The following is the air as there given (see Burney, 'History,' iii. 89):—
[App. p.579 "the first line is an introduction to the tune proper. In bar 3 of the first line for G, F, read A, G."]
In Chappell's 'Popular Music of the Olden Time' (p. 139) the tune is given to the words of 'The courteous carman and the amorous maid,' and is mentioned (p. 428) as suiting 'The country hostesses vindication.'
[ G. ]
CARMIGNANI, Giovanna, sang in London in 1763, taking, among others, the principal serious part of Lavinia in 'La Cascina,' produced at the King's Theatre by J. C. Bach. Anna de Amicis sang in the same piece.
[ J. M. ]
CARNABY, William, Mus. Doc., born in London in 1772, was a chorister of the Chapel-Royal under Dr. Nares and Dr. Ayrton. On leaving the choir he became organist at Eye, which he quitted for a similar appointment at Huntingdon. Whilst residing at the latter place he published 'Six Canzonets,' and also 'Six Songs,' which were favourably received. In 1805 he graduated at Cambridge as Bachelor of Music, and in 1808 proceeded to Doctor. In the interval he had settled in London, and on the opening of Hanover Chapel, Regent Street, in 1823, he was appointed its organist. His compositions, chiefly vocal, were numerous. They have been characterised as scientific, but deficient in taste. He died Nov. 13, 1839 [App. p.579 "Nov. 7"].
[ W. H. H. ]
CARNAVAL DE VENISE. This popular air, which was heard by Paganini at Venice, when he visited the Queen of the Adriatic in 1816, 1824, and 1826, and which his magic bow has made a favourite tune all over the world, is the effusion of an unknown musician probably of the end of the last century. Several talented composers have embroidered it, and all pianists have played the brilliant variations and fantasias written upon it by Herz and Schulhoff. It has been even introduced on the lyric stage. Ambroise Thomas has composed very clever variations on the tune for the overture to his opera 'Le Carnaval de Venise,' and Victor Massé, in his 'Reine Topaze,' introduces an air varié upon it to the words
'Venise est tout en fêtes,
Car voici le carnaval.'
In England it was for long known to the words
'O come to me, I'll row thee o'er
Across yon peaceful sea.'
The air, as given by Paganini, is as follows:—
[ G. C. ]
CARNICER, Ramon, Spanish dramatic composer, born near Lerida in Catalonia 1789 [vol. iv adds Oct. 24], died in Madrid 1855 [App. p.579 "March 17"]. In 1818 he was appointed conductor at the Italian Opera of Barcelona, and here he produced successfully his first opera 'Adela de Lusignano,' which was followed by several others. Between 1820 and 27 he visited Paris and London, and was favourably received in both. In 28 he was appointed conductor at the Theatre Royal in Madrid, for which he composed 'Elena e Malvino' (1829), and 'Colombo' (1831), generally considered his best work. He largely contributed to the foundation of a national opera. From 1830 to 54 he was professor of composition at the Madrid Conservatoire. Besides nine operas, he composed church music, symphonies, military marches, national hymns, and an infinity of songs. His music is original and rhythmical, though much impregnated with phrases from national airs.
CAROL, see Hymn.
CARON, Firmin, a composer of the 15th century, probably born about 1420. He is said by Tinctor to have been the scholar of Binchois or Dufay. The name is Flemish. Baini ('Palestrina') states that the Library of the Pope's Chapel possesses a MS. volume of masses by Caron, containing one on 'L'omme armé.' Caron also wrote secular songs, some of which were known to M. Fétis, who found them to surpass those of Ockenheim and Busnois in ease. One of them begins 'Helas! que pourra devenir.'
CAROSO, Marco Fabrice, of Sermoneta, in Italy; author of 'Il Ballerino … con intavolatura di liuto, e il soprano della musica nella sonata di ciascun ballo' (Venice, 1581), valuable for the dance music which it contains.
CARPANI, Giuseppe, poet and writer on music, born Jan. 28, 1752, at Villalbese, in the district of Brianza. His father destined him for the law, he studied at Milan and Padua, and practised under the celebrated advocate Villata at Milan. But he soon gave up the law, entered the society of artists and literary men, and indulged his natural taste for art. He had already written more than one comedy and several opera-libretti for the Italian stage, among others 'Camilla,' composed by Paër. In consequence of some violent articles against the French Revolution in the 'Gazetta di Milano,' of which he was editor from 1792–96, he had to leave Milan when it was taken by the French.