. Saturday, 14. Bro. Waller from the Dalls arrives among us. He is one of the executors of the last will and testament of the late Rev. Jason Lee. He has come down to see to the affairs of said estate. Sunday, 15. Bro. Waller preaches with us. A very good sermon. Thursday, 19. This day Bro. Waller leaves us for the neighborhood of the Institute. He is attending to the estate of the late Rev. J. Lee. W. W. Raymond visits us this day. Spends the most of the forenoon feeling about to see if I will introduce the subject of his jumping the Institute claim. As yet so far I let him alone. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 305 Sunday, 22. Today Mr. Fisher, 28 a Baptist mission- ary, preached for us ; rather a profitable sermon. Hope he will do good in this land of darkness and wickedness. Monday, 23. We are having cool nights; little white frosts, but beautiful sunny days. There are charms in this climate, but the dreary, rainy winters make a great offset against the early, blooming, beautiful spring. The want of society enlightened and cultivated is the great desideratum to render residence here desirable and pleas- urable. Duty may lead a man here and keep him here ; the ambitious may come here and remain here that they may be great in the community of which they are mem- bers ; the avaricious may come and remain that they may become rich; the guilty and wandering may come to get rid of their shame and perhaps their name; but aside from these and a few other considerations, I would advise friends to remain in the land of their nativity and of their high, rare privileges; provided they were born in the state of New York, and provided also they enjoyed the privileges of the people of that happy state. A half barrel directed to Mrs. Perkins opened by Bro. Waller; on ex- amining it, we conclude to use the things in this country and pay Mrs. P. its value in specie, estimated at $26. The mission assumes the liability of paying this amount, and we charge the things as disposed of so as to cover the amount. This cask came by the Toulon. Friday, 27. Have quite a temperance meeting in the meeting house. It is somewhat doubtful how the great question will turn, whether alcohol will have a place in this territory or not. Very much depends on the manner in which this point is disposed of. Monday, 30. Today we have some sympathy for Bro. Parrish. He has difficulty with a Mr. Gray 29 about a house and lot in this city which he bought of Mr. Gray 28 Rev. Ezra Fisher. 29 W. H. Gray. 306 Charles Henry Carey some time ago. But Mr. G. now refuses to give up the house. I suppose a law suit will follow. Tuesday, 31. Somewhat cool; we have had but little very warm weather this month ; not a great deal of rain. Garden mostly planted. [1846] Saturday, April 4. This day we commence our quarterly meetings. In our quarterly conference, we have present eleven members. Appearances are some- what favorable in their manner of doing business. I have felt some considerable freedom in giving them my views of Methodism. I believe it was favorably received. Sunday, 5. A favorable day. Preaching by the sup- erintedent and Bros. Leslie and Waller. Monday, 6. This day I drew on the milling company in favor of Rev. D. Leslie for $219.88, which pays him to May 1, 1846. This day I receive from Wilson and Judson, $100 ; also H. Campbell $100, for J. L. Parrish's quarter- age (this country currency) . As Bro. Parrish is to spend his time, at present at least, at the Falls, where he will get less for table expenses and where it costs more to live, I shall voluntarily give him something extra more than was stipulated at first. Drew on the milling company for J. L. Parrish $100. Paid Bro. Parrish these $300. Wednesday, 8. Busy preparing to go to the Dalls with Bro. Waller. Bought sundry things at Capt. Couch's to use as expenses on the route ; bill at the captain's $23.67. Drew on milling company by Mr. Waller for $400 by errors against mission in A. F. W., $58, total $458. Thursday, 9. Received the report of the estimating committee for the year commencing May 1, 1846, ending May 1, 1847. D. Leslie's estimate for table expenses, $509.48; A. F. Waller's estimaite for table expenses, $557.79; H. B. Brewer, estimate for table expenses, $429.67; total $1496.94. About sunset, we start with Bro. Waller in a canoe for the Dalls. About midnight stop at Linnton ; sleep in the canoe. Friday, 10. We are under way early; stop about three Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 307 hours at Fort VanCouver where Bro. Waller gets the things that are necessary to pay off our Indians who served as our crew during our river voyage. This night we sleep in our canoe on the north side of the river near what is called Simon's place. 30 Saturday, 11. Early under way again. About two o'clock p. m. we reach the lower part of the portage at the cascades. Mrs. Gary and myself walk about three miles and three-quarters to a stopping place; wait until dark for Bro. Waller, the crew &c. Strong fears began to annoy us that the canoe must be lost and that we should have to spend the night in an uncomfortable man- ner without tent, fire, food, or even our mantles, but in a little while all arrive in safety ; no telling what a relief this arrival affords us Here we spend the Sabbath, a day of rest to us, indeed. Monday, 13. Finish our portage and pass on perhaps 20 miles. Tuesday, 14. About three o'clock p. m. reach the Dalls all well. A very quick passage, less than four laboring days from the Williamette Falls to the Dalls. Wednesday, 15. Busy in arranging the expenses of the trip &c. Expense to mission trip April 1846, $29.13 ; G. Gary, out of it, $5.00 ; A. F. W. paid from Van. bill $10.19; H. B. Brewer, $5.48; G. Gary, $4.91. On hand $8.43, donation by Toulon; paid A. F. Waller, $5.32; H. B. Brewer, $3.11; Bro. Waller charged for time in proportion to the year for 20 days in the settlement of J. Lee's estate, $54.24; portion of the expense after de- ducting $4.30, paid by A. F. W., balance to be credit to the mission, $10.26 ; total $64.50. Saturday, 18. We are very much refreshed by the quietude of this place; no whites here but Bros. Waller and Brewer and their families, and indeed but few In- 30 Perhaps Simmons' place. Col. Michael T. Simmons and others spent the winter near the mouth of the Washougal on the Columbia, 1844-1845, before proceeding to Puget Sound, where they settled. 308 Charles Henry Carey dians here. The most of them are absent in pursuit of roots to sustain themselves until the salmon fishing shall come on ; which is about the first of June. Sunday 19. About 30 natives at meeting. Bro. Wal- ler preaches. I talk a little by way of two interpreters, one putting it into jargon, the second into Chinook. I say to them, We are all children of the great Father. He sees all we do, though we cannot see him any more than we can see the wind, yet He sees all we do and all we design and wish to do, and when we die we shall appear before Him and if we have done good and designed and wished to do good, He will give us a good place; if we have done bad and designed to do bad, He will drive us away to a bad place ; if we are satisfied we have done bad (as all are bad) we are now to be sorry for it and pray Him to have mercy upon us and forgive us for his good- ness sake. We ought to confess and pray today not next moon or after another sleep, but now &c &c. Monday, 20. The weather is becoming a little warm- er. For some time we have had cold weather with- out rain and the Columbia river is very low. This river for its rise is much more dependent on warm weather in the fore part of the season than upon the clouds; the warm sun of May and June dissolves vast quantities of snow in the mountains and this is poured down into the Columbia in liquid form which raises it from thirty to fifty feet above its present height. There is probably about as much water passing in this river as ordinarily passes the Niagara river; in high water twice as much. Thursday, 23. Our weather is rather cool, but we are passing days rather pleasantly. Busy reading and writ- ing. This day I finish a letter to the Board. Sunday, 26. Bro. Waller goes up the river about ten miles to labor among the Indians there. Bro. Brewer and myself have meeting among those here, about 18 present. In the afternoon, I preach to five adult whites, a few Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 309 children. This a day of small things; it does appear doubtful about my ministry in this land. Tuesday, 28. This day I seal the letters for the states ; in hopes of an opportunity to send them to the states. One Cor. secy, of the Mis. S. M. E. C. 31 of one sheet; 1 Moses Adams one sheet and one Wm. Armitage, one sheet. Wednesday, 29. We ride up to the Dalls about five miles. The Indians are collecting here for the salmon fising. Thursday, 30. We are having a strong cool west wind. Send by Mr. Bonney letters to J. L. P., 32 D. Leslie, J. Force, and G. Abernethy. I am reading Watson's In- stitutes these days. A condensed and profound body of divinity. This Bonny is supposed to be a dreadful man. [1846] Friday, May 1. This day we give to the returning emigrants the letters above mentioned for the states, entrusted with Mr. Hockerman. [ ?] We hope our friends will receive them by about first of September. 33 Saturday, 2. These families in my opinion live easy and in my opinion — but I will forbear. It is very difficult to form an opinion perfectly satis- factory to my mind what had better be done about con- tinuing this appointment ; at any rate, I think the secular department should be on as small a scale as is in any way practicable. Sunday, 3. Bonny returned from his effort to go to Williamette. Quite out of health today, yet I preach to four adult persons ; small congregation and rather small preaching. Tuesday, 5. We are annoyed with the company of a Mr. Bonny, a real hanger-on; strong reason to fear he is a murderer ; it is supposed he murdered a man on his way to this territory in 1845 ; he never has ventured to show himself in the Williamette portion of this country; 31 Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 32 J. L. Parrish. 33 Apparently neithey Bonney, nor Hockerman, settled in Oregon. The name Galligher, or Gallagher, mentioned below is not identified. 310 Charles Henry Carey now talks of returning to the states ; has in company with him a Spaniard; I wish they were far away from this mission. It is not easy to calculate the depravity of many of the emigrants to this country. I give Mr. Bonney rather of a plain talk about the emigrants hanging about this mission and tell him our business as a mission is with the natives and we do not want any traffic with the whites; he leaves with his Spaniard; but I fear he will be back again. Mr. Galligher[?] is also here after cattle which were left by the emigrants last year ; he is afraid to leave with his herds lest Bonny and his Spaniard should pursue him and rob him; but as Bonny is now gone, possibly Mr. G. may conclude to go soon. Sister Brewer is quite out of health. At night Mr. Burn appears. 34 Thursday, 7. Mr. Gallagher leaves with 71 head of cattle belonging to sundry emigrants; leaves a yoke of oxen to the mission for the expense of taking care of these cattle; oxen estimated at $40. Friday, 8. We count our cattle today and number 69 ; there should be as by accounts rendered, 84. 15 prob- ably eaten or driven away by emigrants perhaps ; possibly a few by the Indians. This deducts from the income of the farm say $225, or perhaps more properly increases the indebtedness of the station this much. I receive Indian curiosity sacks and moccasins $7.67. Sabbath, 10. Speak to about 15 Indians in the morn- ing. In the afternoon, endeavor to preach to four whites and a few uneasy children ; congregation, sermon and all in evidence that this is a day of small things. Monday, 11. A beautiful fine morning; while nature is smiling in her lovliness, lo, Mr. Bonny appears in sight ; the more we hear and see of this man, the more we are 3 *The Oregon Spectator of February 19, 1846, contains a notice to the effect that H. Burns has been contracted with by the Post-Master General to carry mail from Oregon City to Weston, Missouri. The charge was to be fifty cents for single sheets, and it appears from an editorial that Burns was to get one-half of this postage. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 311 convinced that wherever he appears, depravity in some of its aggravated forms may be feared. Tuesday, 12. We are having pleasant, warm weather. Ther. in the shade, 76. These families are annoyed with Mr. Bonny. Wednesday, 13. Most beautiful weather. Thermom- eter in shade 80. Poor Bonny has just started for the states. Doubtful ! Doubtful ! Friday, 15. One of Mr. Gallagher's Indians has re- turned with 32 head of horn cattle ; also four calves. Mr. Brewer refuses to take charge of them, and the Indian drives them away and continues to keep them in his own care. Saturday, 16. We are making calculation and prepar- ation to visit Dr. Whitman and his mission soon. Monday, 18. This day we arrange with an Indian for horses, i. e., for four horses for our trip to Dr. Whit- man's and Mr. Spaulding's. Tuesday, 19. It is rainy. We are about to start on our journey, but may wait for the rain to cease. Half past two p. m. Rain having ceased, we mount our horses ; Bro. Brewer and wife with their two children ; Mrs. Gary and myself accompanied by two young Indians, so our company in all made eight; with eight horses, two being used for pack horses. We go perhaps about eight or ten miles and stop for the night ; secure our horses as well as we can; put up our tents; eat supper and retire to rest; but I feel so much care on my mind about the horses and many other things connected with our present enterprise, sleep keeps away from me the most of the night. Among the topics that agitate my mind too much for sleep to come are, one of our horses has a very sore back which presented itself in a horrid manner when the pack saddle was removed from him. I wish the horse was back again, or we all were back again; another, I fear Bro. Brewer has not the ready and active care which will make our condition easy and pleasant. 312 Charles Henry Carey Wednesday, 20. We start early and by noon are over the Dechutes River. This river we cross in a canoe and swim the horses. It is evident there is no peculiar tact a t in our leader. We are now beyond the knowl- edge of any of our company; only about fifteen miles from our starting place; discouragements are rapidly increasing. I wish we were back again. We are now told by an Indian that the John Day River on the wagon route is impassable, and that there is no canoe there to help us over, and that if we go on, we must take the old pack trail. We leave the Dechutes River between twelve and one; and after passing about three miles, we come to where the wagon and pack trails divide. Bro. Brewer leads on the way by pursuing the pack trail; in about one mile the path leads along on the side of a steep and somewhat high mountain in a fearful manner, Sister Brewer's courage fails ; Bro. Brewer and the Indian boys go along for some time on the sideling road, carrying the children. Mrs. B. pauses or halts, Mrs. Gary and myself also stop ; in a little while, Bro. B. returns and endeavors to persuade us to go on; Mrs. B. perhaps would have yielded, but Mrs. Gary and myself conclude with some firmness not to go any further on the old trail ; so after some consultation, we agree to return to the wagon route and take it, and go as far as John Day river, and if we find it impossible then to turn about and return to the Dalls. We act according to this arrangement and ride for perhaps seven or eight miles without seeing a tree or a drop of water ; no prospect of fuel and knowing nothing how far to water; we send Bro. B. ahead to see if he can find water; while he is gone, cold, weary, hungry and dirty, we halt and conclude to spend the night without fire and without water. Here Mrs. G. and myself make up our minds to return to the Dalls as soon as practicable. After a while Bro. B. returns and reports he finds water at John Day's river, and thinks it five or six miles to it; we report to him our conclusion to start early in Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 313 the morning on our return and get to the Columbia river soon as possible for breakfast where there is water enough and to spare. Our evening is by no means com- fortable; with a cold fierce wind blowing upon us, cov- ered with dust and no very small proportion of it in our eyes and throats; without fire and without water — but we pass the night as well as we can. Thursday, 21. Early we are on the way in our back track; and at about nine o'clock, we reach the Columbia River, where the old trail and wagon road intersect each other; here our thirsty horses drink and their thirsty and dusty riders drink and wash, having neither drank nor washed for more than twenty four hours. Now we realize some of the luxuries of water. After taking our breakfast and dinner both in one meal, I start on foot for the Dechutes river, leaving the company to pick up and pack up and follow on. While walking this distance, which is about three miles, I came across a rattle snake, a large one, and as I could not find any stick or stones until I had passed from him a few rods, while I was thus preparing for the attack, he hid away in the grass, so the venomous serpent and myself passed each other without molestation. I arrived at the Dechutes river about % of an hour before the company came up ; saw an Indian on the opposite side of the river. I hallooed for a canoe ; he had to go two miles perhaps for it, and in due season came with one and helped us over the river. We again packed and started on our way, and rode say four miles and put up for the night, in a very pleasant place with a fine brook running near us. Friday, 22. Being weary, we take it leasurely and after finishing up our morning affairs we start for home (that is, the mission premises at the Dalls). We arrive about one o'clock p. m., not having been gone quite three times twenty four hours — a fatiguing and trying trip — like great cry and little wool — I suppose we have been about 25 miles in the route to Dr. Whitman's, but 314 Charles Henry Carey full far enough to suit us considering all things. Bro. Brewer, I judge, is an amiable man; very forbearing and accommodating in his disposition and habits; perhaps few could be found who would get along so pleasantly with the Indians as he does; but he never will be dis- tinguished for forethought and energy. In this trip, he selected no Indian guide who knew the way, or who knew where water might be found. And there is no push ahead to his character ; with his easy tardy habits and with his wife and children upon his hands, we could not travel more than half as far in a day as we ought to. Sunday, 24. Bros. Waller and Brewer go a few miles and have meetings with the Indians ; leaving myself and the three women here ; pur company is so small, we have no meeting until evening. Monday, 25. The weather cloudy and cool. Friday, 29. Warm, pleasant weather. I am busy reading Watson's Institutes. I am comparatively doing nothing; at least it appears to me so; I am, however, somewhat relieved from the uneasiness I should other- wise suffer, from the supply of good books. Sunday, 31. Bro. Waller goes to an appointment up the river four miles. Bro. Brewer has meeting with the Indians in this place ; at one o'clock p. m., I try to preach to four hearers; two of them I think are considerably refreshed by sleep. This is the day of small things. The lovely Sabbaths of our native land— shall we ever enjoy them again? [1846] Monday, June 1. The cattle which Mr. Gal- lagher sent back by an Indian, returned again last even- ing. This mission is annoyed almost unto vexation by the emigrants' cattle— I am in doubt about the propriety of continuing this appointment. Thermometer hanging on a partition in our chamber, 92— warm weather. Thursday, 4. We this day receive a letter from G. Abernethy, but little news; no arrivals as yet from the Sandwich Islands Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 315 Sunday, 7. Today I go up the river about four miles with Bro. Waller ; here he preaches to about fifty hearers. Just as our meeting is out, we see a large company of Indians carrying one of the boats belonging to the Hud- son Bay Company (for here is a portage) ; we are soon informed that quite a number of boats belonging to the company, say nine, are here making their way down from their different trading posts in the interior to Fort Van- couver. They come down every June loaded with furs; and return in July loaded with merchandise; they have no Sabbaths on their routes ; at this portage they employ scores of Indians to aid them. The general influence of the whites among these natives is anything but good. I pity them from my heart, but know not what to do for their benefit. Monday, 8. This morning the Hudson Ba^ Company boats (called the Brigade) passed by early. Send a line to Mr. Douglass. 35 Tuesday, 9. This day Ellis, a chief of the Nez Perces, is here with fourteen attendants and one hundred and fifty horses. He is going to the Williamette to sell his horses for cows. In the evening, we have meeting with him and his company. He interprets. He understands and talks English very well. We buy of Ellis three bear skins ; one of them a beautiful grey bear skin. Wednesday, 10. Ellis and his company horses and &c leave, except one Indian, sick, and a boy to attend him. In the afternoon I go into the potato field; here is little more than an acre planted with potatoes, and they have not been hoed yet ; the weeds are higher than the potatoes ; they have been trying to plow among the potatoes, but as the weeds are so thick and high, the potatoes cannot be seen, and they are as likely to be plowed up as the weeds ; we conclude the only way, or at least the better 35 James Douglas. At this time Dr. McLaughlin had just retired and Douglas was now in sole charge at Vancouver. He had been McLaugh- lin's colleague, during the previous year. 316 Charles Henry Carey way is to pull up the weeds. I take hold and pull about two hours with Bros. Brewer and Waller. This field of potatoes looks like the field of the slothful. The farming department here is wanting in energy. Thursday, 11. About a dozen natives male and female are pulling weeds with Bro. Brewer in the potatoe field. Friday, 12. The company are still at it; exterminat- ing the weeds from among the potatoes. It is my opinion there are but few places in the states where living is cheaper than in this place (Wascopam), clothing ex- cepted. The Indians are here this morning to sell salmon and are anxious to sell good salmon that will weigh probably thirty pounds, for small articles like fish hooks or something of the kind so that a good salmon will not at any rate cost the purchaser six cents — and yet they are slow in buying. Sunday, 14. Our Sabbaths are lonely in some re- spects. Bros. Waller and Brewer are away among the Indians, holding meetings. I am left here with these women and more than half a dozen children (not the best governed) ; when I attempt to preach to this small company, it takes two-thirds of my hearers to keep the children any way tolerable; under these circumstances, I conclude to have no meeting until evening. Evening has come and no one has said anything about my preach- ing. Sister Waller is in her part of the house, so now there are five of us at meeting. I open the meeting by giving out a hymn and praying, with the purpose to preach provided they rise from their knees after the first prayer, but I shall take it for granted it is to be a prayer meeting if they remain on their knees until someone be- gins to pray, and so it is. Tuesday, 16. A fine moderate rain this morning, unusual in this season of the year. The Indian Ellis left sick is very sick; he is in the school house. Bros. Waller and Brewer start this day to visit a petrified stump east of DeChutes river. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 317 Wednesday, 17. The body of the poor sick Indian left by Ellis lies cold in death, in the school house; his earthly sufferings ceased in the latter part of the last night. Thursday, 18. About two o'clock this morning, Bros. Waller and Brewer reach home from their petrified stump expedition; their arrival is a great relief; as they will now take the charge of burying the body of the deceased Indian. At one o'clock p. m., the body of the Indian is committed to the dust. Friday, 19. It is cool for this season in the year. Thermometer 64. Sunday, 21. We have meeting. I try to preach; six hearers. Monday, 22. This day we move over to the other house, say five rods off; here we are more out of the noise of half governed children; and also if the victuals is not cleaner, it will not be fingered so much by children, who are never very cleanly. Tuesday, 23. We are very quiet in our new home. Wednesday, 24. Busy reading the life of Bounaparte. As the reader sees his increasing greatness, the darling picture is drowned in seas of blood; and the valleys are covered with the slain, the valley of death. Thursday, 25. Still reading the life of Bounaparte. His sun is rapidly declining. In him may be seen the end of ambition. Friday, 26. Mr. Spaulding, 36 A presbyterian mis- sionary from the Nez Perces, arrives. He gives an un- promising or discouraging account of the prospects of his mission. By no means as favorable as in my post. The causes, he thinks are, the influence of Romanism and the influence of the depraved whites who are annually float- ing into this territory over the Rocky mountains. Saturday, 27. I draw on Mr. Abernethy in favor of 36 Rev. H. H. Spalding. 318 Charles Henry Carey Mr. Spaulding (this country currency) for $15.34, which the Dalls station owed said Mr. Spaulding. Sunday, 28. Mr. Spaulding preached to us against Romanism. We all attended ; he had with him two white men, so he had eight hearers; quite a congregation. Monday, 29. Mr. Spaulding is still with us. It is my opinion from his communications that the Indians in his j mission are in a more unpromising condition than these about us. Romanism is dividing those most painfully ; it has as yet nothing to do with these ; but I presume fifty blankets from the Roman Catholics among these would induce three-fourths of them to tell us they wished us to go away. It is my opinion unless some government manages here beside the Oregon government within a very few years (say five) all the Protestant missions will have to be given up which are now established among the Indians. If the government of the U. S. is extended here, or perhaps the British Colonial government, the Romanists will be less assuming; but without some such check, they will in their way convert the natives of this land by show, pictures, and favoriteism in a few years; at present all the influence (which is great) of the Hud- son Bay Company is in favor of Romanism as far as the natives are concerned, because they are able in this way to keep them in such a train as in case of a rupture be- tween the governments of Great Briton and the United States of America, they, the natives, may be used with all their savage barbarity in the British cause. Tuesday, 30. Mr. Spaulding leaves us this morning at about half past eight (Send letters to D. Leslie and J. L. Parrish). The corn is mostly tasseled, and some of these are in bloom; silk as it is called may be seen every now and then, where the ears are forming. [1846] Wednesday, July 1. Today, the Walla Walla chief 37 calls on us; he has started for California where his son (Elijah Hedding) was killed nearly two years 37 Chief Peu Peu Mox Mox. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 319 ago. Elijah had attended our manual labor school; but left a few years ago and with his father and others went to California where he lost his life. I suppose he was a wicked young chief; I think his father is desirous of re- venge ; more blood probably will be shed. Saturday, 4. This is a memorable day in our beloved country. Somewhat of an important day to us. Received a letter from Rev. J. L. Parrish; no American vessel in the river as yet this season; News by the Hudson Bay Company's vessel from England presents the political elements between the two nations as somewhat uneasy. We will hope for the best. For dinner today, pretty good sized new beats ; for tea, a new cucumber. In our letter from Bro. Parrish, we learn of the death of Doct. J. E. Long 38 ; he was drowned in attempting to cross the Klackamas river. The com- pany's Brigade arrive today on their way up the country. Monday, 6. Mrs. Gary makes a cheese today ; We hope we may be able to eat it at sea in a few months. Tuesday, 7. Mr. Brewer begins his wheat harvest today. Wednesday, 8. I suppose the Black river conference begins its session today; I form this opinion from the printed plan of Episcopal Visitation published in a num- ber of the Advocate for June, 1844. But I am unable even to guess where is the place of its session. These days are (with me) not like the active and important days of a session of the annual conference. Here I am a hundred miles from anybody I can talk with except the members of the mission families and thousands of miles from so many and such dear friends. I have a fine op- portunity for reading — But — But— But — I seem to be doing but little, very little indeed; perhaps my presence here prevents some expenses which would otherwise be made. Sabbath, 12. This day I go with Bro. Waller and at- 38 Dr. J. E. Long was Secretary under the Provisional Government. 320 Charles Henry Carey tend meeting among the Indians at the Dalls. About fifty hearers. Monday, 13. We receive news from the Falls by way of Ellis (Nez Perces chief) two American vessels in the river. By him we also receive the letter from Dr. Pit- man, of June 29, '44 ; some Sandwich Island letters ; we are in strong hopes of letters from the states; we are apprised there is a box of papers ; we think of returning to the Williamette soon ; today we eat green corn, string beans and summer squash. Tuesday, 14. Today I settle with Bros. Waller and Brewer and pay them in full their salary, table expenses &c &c to the first of May, 1846. I draw on the Milling Co. for $674.95 in favor of H. B. Brewer and one draft favor of the farm or station. Wednesday, 15. We have made every preparation to go to the Williamette, when to our utter astonishment, we cannot raise a crew without giving a most extrava- gent price ; we therefore hold over for the present. Thursday, 16. Spend quite a proportion of the day in the harvest field. I suppose one great reason we could not obtain a crew reasonably was this wheat is very handy; there perhaps are twenty natives, yea possibly thirty, who are living on this wheat field. A few are at work for the mission ; the greater proportion are steal- ing ; some, however, under the mask of gleaning. Friday, 17. Looking on various operations in the harvest field. Sunday, 19. Preached to four hearers. Monday, 20. Yesterday we received letters from the states, dated September and October, 1845 ; relatives alive and well ; how thankful we ought to be. The Board re- quest us to remain still longer in this land. We submit. Our letters are from children, A. Adams, Cor. Secy., G. Peck, G. Lane, Z. Paddock, G. Baker and sundry others. Great feast. We were so glad, sleep nearly refused to interrupt us by approaching us during the shades of the Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 321 night. We are apprised that the vessels now in the river will soon leave — we shall now be busy writing to friends in the states ; soon as practicable, return to Oregon City. Tuesday, 21. We are busy in preparing to go down the river. A little after nine o'clock p. m., we go to the river, and at about midnight, our canoe is loaded, and we start for the Williamette. This traveling in the night is not quite so pleasant after all ; yet we will make the best of it. We run down the river about an hour and the wind being high, we conclude to put up the remainder of the night. Thursday, 23. At evening, we reach the Cascades. Friday, 24. Another laborious day at the portage at the Cascades. But accomplish this portage in sufficient time to make quite a run down the river, with a high brisk wind against us, and consequently waves that make canoe jump about in somewhat of a fearful manner. Saturday, 25. At evening, we find ourselves about eight miles below the Falls on the Williamette ; here we rest and spend the holy Sabbath. Monday, 27. At about ten o'clock A. M., we arrive at the Falls and soon find ourselves in the parsonage again. Here are barrels and boxes of donation goods and also some purchased goods which the Board have sent to this mission. Bro. Waller came down with us, and will take back such things as may be needed at the Dalls station. Thursday, 30. For a few days I have been very busy in opening the goods which have arrived and putting up what may be needed at the Dalls ; at about three o'clock p. m., he starts for the Dalls. The goods sent by the Board are in good season and will be a very great help to the persons connected with the mission. They have arrived in good order, except some of the donation goods are moth eaten. Friday, 31. Today I am reading the Advocates some. This day I receive another letter from the secy, dated Jan. 30, 1846. Yesterday I paid Bro. Waller as quarterage 322 Charles Henry Carey out of the purchased and donation goods sent by the board, $84.36 (see bill). Also paid as salary to H. B. Brewer from the purchased goods, $13.83. From Capt. Couch as table expenses, $9; from donation goods same purpose, $9.13; total $18.37. Paid Bro. Parrish for a young swine for myself, $4.28. [1846] Sunday, August 2. It seems quite good to be in a white congregation again between thirty and forty hearers. It is now settled, I suppose, that I shall be the preacher to this people the most of the time for the year to come. I hope to discharge these sacred and solemn duties faithfully. Tuesday, 4. Commence writing to friends in the states. Shall be employed in this work for a few days. Sunday, 9. Our Sabbath about as usual; say from thirty to forty hearers. The preacher purposes to do his duty whether they will hear or whether they will forbear. Wednesday, 12. This day we have a council. Bro. Leslie & Helm 39 present. It appears from their remarks that it is very apparent that the present influence of the mission above us, or up the Williamette, is much better among the whites than it ever has been. I make an ar- rangement to employ Bro. Helm ; am to give his disciplin- ary salary or quarterage ; he is to depend upon the people for his table expenses ; his salary, self, wife and children, $304 to be at W. & Judson Mills $100 — H. Campbell $100, on G. Abernethy 104. I paid him $21.51— on store part. I form a very good opinion of Bro. Helm ; he is a located preacher. Sunday, 16. Our meeting today is better than usual, one man staid in class, who stated for the first time that he had made up his mind to lead a Christian life. I hope some good will be done in this place by the ministry of the word. Monday, 17. This day I hand over my letters to Mr. Stark to be forwarded in the Toulon, for the following 39William Helm. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 323 persons: George Gary, Jr., G. Lane, G. Peck, Mrs. G. Lane, M. Adams, C. Pitman, and S. Dendo. For S. C. Damon, E. 0. Hall and S. N. Castle at Honolulu. Paid Mr. Stark in specie for freight by Toulon $40. Wednesday, 19. The jail built about a year ago by the territory is now in smoking ruins; some incendiary has had the pleasure of seeing it in flames last night. 40 I am informed some of our rather important citizens re- fused to testify before the grand jury yesterday against persons who had violated the law in gambling, saying they could not testify without incriminating themselves. The state of society is far from being desirable. Friday, 21. One year today since Bro. Hines and family left us in this distant land. We have passed the year somewhat pleasantly — though rather solitarily. Peace, retirement and quietude attend us. Plenty of good reading. The youngest newspaper we have from the states is nearly seven months old. Monday, 24. Write to Bro. Waller and Brewer. Send also the Advocate by Mr. Barlow. 41 Wednesday, 26. A few of this year's emigrants arrive today. They bring the report that there is war between Mexico and the United States. Friday, 28. This day we receive a letter from Rev. A. Adams, dated March 10, 1846, brought over the mount- ains by Lieu. Woodward 42 of U. S. Navy, who has been sent by the government at home with dispatches for the commodore of the navy in the Pacific ocean. I suppose 40 The jail had been built in 1845 by using funds derived from the Ewing Young Estate, but against the petition and protest of thirty-eight citizens, who objected to the use of the money. 41 Probably Samuel K. Barlow. The Oregon Spectator of July 9, 1846, contained a statement that Captain Barlow had completed the construc- tion of his wagon road between the Dalls and Oregon City and that the wagons that were left in the mountains the preceding fall would reach Oregon City in the course of two days. 42 Lieut. S. E. Woodworth. 324 Charles Henry Carey now the American armed vessel "Shark" 43 will leave this river soon as possible, and take these dispatches to the proper officer. [1846] Thursday, September 3. I am having great leasure ; in a certain sense ; yet somewhat busy in finding out what has been going on in the United States and es- pecially in the M. E. C. for a year past, or say from February 7, 1845 to February 7, 1846. Date of our latest papers. Sunday, 6. Appearances in the congregation about as usual. Sunday, 13. The emigrants with wagons over the mountains ; a few of them reach the suburbs of this city this day. Monday, 14. More emigrants with wagons arrive. They left Missouri in May and are now here. From the best information I can gather, they have had a very suc- cessful journey and are coming in, not only in very good season, but also with some supplies of provisions still on hand. This evening we learn that the American armed vessel called the "Shark" is wrecked on the bar in passing out of the Columbia river. A perilous place for vessels, es- pecially unless piloted by persons acquainted with the channel. Thursday, 17. Mr. Abernethy paid to the credit of the mission at Fort Vancouver $302.60 in part pay of the draft he borrowed Feb. 27. Saturday, 19. Bro. Parrish moves today to the vicin- ity of the Institute. Have just had a pleasant visit with Bro. Helm. Sunday, 20. There is a great sameness in our congre- gation from Sabbath to Sabbath. The most of the hearers are steady attendants on divine worship. But few of the 43 The Shark was under command of Lieut. Neil M. Howison. It was wrecked in attempting to leave the Columbia River, September 10, 1846. The Commodore of the fleet was Robert F. Stockton. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 325 emigrants stop in this place ; they pass on, into the Will- iamette valley ; there they will find the heralds of mercy. Wednesday, 23. The emigrants occasionally pass along. Report says about half of them have gone on a new route, so as to come into the upper part of the Will- iamette valley ; a very great relief to our mission at the Dalls. Saturday, 26. Old Mr. Smith is with us, and is de- signing to take me to Yam Hill Camp Meeting to com- mence next Wednesday. We are to start next Monday. 44 Monday, 28. Left the island at Williamette Falls at about ten o'clock a. m. Started for camp meeting; we pass up the river about 25 miles and the shades of night begin to settle upon us, as we reach the Bute 43 ; here I find very comfortable entertainment for the night at Mr. HalPs, who keeps a sort of public house. Tuesday, 29. Early under way and after striking a number of bars by the keel of our boat, we pass into Yam Hill River and at about four p. m., we arrive at Mr. Smith's landing ; walk a mile and a half to Mr. Smith's ; am kindly received and treated with all that attention that gives assurance of a hearty and cordial welcome. Wednesday, 30. This evening, the services of our camp meeting begin. The supt. preached. [1846] Thursday, October 1. Prayer meeting at six a. m. Enock Garrison preaches at half past eight a. m. small sprinkling of occasionally fifteen persons stayed on the ground last night. Though our number is small, the spirit prevailing is good. i/ 2 10 a. m., Bro. Helm preaches us a good sermon. At 2 p. m., J. W. Garrison attempts to preach; the performance is as much to be admired for its sound as anything. Candle light, Bro. Leslie preaches us a very good sermon; very good state of feeling; two are forward for prayers. 44 Probably Andrew D. Smith, an emigrant of 1842, mentioned in the Spectator of August 20, 1846, in a communication signed by David Leslie. 45 At present Butteville. James E. Hall came in 1845, and died at Butteville, June 2, 1870. 326 Chakles Henry Carey Friday, 2. % past 8, J. L. Parrish preaches a pass- able sermon; about thirty hearers. Last night a little after midnight, Mrs. Fletcher 46 gave birth to a fine boy in a tent on the ground; I suppose there was not time enough for her to be taken to her house about a mile and a half off; so the camp ground became the place of this child's nativity. Well that Doct. Wilson 47 was on the ground. V2 10 a. m. the supt. preached. The spirit of the meeting is very good. 2 p. m., W. H. Wilson preached a good sermon for him. Evening, Bro. Helm gave an excellent sermon. Saturday, 3. % 8 D. Leslie gave us a good sermon, with very good effect. A gracious spirit prevails. V2 10 J. L. Parrish contributed to the interest of the meeting in giving a tolerably good sermon. 2 p. m. Supt. preached. The official members met and we had, I trust, a profit- able quarterly conference. Even J. L. Judson 48 preached a good sermon. This man is quite a preacher; but — Bro. Leslie followed with an exhortation in good season and of good effect. Perhaps a dozen forward for pray- ers. Five experienced religion, I believe. Sabbath, 4. In the morning, a speaking meeting love feast like — an excellent spirit prevailing. 10 a. m. Supt. preached and administered the holy communion. About fifty communicants. In the congregation about 180 per- sons, one third of them females. Perhaps this is about the proportion of males and females in this community. My opinion is, if there were a larger proportion of fe- males in this population (I mean white females,) it would be better for this community. The appearance of the ladies is respectable, and I have no doubt but their re- spectable appearance has a happy effect, upon the rough- er part of this population. Surely it is good that woman has a place in this society. 3 p. m., Bro. Helm gave us a 46 Wife of Francis Fletcher, who came with the Peoria party, 1840. 47 Dr. W. H. Willson, a member of the Mission party of 1837. 4 «L. H. Judson. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 327 good sermon in which we saw the traits of a good man, as presented in first Psalm. Evening. Bro. Leslie suited his sermon to the occasion with good judgment, and with excellent effect. Monday, 5. The people gathered before the stand and a few short addresses were made, and such as wished to join society were admitted. There were from 15 to 20 who professed religion at this meeting, and nearly 20 joined on trial. The meeting was then dismissed and we parted in all probability to meet not again in time. After meeting, I returned to Father Smith's and after a few disappointments, finally started for the Williamette Falls or Oregon city on the morning of Thursday, 8. This day we ran on a sand bar in dif- ferent places and at different times so that our progress was slow. We put up for the night under some bushes on one of the banks of the Williamette. Friday, 9. We were in some danger by running over a ledge of rocks, but after some careful effort, we finally got a float again; and as we were passing somewhat pleasantly we saw a deer in the river. Our men, with their oars well applied, gave chase after him; the race was hard, and for some time the result doubtful; but finally the noble buck was a captive ; he was a large and fat deer ; it was supposed his meat and skin would weigh nearly one hundred. We arrived at the falls about noon. Saturday, 10. Bro. Brewer is with us. We are feast- ing on a part of the noble deer taken yesterday. Sunday, 11. Our congregation just about as usual. Monday, 12. We are having beautiful weather. Bro. Abernethy and Brewer are overlooking their old mission accounts ; mistake found against the mission, $49.13. Wednesday, 14. Bro. Brewer leaves, for the Dalls. I have been somewhat busy in furnishing him with sup- plies for the Dalls station. Advanced as expense things worth $5.00. I have bought of him a cooking stove for the parsonage we now live in for which I paid him $25.70 ; 328 Charles Henry Carey also $1.00 for additional pipe, so now we are comfortable for cooking furniture. Thursday, 15. This morning, Bro. Parrish (passing the night with us) rose early, and alas for the glass lamp i that stood on the table, frail thing. We are having very • fine and warm weather. The emigrants who came by the i Dalls are mostly in. Sunday, 18. Congregation and appearances about the same from Sabbath to Sabbath. Tuesday, 20. It is said Mr. Moreland 49 has jumped the island if he should hold it, it is somewhat doubtful how it will go with Oregon Milling Co. which bought the mission debts, and assumed the mission liabilities. Monday, 26. Bros. Abernethy and Beers propose that I take the island as collateral security for the indebted- ness to the mission, Mr. Moreland being willing to give up his lien upon it. To the proposition, I accede. With this arrangement, I think the debts are safe. Tuesday, 27. Today I send by Mr. Beers sundry notes belonging to Doctor Babcock to the Fort to see if they can be sold at any fair rate. Returned. Wednesday, 28. Meridian it commences raining as though winter is about to set in. We have had very fine weather up to this time. [1846] Sunday, November 1. An abundant rain last night. Our congregation smaller than usual. About twenty hearers only. Surely these are days of small things. Tuesday, 3. The Toulon is again in the Columbia River. We have just received a letter from a friend written at Honolulu saying the boundary line between 49 Lafayette Moreland, a pioneer of 1844. The Oregon Spectator of February 5, 1846, published advertisements showing the purchase by Alan- son Beers and George Abernethy of "the stock of the Island Mills and will hereafter carry on the business as a partnership under the name Oregon Milling Company." The notices show that orders for lumber and lath will be filled, and that the flouring mill will be fitted up for the manufacture of flour suitable for exportation. The island had been claimed by McLoughlin as a part of his claim. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 329 the nations concerning this territory is settled; so fears of war may pass away. This news is good to us. 50 We probably have no letters from the states by this arrival. Friday, 6. This day I visit Mrs. McCarver, 51 sick with the consumption ; in great distress of mind ; after giving her the best advice I could, we had prayers ; she objected to my leaving yet; after some further conversation, we had prayers again; while praying, the second time, she clapped her hands for joy; light broke in upon her gloomy path, and she exulted in the mercy of God. Sunday, 8. These Sabbaths are much alike. Say thirty hearers; the preacher tries to do his duty; dark and rainy weather. Saturday, 21. This day I performed the solemn funer- al services for the remains of Mrs. McCarver; I believe she died in peace. Sunday, 22. Our services on the Sabbath are about the same; say thirty hearers on an average; I hope to discharge my duties to this people. Monday, 23. Dark, Dark, Dark weather. Rain, Rain. Rain. The weather is truly rather gloomy. Tuesday, 24. This morning, I was invited to attend a wedding in the evening and unite Mr. Brooks and Mrs. Smith in wedlock. I did not accept the invitation — and why not? 52 A little more than a year ago, Mrs. Smith and her husband, Mr. Smith, reached this place, and spent the winter together as man and wife. In the spring he started back for the states, talking as though he meant to return in a year or two, (but probably he meant to leave his wife) . She applied to the court early in October for a 50 See News of the Treaty of 1846; How It Reached Oregon, by B. Wistar Morris, D.D., an address before Oregon Pioneer Ass'n, 1896. 51 Mrs. M. M. McCarver. 52 Mrs. Mary Ann Smith was divorced from Samuel F. Smith by the Circuit Court in Clackamas County, November 9, 1847. On November 24, 1847, she was married to John P. Brooks by Rev. Hezekiah Johnson under the name Mary Ann Thomas (Oregon Spectator, November 26, 1847). Brooks taught the first school in Clackamas County in the winter of 1843-44. 330 Charles Henry Carey divorce from her husband, and though there was no pre- tence that her husband had in any way been guilty of I adultery, yet the court granted her a bill. All the evi- dence, as one of the judges informed me, was, he was not kind to her on the route over the mountains ; and it was presumed he did not mean to return. Women who have unkind husbands, Oregon is the place for them. This afternoon I preached at Gen. McCarver's. I fear his seriousness will pass away like the dew. Elder John- son, 53 Baptist missionary, attends the wedding. Sunday, 29. This is a more favorable day than com- mon ; congregation larger than ordinary. As faithfulness becomes the house of God forever, I trust the preacher was faithful. Monday, 30. Three years ago we left the city and ; port of New York. No regrets we came. Should be glad if we could see a door opening for our return. [1846] Tuesday, December 1. Today is rather of an important day in this city; the legislative committee meet in this place to make laws for the people of this territory. There is no small degree of delight apparently in this law-making business. Ice this morning as thick as window glass ; the first seen here this season. Wednesday, 2. I believe a majority of the legislature did not convene until today. I learn Mr. Lovejoy is chosen speaker. They have received Gov. Abernethy's message, which, I am informed, urges the cause of tem- perance with great importunity ; and certainly with great fitness. Thursday, 3. Settled with Mr. Robb for addition and repairs to the parsonage in which we live ; bill $90. Paid in books, $27.13, cloth for pants, $5.00, flannel $1.00 Pettigrove, $10.00, Abernethy, $46.87 ; total $90. Sunday, 6. Today we have rather of an important congregation ; as the legislative committee are in session about these days, quite a number from them attend wor- 53 Rev. Hezekiah Johnson, arrived December, 1845. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 331 ship ; the preacher took occasion to point out the right- eousness which exalts a nation and also some of the sins which are a reproach to any people, intemperance, Sab- bath breaking, licentiousness. Monday, 7. Busy writing to friends in the states. Tuesday, 8. This day I am fifty three years old. Time, it flies ; serious thought ; surely, all that I do must be done quickly. We are using our pens to inform our distant friends of our health and welfare. Friday, 4. There is a strong effort to do away the temperance law ; in the legislature now in session. Saturday, 12. Seal up my letters for the states; 2 sheets to secy; 1 Wm. Armitage for I. Stone; 54 1 Geo. Gary, Jr., 1 C. W. Leet; 1 M. Adams, 1 A. J. Skilton. Sunday, 13. A little snow this morning, so that on boards and the roofs of buildings it appears white like quite a white frost. The first snow we have seen this season. Monday, 14. More snow again this morning, a very little more than there was yesterday morning. Wednesday, 16. We are having very dark and rainy weather. Thursday, 17. The sun smiles upon us again, an un- common event these days. Sad day in the history of legislation in this territory. The license law comes into being. Our hope is in the veto of the governor. I am informed he will veto it. Saturday, 17. The license law passes by a majority of two thirds of the legislature, in defiance of the gov- ernor's veto. 55 King Alcohol has a legal being here now, and people may get drunk, I suppose, according to law. 54 This letter to Isaac Stone bears the address of Mr. William Armi- tage, Vernon, Oneida County, New York, with an endorsement requesting the latter to deliver it to Stone. It speaks of receipt of news of the bound- ary settlement, describes the Mission at The Dalles, and expresses the longing of the writer to return East. The MSS. is in the possession of Oregon Historical Society. 55 See address of J. Quinn Thornton before the Pioneer Ass'n, 1875. 332 Charles Henry Carey Alas! Alas! for this community. Life is made up of lights and shades. This day I baptize Mrs. Robb and her infant child. Sunday, 20. Sister Robb joins society; she will, I think, be an ornament to her professing. Bro. Campbell preaches in the afternoon ; he would like to be a preacher, but it is doubtful whether he will ever make it out. Monday, 21. Bro. Campbell is with us ; I hardly know what opinion to form of him. Tuesday, 22. Received a line from Mr. Hobbs 56 of the "Modeste" saying he had received our letters for the states, and will forward them the first opportunity. Al- cohol, I suppose, was delighted last night in turning over the back house ; very becoming employment for him. Wednesday, 23. Today Mr. Campbell leaves. Thursday, 24. The sun shines today. Saturday, 26. Alcohol has, I believe, considerable at- tention and admiration paid to him. Drinking and gamb- ling, so far as I can learn, is the delightful employment of quite a proportion of this population. Sabbath, 27. Just about an ordinary congregation; say from thirty to forty hearers ; the most of them appear attentive. I hope the Father of mercies will remember this community. Monday, 28. Our weather is cloudy and rainy. It is sometimes hard to keep the blues away in this dark and gloomy weather. Tuesday, 29. We are visited by Mrs. Thornton, 57 who came the new route ; she has lately arrived ; gives a most distressed account of the latter part of their journey; their company turned off of the old route at Fort Hall, and the story of their sufferings is almost incredible; women waded for miles in water from two to four feet deep ; and for weeks day and night had not a dry thread in any of their garments ; nearly all their cattle perished 66 J. M. Hobbs, purser. B7 Mrs. J. Quinn Thornton. Diary of Rev. George Gary — III 333 for want of grass and water; they were assured by Mr. Applegate who persuaded them to take the new route that they would be in to the Williamette valley by the middle of September, and here is, near the last of De- cember, and but a part of them have yet arrived. Wednesday, 30. The sun shines beautifully today. (To be concluded in the next issue of the Quarterly.) THE OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY Organized December 17, 1898 FREDERICK V. HOLMAN President CHARLES B. MOORES Vice-President F. G. YOUNG Secretary LADD & TILTON BANK Treasurer GEORGE H. HIMES, Curator and Assistant Secretary DIRECTORS THE GOVERNOR OF OREGON, ex-officio THE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION, ex-officio Term Expires at Annual Meeting in October, 1923 MRS. MARIA L. MYRICK, T. C. ELLIOTT Term Expires at Annual Meeting in October, 1924 MRS. HARRIET K. McARTHUR, RODNEY L. GLISAN Term Expires at Annual Meeting in October, 1925 CHARLES H. CAREY, B. B. BEEKMAN Term Expires at Annual Meeting in October, 1926 LESLIE M. SCOTT, JOHN GILL The Quarterly is sent free to all members of the Society. The annual dues are two dollars. The fee for life membership is twenty-five dollars. Contributions to The Quarterly and correspondence relative to historical ma- terials, or pertaining to the affairs of this Society, should be addressed to F. G. YOUNG, Secretary, Eugene, Oregon Subscriptions for The Quarterly, or for other publications of the Society, should be sent to GEORGE H. HIMES, Curator and Assistant Secretary, Public Auditorium, Third St., between Clay and Market Sts., Portland, Oregon

  1. This paper was submitted in part fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in the University of Oregon.
  2. Official Directory of Superintendents, Supervisors, Principals, High School Teachers and Standard High Schools of Oregon, 1915. pp. 100-106.
  3. Contrast the favorable estimate of Abernethy by Burnett. (Recollections of An Old Pioneer, p. 248); and by Medorem Crawford. (Or. Pioneer Proc., 1886, p. 37).
  4. Osborne Russell.
  5. A. L. Lovejoy.
  6. Dr. William J. Bailey.