to his memory. Besides the works above specified, Dr. Crotch produced 'Ten Anthems,' some chants, a motet, 'Methinks I hear'; several glees; some fugues and concertos for the organ; several pianoforte pieces; an ode on the accession of George IV, performed at Oxford, 1820; Funeral Anthem for the Duke of York, 1827; 'The Lord is King,' anthem for voices and orchestra, 1843; and some works on Thorough Bass and Harmony. He also published 'Specimens of various styles of Music referred to in a course of Lectures on Music read at Oxford and London,' and in 1831 the 'Substance of several courses of Lectures on Music read at Oxford and in the Metropolis.' As a teacher he enjoyed a high and deserved reputation.
CROTCHET, a note which is half the value of a minim, and twice that of a quaver, and is represented thus . The origin of the name is not known. It is apparently derived from the French croche; but croche is a quaver, , and is so called on account of the hook at the end of its tail, whereas a crotchet has no hook. The French name for this note is noire, the Italian, semi-minima, and the German Viertel, 'a quarter'—i.e. of a semi-breve. The French call a crochet rest, , by the pretty name of un soupir.
[ G. ]
CROUCH, F. Nicholls, a composer of songs and ballads during the second quarter of the present century, was the author of many productions which gained great popularity, and one—'Kathleen Mavourneen'—which still retains its place in public favour. He quitted England about the year 1845 and went to America, where, it is believed, he is still living.
CROUCH, Mrs. Anna Maria, born April 20, 1763, was the daughter of Peregrine Phillips, a solicitor. Being gifted with a remarkably sweet voice Miss Phillips was at an early age placed under the instruction of a music-master named Wafer, and some time afterwards was articled to Thomas Linley, under whose auspices she made her appearance in the winter of 1780 [App. p.601 "on Nov. 11"], at Drury Lane Theatre, as Mandane in Dr. Arne's 'Artaxerxes.' Her success was great, and for upwards of twenty years she held a high place in public esteem, both as actress and singer. Early in 1785 she married Mr. Crouch, a lieutenant in the navy, but after an union of about seven years the parties separated by mutual consent. About 1800 [App. p.601 "in 1801"] Mrs. Crouch's health became impaired, she withdrew from public life, and died at Brighton, Oct. 2, 1805. [App. p.601 adds "that on May 14 of that year  she appeared as Celia in 'As You Like It,' for Kelly's benefit."]
CROWN DIAMONDS, THE, the English version of Auber's opera 'Les Diamans de la Couronne'; produced at the Princess's Theatre, London, May 2, 1844, Mme. Anna Thillon as Catarina.
CROZIER, William. A few words are due to the memory of this oboe player, whose tone and exquisite taste will not soon be forgotten by those who heard him in the Crystal Palace orchestra and elsewhere. He learned the oboe from Barret; joined the C. P. orchestra 1855; appeared at the Philharmonic Feb. 29, 1864. He died in harness at Upper Norwood, Dec. 20, 1870.
[ G. ]
CRÜGER, Johann, born April 9, 1598, at Gross-Breese near Guben in Prussia, educated chiefly at the Jesuit college of Olmutz, at the school of poetry at Regensburg, and the university of Wittenberg; in 1622 was appointed cantor at the church of St. Nicolaus at Berlin, a post which he retained till his death in 1662. His reputation in his own day both as an author and composer was great, but he is now chiefly known as the composer of some of the most favourite chorales. The best-known of them are 'Nun danket alle Gott'; 'Jesu meine Zuversicht'; 'Jesu meine Freude'; and 'Schmücke dich O liebe Seele.' They were published under the title 'Praxis pietatis melica, oder Kirchen-melodien über D. Luthers und Anderer Gesänge,' for four voices and two instruments (Leipsic, 1649). This work has passed through innumerable editions; the 30th bears date Berlin 1703. He also composed many concertos and motets which no longer exist. Other works have been preserved; they are 'Meditationum musicarum Paradisus primus, oder Erstes musikalisches Lust-Gärtlein,' in three and four parts (Frankfort, 1622); and 'Med. mus. Parad. secundus' (Berlin, 1626); a collection of new Magnificats in German, in two and eight part harmony, arranged in all the eight tones. Also 'Recreationes musicae, das ist neue poetische Amorösen' (Leipsic, 1651), containing 33 pieces. Among his theoretical works may be mentioned (1) 'Synopsis musices,' a method for thorough-bass (Berlin, 1624)—the third edition (Berlin, 1634) has a different title; (2) 'Preceptae musicae practicae figuralis' (1625), also published in a German form as 'Rechter Weg zur Singekunst' (Berlin, 1660); (3) 'Quaestiones musicae practicae' (Berlin, 1650).
[ A. M. ]
CRUVELLI, Jeanne Sophie Charlotte, whose family-name was Cruwell, was born March 12, 1826, at Bielefeld in Westphalia. Her father was fond of music, and played the trombone tolerably. Her mother, had a fine contralto voice, and sang with expression. She had a voice of admirable quality, compass, and truth, but did not receive the instruction which should have developed its advantages, and enabled her to avoid those faults and imperfections which are inevitable without it. She made her début at Venice in 1847, and the beauty of her voice ensured her a brilliant success, which was confirmed when she sang in Verdi's 'Attila' at the theatre of Udine on July 24, and in 'I Due Foscari.' Coming now to London, in the height of her fame, she Italianised her name, and became known as Cruvelli, on her appearance in 'Le Nozze di Figaro,' and ever after. The rôle of the Countess was not suited to her fiery style, nor was the comparison between her and Jenny Lind, who played Susanna, to her advantage. After this partial failure, she returned to Italy, and continued to earn success by the mere beauty of her organ, and even by the exaggeration of