della fratta. Lastly, in his 'Cartella musicals' (1614) we find a project for the foundation of an academy of science and art in his monastery at Bologna.
[ F. G. ]
BAND. A combination of various instruments for the performance of music. The old English term was 'noise.' The French word 'bande' was applied to the 'vingt-quatre violins' of Louis XIV. (Littré.) Charles II had his 'four-and-twenty violins,' and the word doubtless accompanied the thing. It first appears in a MS. order (Ld. Chamberlain's Warrt. Bks. May 31, 1661) that the King's band of violins shall take instructions from Hudson and Mell. (See also State Papers, Domestic, lxxvii. No. 40, and lxxix. Aug. 19, 63.) It is not mentioned by Johnson (nor indeed in Latham's Johnson), Richardson, or Webster. The various kinds of bands will be found under their separate heads, viz. Harmonie-Music; Military Band; Orchestra; King's Private Band; Wind Band. Bandmaster and Bandsmen are respectively the leader and members of a Military Band.
[ G. ]
BANDERALI, Davidde, born at Lodi 1780 [App. p.530 "Jan. 12, 1789"], died in Paris 1849 [App. p.530 "June 13"]; first appeared as a buffo tenor singer, which part may be said to have been created by him. He soon relinquished the stage, and became professor of singing in the Conservatoire first of Milan, and afterwards—on the recommendation of Rossini—in that of Paris (1828). In both places he trained singers who became celebrated.
[ M. C. C. ]
BANDORA, Ital. Mandora, or Mandola; Neapolitan dial. Pandura; Span. Bandolon; Old Eng. Pandore, are the Romance names of varieties of the cither in the countries designated. Like the lute in size and in the form of the pear-shaped body, they are classed with the cither because they have generally wire strings (tuned in pairs) and are played with a plectrum of tortoiseshell or quill. The mandoline is a small and very beautiful instrument of the kind. These instruments, with their names, were derived from the East. In the heyday of the Renaissance they became very generally used to accompany the voice and support the recitals of improvisatori, as well as for solo performance. Although πανδουρα appears in Greek, it was not a true Greek instrument, but an exotic. Athenæus states that Pythagoras, writing about the Red Sea, says the Troglodytes made the pandoura of daphne, i. e. laurel, which grew near the seashore. According to Mr. Engel ('Musical Instruments,' 1874) the tambour or tamboura is their Eastern representative. There are several varieties of these pear-shaped instruments used in Turkey and Bulgaria. The large Turkish tamboura has a circular body, the open strings producing four tones: it has thirty-five frets of thin catgut bound round the neck and disposed for the intervals, smaller than halftones, belonging to the Arabic scale. The tamboura is also found in Persia, Egypt, and Hindostan. The ancient Egyptian nofre, hieroglyphic for 'good,' was a tamboura; and the Assyrians had an instrument of the kind, also played with a plectrum. The idea of tension would seem to be inherent in the first syllable of names of the bandora or tamboura family of instruments, preserving everywhere so remarkable an identity. (See Banjo, Calascione, Cither, Lute, Mandoline.)
[ A. J. H. ]
BANISTER, John, born 1630, son of one of the waitts of the parish of St. Giles'-in-the-Fields, London. He received the rudiments of his musical education from his father, and arrived at great proficiency on the violin. He was noticed by Charles II, who sent him to France for improvement; and on his return he was appointed leader of the king's band. The State Papers inform us, '1663, Mr. Banister appointed to be chief of His Majesty's violins.' Pepys, in his Diary, under the date Feb. 20, 1666–7, says:—'They talk how the King's violin, Banister, is mad that a Frenchman is come to be chief of some part of the King's musique.' The Frenchman here alluded to was the impudent pretender Louis Grabu. It is recorded, we know not upon what authority, that Banister was dismissed the King's service for saying, in the hearing of His Majesty, that the English performers on the violin were superior to those of France. This musician is entitled to especial notice as being the first to establish lucrative concerts in London. These concerts were made known through the medium of the 'London Gazette'; and on December 30, 1672, there appeared the following advertisement:—'These are to give notice that at Mr. John Banister's house, now called the Musick-school, over against the George Tavern in White Friars, this present Monday, will be musick performed by excellent masters, beginning precisely at four of the clock in the afternoon, and every afternoon for the future, precisely at the same hour.' Many similar notices may be found in the same paper (1673 to 1678), from which it appears that Banister carried on these concerts till near the period of his decease, which occurred on the third of October, 1679. He was buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. Banister wrote the music to the tragedy of 'Circe,' written by Dr. Charles Davenant, eldest son of Sir William Davenant, performed at the Duke of York's Theatre in 1676 [App. p.530 "1667"]. Downes ('Roscius Anglicanus,' 1703) calls it an 'opera,' and says 'All the musick was set by Mr. Banister, and being well performed, it answered the expectation of the company.' One of the songs is printed in the second book of 'Choice Ayres and Songs,' 1676, and a MS. copy of the first act is preserved in the library of the Sacred Harmonic Society. Jointly with Pelham Humfrey he wrote the music to 'The Tempest,' performed in 1676 [App. p.530 "1667"], some of the songs of which were published in the same year. He contributed to Playford's 'Courtly Masquing Ayres,' 1662; and some lessons for 'viols or violins of his are appended to a small volume entitled 'New Ayres and Dialogues,' 1678. (Hawkins; Notes to North's Memoirs of Musick,