Mrs. Clive's career as a singer was Handel's selection of her as the representative of Dalila in his oratorio 'Samson,' on its production in 1743.
CLOCKING. See Chiming.
CLOSE is a word very frequently used in the same sense as Cadence, which see. In ordinary conversation it may very naturally have a little more expansion of meaning than its synonym. It serves to express the ending of a phrase or a theme, or of a whole movement or a section of one, as a fact, and not as denoting the particular succession of chords which are recognised as forming a cadence. Hence the term 'half-close' is very apt, since it expresses not only the most common form of imperfect cadence which ends on the dominant instead of the tonic, but also the position in which that form of close is usually found, viz. not at the end of a phrase or melody, but marking the most usual symmetrical division into two parts in such a manner that the flow of the complete passage is not interrupted.
The word is also used as a verb, where again it has the advantage of the word cadence, since one can say 'Such a passage closes in such a key,' but one cannot say 'Such a passage cadences so'; and if one could, it would hardly express the sense so plainly.
[ C. H. H. P. ]
CLUER, J., an engraver and publisher of music, who carried on business in Bow Churchyard, London, in the middle of the first half of the 18th century. He issued his publications in connection with 'B. Creake, at ye Bible, in Jermyn Street, St. James's.' Cluer engraved and published in 1720 Handel's Suites de Pieces pour le clavecin, and between 1723 and 1729 nine of the same composer's Italian operas, viz. 'Giulio Cesare,' 'Tamerlane,' 'Rodelinda,' 'Alessandro,' 'Scipione,' 'Ricciardo Primo,' 'Siroe,' and 'Lotario.' The titles of these operas are contained in a label upon an engraved emblematic design, very fairly executed. Cluer also published 'A Pocket Companion for Gentlemen and Ladies, being a collection of Opera Songs in 8vo. size, never before attempted,' 2 vols. He was mistaken in supposing that music had never before been published in octavo size. Half a century earlier Henry Brome, the bookseller, had adopted it for Banister and Low's 'New Ayres and Dialogues,' 1678, and the contemporary French printers had for some years frequently used it. Among other works engraved and published by Cluer were a periodical called 'The Monthly Apollo, a collection of New Songs and Airs in English and Italian,' and two packs of 'Musical Playing Cards.'
COBBOLD, William, a composer of the latter part of the sixteenth, and early part of the following century, was one of the ten musicians who harmonised the tunes for 'The Whole Booke of Psalmes with their wonted Tunes as they are song in Churches, composed into foure partes,' published by Thomas Este in 1592. He contributed a madrigal, 'With wreaths of rose and laurel,' to 'The Triumphes of Oriana,' 1601. The only other known compositions by him are another madrigal, 'New Fashions,' and an anthem, 'In Bethlehem towne,' of which some separate parts are preserved in the library of the Sacred Harmonic Society. Nothing is known of his life.
COCCHETTA. See Gabrielli, C.
COCCHI, Gioacchino born at Padua 1720, died in Venice 1804; dramatic composer; produced his first operas, 'Adelaide' and 'Bajasette,' in Rome (1743 and 1746). In 1750 he was at Naples, and in 1753 was appointed Chapel-master of the Conservatorio degli Incurabili at Venice. Here he wrote 'Il Pazzo glorioso.' In 1757 he came to London as composer to the Opera. During a sixteen years' residence in this country he composed 11 operas, as well as taking part in several pasticcios. For list see Fétis. In 1773 he returned to Venice. His reputation was considerable for a time both in Italy and in this country. Burney praises 'his good taste and knowledge in counterpoint.' but says he 'lacked invention, and hardly produced a new passage after his first year in England.' He realised a large sum by teaching.
[ M. C. C. ]
COCCIA, Carlo, born at Naples 1789 [App. p.594 "April 14, 1782"], date and place of death uncertain [App. p.594 "Novara, April 13, 1873"]; son of a violinist, studied under Fenaroli and Paisiello. His early compositions were remarkable for his years. Paisiello was extremely fond of him, procured him the post of accompanist at King Joseph Bonaparte's private concerts, and encouraged him after the failure of his first opera, 'Il Matrimonio per cambiale' (Rome, 1808). Between the years 1808 and 19 he composed 22 operas for various towns in Italy, and two cantatas, one for the birth of the King of Rome (Treviso, 1811), the other (by a curious irony, in which Cherubini also shared) for the entry of the allied armies into Paris (Padua, 1814). In 1820 he went to Lisbon, where he composed four operas and a cantata, and thence to London (August, 23), where he became conductor at the Opera. He discharged his duties with credit, and profited by hearing more solid works than were performed in Italy, as he showed in the single opera he wrote here, 'Maria Stuarda' (1827). He was also professor of composition at the Royal Academy on its first institution. In 28 he returned to Italy. In 33 he paid a second visit to England, and then settled finally in Italy. In 36 [App. p.594 "40"] he succeeded Mercadante at Novara, and was appointed Inspector of Singing at the Philharmonic Academy of Turin. His last opera, 'Il Lago delle Fate' (Turin, 1814), was unsuccessful. Coccia wrote with extreme rapidity, the entire opera of 'Donna Caritea' (Turin, 1818), being completed in six days. 'Clotilde' (Venice, 1816 [App. p.594 "1815"]), was the most esteemed of all his works in Italy. He was highly thought of in his day, but his science was not sufficient to give durability to his compositions. (For list see Fétis).
[ M. C. C. ]
COCKS & CO., Robert, one of the principal London music-publishing firms. The business