called her his favourite pupil, and wrote the principal parts of several operas for her. She sang in nearly all the oratorios produced by the Tonkünstler-Societät (now the Haydn-Verein), and maintained her popularity to the last, against many eminent singers. Her voice was of considerable compass, and she was a cultivated musician. She made up for her want of personal attractions by her fascinating manners. She was compelled from over-exertion to retire when in the prime of life (1793), and died June 30, 1801.
[ C. F. P. ]
CAVALLI, Pietro Francesco, eminent composer of the 17th century, born at Crema, Venice, in 1599 or 1600. His real name was Caletti-Bruni, and he took that of Cavalli from his patron. In 1617 he became singer in the choir of St. Mark's under Monteverde; in 1640 organist of the second organ, in 65 organist of the first organ in that church; in 68 chapel-master, and on Jan. 14, 76, he died. Of his church-music nothing has been published beyond a Mass, Psalms, and Antiphons, for 2 to 12 voices (Venice, 1656), and Vespers for 8 voices (ib. 1675). Santini possessed a Requiem of his (sung at Cavalli's funeral) for 8 voices in MS. His operas were very numerous. He began to write for the theatre in 1637 [App. p.583 "1639"], and continued so to do for 32 years. There were then five theatres in Venice, and Cavalli was fully employed. Fétis gives a list—evidently incomplete—of 39 pieces. In 1660 he was called to Paris for the marriage of Louis XIV, and produced his opera of 'Xerse' [App. p.583 'Serse'] in the Grand Gallery of the Louvre; to Paris again in 1662 [App. p.583 adds "Feb. 7"] for the Peace of the Pyrenees, when he brought out 'Ercole amante'; and to Innspruck for the fête on the reception of Queen Christina. His wife belonged to the Sozomeni family; he grew rich and enjoyed the esteem and affection of his fellow-citizens. He took the opera from the hands of Monteverde, and maintained it with much dramatic power and with a force of rhythm before unknown. An air by Cavalli and some fragments will be found in Burney's 'History,' vol. iv.
[ G. ]
CAVATINA originally signified a short song, but has been frequently applied to a smooth melodious air, forming part of a grand scena or movement. Thus Mozart's noble scena 'Andromeda' commences with a recitative 'Ah, lo previdi!' followed by an Aria, Allegro, then more recitatives in several tempi, and lastly a Cavatina, Andantino:—
Several examples of cavatine may be found in Bellini's 'Sonnambula,' Meyerbeer's 'Ugonotti,' and other well-known operas. The word is sometimes used for a complete air or song, as in Gounod's 'Romeo'—'L'amour! oui son ardeur a troublé'; and in 'Faust'—'Salve dimora.' In the full score of Mendelssohn's 'St. Paul' 'Be thou faithful unto death' is called a cavatina, but in the vocal scores it is described as an aria. Beethoven has given this title to the second slow movement, Adagio molto espressivo, in his great Quartet in B♭ (op. 130), one of the most touching and individual pieces to be found in all his works. It consists of a song in two strains in E fiat and A flat, an episode in E flat minor (expressive of the deepest distress, and marked in the autograph Beklemmt—choked with grief), and a return to the original strain. [App. p.593 adds that "the derivation of the word is not clear. Cavata is defined as the act of producing tone from a musical instrument. The strict definition of Cavatina will be found under Opera, ii. 511 a."
[ W. H. C. ]
CAVENDISH, Michael, was the composer of a set of 'Ayres for four Voyces,' published in 1599. He contributed a madrigal—'Come, gentle swaines'—to 'The Triumphes of Oriana,' 1601, and was one of the ten composers who harmonised the tunes for 'The Whole Booke of Psalmes with their wonted Tunes as they are song in Churches composed into foure parts,' published in 1592 by Thomas Este. Nothing is known of his biography.
[ W. H. H. ]
CAZZATI, Maurizio, born at Mantua about 1620, died there 1677, appointed in 1657 Chapel-master of San Petronio in Bologna. He resigned this post in 1674 on account of a violent quarrel with Aresti, organist of the same church, who had severely criticised the Kyrie in a mass of Cazzati's. His voluminous compositions (for list see Fétis) comprise masses, psalms, and motets, besides canzonets and airs. One of his motets 'Sunt breves mundi Rosæ' was printed in Ballard's collection for 1712, and other pieces in Profe's 'Geistlicher Concerten' (Leipsic 1641).
[ M. C. C. ]
CECILIA, ST., Virgin and Martyr, was a young Roman lady of noble birth, who, being educated in the Christian faith, vowed to lead a celibate life and to devote herself to the service of religion. She was, however, compelled by her parents to marry Valerianus, a young Roman noble and a Pagan, with whom she prevailed so much as not only to induce him to respect her vow, but, with his brother, to embrace the Christian faith. Seized and brought before the Pagan authorities, and refusing to abjure their faith, they were condemned to death, the brothers being decapitated, and the virgin-wife placed in a dry bath with fire beneath, which failing to terminate her existence as rapidly as her persecutors desired, they sent an executioner to despatch her by severing her head from her body. These events occurred at Rome about 229, under Alexander Severus, according to most writers, although some state them to have happened in Sicily under Marcus Aurelius between 176 and 180. Her house at Rome, where she was put to death, was converted into a church, or a church was built over it, to which in 821 her remains, with those of her husband and brother and other martyrs were translated. This church was repaired and sumptuously embellished in 1599, and a monument of the saint erected.