insuperable difficulty to a virtuoso of to-day, in spite of the preposterous amount of time and labour we now devote to such things.
He is the first completely equipped writer of sonatas. Even as early as his op. 2 the form sketched by Scarlatti, and amplified by Emanuel Bach, is completely systematised, and has not changed in any essential point since, Clementi represents the sonata proper from beginning to end. He played and imitated Scarlatti's harpsichord sonatas in his youth; he knew Haydn's and Mozart's in his manhood, and he was aware of Beethoven's in his old age; yet he preserved his artistic physiognomy—the physiognomy not of a man of genius, but of a man of the rarest talents from first to last. He lived through the most memorable period in the history of music. At his birth Handel was alive, at his death Beethoven, Schubert, and Weber were buried.
There is an annoying confusion in the various editions of his works: arrangements are printed as originals, the same piece appears under various titles, etc. etc. The so-called complete editions of his solo sonatas—the best, that published by Holle at Wolfenbüttel, and edited by Schumann's friend Julius Knorr, and the original edition of Breitkopf & Härtel, since reprinted by that firm—are both incomplete; the sonatas with accompaniment etc. are out of print, and his orchestral works have not been printed at all. A judicious selection from his entire works, carefully considered with a view to the requirements and probable powers of consumption of living pianists, would be a boon
[ E. D. ]
CLEMENZA DI TITO, LA. Mozart's 23rd and last opera; in 2 acts; words adapted from Metastasio by Mazzola. Finished Sept. 5, 1791, and first performed the following day at Prague. At the King's Theatre, Haymarket, March 27, 1806. The autograph is entirely in Mozart's hand, and contains no recitatives. They were probably supplied by Süssmayer. The German title of the opera is 'Titus.'
[ G. ]
CLERINI, a Frenchwoman, who had altered her name from Le Clerc, and had an engagement at the Opera in London in 1823 at £150. She sang the part of Servilia in 'La Clemenza di Tito' that year; but, beside her face, she had no attraction. She appeared again as Albina in 'La Donna del Lago' in the same season.
[ J. M. ]
CLICQUOT, François Henri, eminent organ-builder, born in Paris 1728, died there 1791. In 1760 he built the organ of St. Gervais. In 1765 he entered into partnership with Pierre Dallery, and the firm constructed the organs of Notre Dame, St. Nicolas-des-Champs, the Sainte Chapelle, and the Chapelle du Roi at Versailles. Clicquot's finest organ was that of St. Sulpice, built after his partnership with Dallery had been dissolved, and containing 5 manuals and 66 stops, including a pedal-stop of 32 feet. For the organ in the Cathedral at Poitiers, his last work, he received 92,000 francs. His instruments were over-loaded with reeds—a common defect in French organs.
[ M. C. C. ]
CLIFFORD, REV. JAMES, the son of Edward Clifford, a cook, was born in the parish of St. Mary Magdalen, Oxford, in 1622. In 1632 he was admitted a chorister of Magdalen College, Oxford, and so remained until 1642. On July 1, 1661, he was appointed tenth minor canon of St. Paul's Cathedral, and in 1675 was advanced to the sixth minor canonry. In 1682 he became senior cardinal. He was also for many years curate of the parish church of St. Gregory by St. Paul's, and chaplain to the Society of Serjeant's Inn, Fleet Street. He died about the year 1700 [App. p.594 "in Sept. 1698."]. In 1663 Clifford published, under the title of 'The Divine Services and Anthems usually sung in the Cathedrals and Collegiate Choirs of the Church of England,' a collection of the words of anthems; the first of its kind which appeared in the metropolis. (It had been preceded by a collection compiled and printed by Stephen Bulkley at York in 1662.) So great was the success of the work that a second edition, with large additions, appeared in 1664. To the first edition are prefixed 'Briefe Directions for the understanding of that part of the Divine Service performed with the Organ in St. Paul's Cathedral on Sundayes and Holydayes'; and to the second chants for Venite and the Psalms and for the Athanasian Creed. The work is curious and interesting as showing what remained of the cathedral music produced before the parliamentary suppression of choral service in 1644, and what were the earliest additions made after the re-establishment of that service in 1660. Clifford's only other publications were 'The Catechism, containing the Principles of Christian Religion,' and 'A Preparation Sermon before the receiving of the Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, preached at Serjeants' Inn Chapel, in Fleet Street,' which appeared together in 1694. Clifford had a younger brother, Thomas, born in Oct. 1633, who was admitted chorister of Magdalen College in 1642 and resigned in 1645.
[ W. H. H. ]
CLIVE, Catherine, daughter of William Raftor, an Irish gentleman, was born in London in 1711. Displaying a natural aptitude for the stage she was engaged by Colley Cibber for Drury Lane Theatre, and made her first appearance there in November 1728, as the page Ismenes, in Nat. Lee's tragedy 'Mithridates.' In 1729 she attracted great attention by her performance of Phillida in Colley Cibber's ballad opera, 'Love in a riddle.' Her personation of Nell in Coffey's ballad opera, 'The Devil to pay,' in 1731, established her reputation, and caused her salary to be doubled. On Oct. 4, 1734, she married George Clive, a barrister, but the pair soon agreed to separate. She continued to delight the public in a variety of characters in comedy and comic opera until April 24, 1769, when, having acquired a handsome competence, she took leave of the stage, and retired to Twickenham, where she occupied a house in the immediate vicinity of Horace Walpole's famous villa at Strawberry Hill, until her death, which occurred on Dec. 6, 1785. One of the most prominent events in