CINTI. See Damoreau.
CIPRANDI, Ercole, an excellent tenor, who sang in London from 1754 to 65. He was born about 1738. He played Danao in 'Ipermestra' by Hasse and Lampugnani, produced at the King's Theatre Nov. 9, 1754. In 65 he was still singing at the same theatre, and appeared as Antigone in 'Eumene.' Burney found him at Milan in 1770, as fine a singer as before. He was living in 1790.
[ J. M. ]
CIPRIANI, Lorenzo, a capital buffo singer at the Pantheon in London, about 1790. He performed in the same company with Pacchierotti, Mara, and Morelli. In 91 he played Valerio in 'La Locanda' of Paisiello. There is a capital sketch-portrait of him 'in the character of Don Alfonso Scoglio, in La Bella Pescatrice, performed at the King's Theatre, Pantheon, Dec. 24, 1791; drawn by P. Violet, and engraved by C. Guisan, pupil to F. Bartolozzi, R.A.'
[ J. M. ]
CIRCASSIENNE, LA, opéra-comique in 3 acts; words by Scribe, music by Auber; produced at the Opéra Comique Feb. 2, 1861, and in London.
[ G. ]
CIS, CES. The German terms for C♯ and C♭. None of the books explain the origin of this form, which runs through the German scale—Dis, Es, As, etc., except B and H; and in the double flats and sharps, Deses, Gisis, etc.
[ G. ]
CITHER, Cithern, Cithorn, or Cittern (Fr. Cistre, Sistre, or Courante; Ital. Cetera; Ger. Cither, Zither). An instrument shaped like a lute, but with a flat back, and with wire strings, generally adjusted in pairs of unisons, and played with a plectrum of quill. The cither during the 16th and 17th centuries appears to have enjoyed great favour on the Continent and in England. The English citherns had usually four pairs of wire strings, but according to Mr. Engel ('Musical Instruments,' etc., 1874) it was not limited to this number. He quotes a curious title-page: 'New Citharen Lessons with perfect Tunings of the same from four course of strings to four-teene course, &c.' adorned with an engraving of a Bijuga (two-necked) cither, the counterpart of a theorbo or two-necked lute, strung with seven pairs of strings over the fingerboard, and seven single strings at the side. The date of this is 1609. John Playford published a book entitled 'Musick's Delight, containing new and pleasant lessons on the Cithern, London, 1666.' The Cetera or Italian cither was used by improvisatori, and extant specimens are often tastefully adorned with ornament. Finally, keyed cithers with hammers were patented by English and German makers. The German Streichzither, as the name indicates, was played with a bow. This was horizontal, like the Schlagzither and its prototype the Scheidholt. all of which variants will be more conveniently described under the accepted modern appellation of Zither, an instrument to place upon a table, well known in South Germany. The difference between a cither and a lute is that the cither has wire strings and is played with a plectrum, while the lute has catgut strings to be touched with the fingers. The guitar also has catgut strings and has a flat back, not pear-shaped like the lute, and has incurvations at the sides, evidence of its derivation from a bow instrument. The name cither is derived from the Greek κιθάρα, which, however, was another kind of stringed instrument. (See Lyre; also Chitarrone, Lute, and Zither.)
[ A. J. H. ]
CITOLE. This word, used by poets in the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries, has been derived from cistella (Lat.) a small box, and is supposed to mean the small box-shaped psaltery, sometimes depicted in MSS. of the period in representations of musicians. Dr. Rimbault ('The Pianoforte,' 1860, p. 25) has collected several poetic references to the citole, including quotations from the 'Roman de la Rose," Gavin Douglas, Gower, and Chaucer ('Knight's Tale,' 'a citole in hire right hand hadde she'). According to the same authority (p. 22) the name was used as late as 1543. [See Psaltery.] A modern instance of the use of the name is in D. G. Rosetti's 'Blessed Damozelle,'
'And angels meeting us shall sing
To their citherns and citoles.'
[ A. J. H. ]
CIVIL SERVICE MUSICAL SOCIETY, instituted in 1864 for the practice of vocal and instrumental music among the civil servants and excise servants of the crown. The Prince of Wales is patron, and all the members of the royal family are life members. Sir W. H. Stephenson, of the Board of Inland Revenue, was its first president, and Mr. Frederick Clay its first vice-president. The first conductor of the orchestra was Mr. Arthur Sullivan, and the first conductor of the choir Mr. John Foster; but upon the resignation of Mr. Sullivan Mr. Foster became sole conductor. The society meets for practice at King's College, Strand, where it has an exceptionally good library of vocal and instrumental music. Its concerts, of which upwards of fifty have been given, take place at St. James's Hall, admission being confined to members and their friends. The programmes include symphonies, overtures, and other orchestral works; the special feature in the vocal music is the singing of the male voice choir, the society's original plan of practising exclusively music written for male voices having been rigidly adhered to. The present officers (1877) are—President, Lord Hampton; Vice-president, Sir F. J. Halliday; Conductor, Mr. John Foster; Treasurer, Mr. F. L. Robinson; and Hon. Sec., Mr. S. McCaul. [App. p.591 adds that "the society ceased to exist in 1880, owing to financial difficulties consequent upon the resignation of several of the older members. A concert was given on May 11 of that year in Steinway Hall."]
[ C. M. ]
CLAGGET, Charles, a violinist, and about 1766 leader of the band at the theatre in Smock Alley, Dublin. He was noted for his skill in accompanying the voice. He was also a composer of songs (one of which, 'I've rifled Flora's painted bowers,' gained much popularity), and of duets for violins, violin and cello, and flutes. Coming to London and being of an inventive turn of mind, he devoted his attention to the improvement of various musical instruments. In