and by aiding the Protestant German princes in the latter part of the Thirty Years War, he humiliates France's ancient rival, Austria.
1630. Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, marches into Germany to the assistance of the Protestants, who were nearly crushed by the Austrian armies. He gains several great victories, and, after his death, Sweden, under his statesmen and generals, continues to take a leading part in the war.
1640. Portugal throws off the Spanish yoke: and the House of Braganza begins to reign.
1642. Commencement of the civil war in England between Charles I. and his parliament.
1648. The Thirty Years War in Germany ended by the treaty of Westphalia.
1653. Oliver Cromwell lord-protector of England.
1660. Restoration of the Stuarts to the English throne.
1661. Louis XIV. takes the administration of affairs in France into his own hands.
1667—1668. Louis XIV. makes war on Spain, and conquers a large part of the Spanish Netherlands.
1672. Louis makes war upon Holland, and almost overpowers it. Charles II., of England, is his pensioner, and England helps the French in