right direction. He wrote the 四聲切韻, a work on the four tones, of which he is considered by some to have been the first exponent (see Shên Yo). He devoted much attention to Buddhism, and published a treatise, entitled 三宗論, in which the doctrines of its three chief schools are discussed.
430 Chou Yung-nien 周永年 (T. 書昌). Graduated in 1771, and was employed in the Imperial Library. He devoted his life to study, and spent all his fortune upon books, building a special library to hold them.
431 Ch'ou Luan 仇鸞. Died A.D. 1552. One of the most worthless Ministers of the Ming dynasty. Very studious as a boy and a clever writer, he proved proud and haughty when placed in office. In 1529 he went as Governor to Canton, and only escaped disgrace for cruelty and extortion by retiring ill. In 1537 he was sent to 寧夏 Ning-hsia in Kansuh, and took command against Anda, Prince of 順義 Shun-i, who was ravaging the border. By promising to open trading stations, he tried to induce the enemy to retire; but Anda raided up to Peking, and being attacked at 古北口 Ku-pei-k'on while retreating, defeated his pursuers. However, by falsely reporting a victory and presenting some eighty heads of peaceful villagers, Ch'ou obtained rewards and honours. In the following year the Tartars crowded inside the Wall on the pretext of trading. He shirked an engagement; and at the instigation of Yen Sung, whom he had displaced as first favourite, he was recalled. He died the day before his secret dealing with the enemy was discovered. His corpse was beheaded, his family exterminated, and his ill-gotten possessions confiscated.
432 Chu Chan-chi 朱瞻基. A.D. 1398-1435. Eldest son of Chu Kao-chih, whom he succeeded in 1425 as fifth Emperor of the Ming dynasty. His reign was marked by the rebellion of his uncle, Chu Kao-hsü, and by a revolt of the Kuangsi aborigines.